2008年7月26日土曜日

EU 食の安全にかかわる報告

EUが食の安全にかかわる報告をした。
魚の加工品やエビ類、はちみつから抗生物質の残余物などが確認されたほか、
野菜や果物から基準値を超える食品添加物が見つかった。
食品の危険性が指摘されたのは中国産以外ではトルコ産(全体の10%)や
米国産(7%)が上位を占めた。
また、EFSAはクローン畜産は慎重に対応をと言う。
日本の食品安全委員会の第2回新開発食品専門調査会体細胞クローン家畜由来
食品の食品健康影響評価に係るワーキンググループ資料によると
EFSAは「安全性に関していかなる差異も存在しないであろう」言つたのに、
今回は「慎重対応を」と言っている。

日本でも厚労省と農水省が輸入食品に対して、抜取り検査ではあるが、検疫を
行い、水際で止めている。年間報告書も出ているが、自給率が低い国だから
報道が少ない。


---クローン畜産、慎重対応を EU専門機関が答申---
2008年7月24日 21時21分
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/s/article/2008072401000960.html

 【ブリュッセル24日共同】欧州連合(EU)の専門機関、欧州食品安全庁(EFSA)は24日、クローン技術で生まれた家畜の肉、乳製品の流通について「まだ研究データが少なく、より広範な調査が必要だ」とする最終報告書を正式発表した。欧州委員会に慎重な対応を求めており、EU域内での流通開始は遠のいた。
 クローン技術の導入は、家畜の品種改良を通じて食料供給の安定化にもつながると期待される一方、人体への影響や倫理的な問題などの不安も指摘されていた。
 米食品医薬品局(FDA)はことし1月、クローン技術で生まれた牛、豚、ヤギなどについて、通常の家畜と同様に食べても安全だとする最終報告書を発表している。
 EFSAは(1)食品安全(2)家畜病(3)家畜間の遺伝(4)育成環境-などの面から専門的な影響評価を実施。最終報告書は「牛と豚については安全上の懸念はないとみられる」と述べたが、すべての家畜について「あらゆる面で詳細な調査を続ける必要がある」と指摘した。


---EFSA adopts final scientific opinion on animal cloning---
24/07/2008
http://www.efsa.europa.eu/EFSA/efsa_locale-1178620753812_1211902019762.htm

EFSA has today published its final scientific opinion on the implications of animal cloning on food safety, animal health and welfare and the environment. EFSA’s opinion follows a request from the European Commission (EC) to EFSA for advice on this issue in February 2007 and public consultation on a draft opinion earlier this year[1].

Prof. Vittorio Silano, chair of EFSA’s Scientific Committee[2], said:

“It is clear there are significant animal health and welfare issues for surrogate mothers and clones that can be more frequent and severe than for conventionally bred animals. For cattle and pigs, food safety concerns are considered unlikely. No clear evidence has emerged to suggest any differences between food products from clones or their offspring, in terms of food safety, compared to products from conventionally bred animals. But we must acknowledge that the evidence base, while growing and showing consistent findings, is still small. That has been one of the challenges throughout this work.”
Some of the key conclusions of the opinion include:

* Uncertainties in the risk assessment arise due to the limited number of studies available, the small sample sizes investigated and, in general, the absence of a uniform approach that would allow all the issues relevant to this opinion to be more satisfactorily addressed. Only pigs and cattle are addressed in this opinion: the two species of animals where adequate data were available.
* The health and welfare of a significant proportion of clones, mainly within the juvenile period for cattle and perinatal period for pigs, have been found to be adversely affected, often severely and with a fatal outcome.
* Somatic Cell Nucleus Transfer (the most common technique used to clone animals) has resulted in the production of healthy cattle and pig clones, and healthy offspring, that are similar to their conventional counterparts based on parameters such as physiological characteristics, demeanour and clinical status.
* There is no indication that differences exist in terms of food safety for meat and milk of clones and their progeny compared with those from conventionally bred animals. However, such a conclusion is based on the assumption that meat and milk are derived from healthy animals which are subject to relevant food safety regulations and controls.
* No environmental impact is foreseen but there are only limited data available.


Prof. Silano added:

“EFSA cannot always offer simple answers or reassurances. Complex and evolving science and technology, where data can be limited, do not offer such neat solutions. Our advice is guided by the science and will help inform consideration of any future EU measures in relation to animal clones and products obtained from these animals and their offspring.”
Recommendations in the opinion include:

* The health and welfare of clones should be monitored during their production life and natural life span.
* As food animals other than cattle and pig have also been produced via SCNT, risk assessments should be performed on these species when relevant data become available.
* Investigate further the causes of pathologies and mortality observed in clones during the gestational and postnatal periods and those observed at a lower frequency in adulthood.
* Further investigate the immunocompetence and the susceptibility of clones and their offspring to diseases and transmissible agents when reared and kept under conventional husbandry conditions.
* Perform studies on animal welfare, including behavioural studies, in healthy clones under normal husbandry conditions.


---第2回新開発食品専門調査会体細胞クローン家畜由来食品の食品健康影響評価に係るワーキンググループ議事次第[PDF]---
http://www.fsc.go.jp/senmon/sinkaihatu/s-clone-wg-dai2/s-clone-wg2-toujitusiryou-6.pdf


---「食の安全」でEUが報告書、2900品超で健康被害の恐れ---
http://www.nikkei.co.jp/news/kaigai/20080724AT2M2302X23072008.html

 【ブリュッセル=下田敏】欧州連合(EU)は23日、食の安全にかかわる年間報告書をまとめた。昨年、健康を損なう恐れがあるとして通告されたのは2900品目を超え、中国産が全体の12%を占めた。
 魚の加工品やエビ類、はちみつから抗生物質の残余物などが確認されたほか、野菜や果物から基準値を超える食品添加物が見つかった。食品の危険性が指摘されたのは中国産以外ではトルコ産(全体の10%)や米国産(7%)が上位を占めた。
 EUは市場監視や輸入制限などで健康を損なう恐れのある食品の流通を防いでいる。通告を受けた品目数は2006年に比べて51品目増え、最近10年間で2番目の高水準だった。品目別では魚介類や野菜・果物、ナッツ類などへの通告が目立った。(02:36)


---RASFF annual report 2007---
http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/rapidalert/report2007_en.pdf

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