2008年8月1日金曜日

米下院 奴隷制と黒人差別に謝罪決議採択

米下院は奴隷制と黒人差別に謝罪する決議を採択した。
米下院は過去の奴隷制と黒人差別を謝罪する決議案を賛成多数で採択した。
奴隷制を謝罪する決議はヴァージニア、メリーランド、ニュージャージー、
フロリダ、ノースカロライナとアラバマ。連邦レベルでは初めて。
決議の代表提出者は、白人のスティーブ・コーエン。
11月の再選に向けた党内予備選で黒人候補と争う見通しとのこと。

本当の目的はスティーブ・コーエン再選のようだ。
サブプライムで景気後退している米経済に、国民の一割を超える人種に
金銭的補償をしたら世界恐慌になりそう。

現在のアフリカ系米国民を奴隷として扱っていないのに、なぜ謝罪するのかと
聞こえてきそうだ。失業率増加、燃料高騰、戦争、テロ、不法移民等の失策、
無策による政府の貧困層のガス抜きとも考えられる。

米大統領が謝罪したわけではないが、英、仏、蘭等の奴隷制を受け継いだ国は
議会でも謝罪しないのか。
豪首相はアボリジニには謝罪しても、奴隷制被害者には謝罪していないと思う。
世界各国が人権侵害と主張しても結局は利権が欲しいとしか映らない。


American History - the south park version


American Slave


Slave Trade Documentary


Muslim Black slavery - Islam slave history of Black Africa


---米下院、奴隷制と黒人差別に謝罪する初決議…賛成多数で採択---
2008年7月30日11時16分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/news/20080730-OYT1T00372.htm

 【ワシントン=五十嵐文】米下院は29日の本会議で、過去の奴隷制と黒人差別を謝罪する決議案を賛成多数で採択した。
 AP通信によると、奴隷制を謝罪する決議はすでにニュージャージーなど5州で採択されているが、連邦レベルでは初めて。
 決議は、奴隷制や黒人差別は「不正で残虐、残忍、非人間的」だと指摘した上で、奴隷とその子孫である米国民に謝罪し、将来の人権侵害の発生の防止をめざすとしている。
 米下院はこれまで、第2次大戦中に強制収容所に送られた米西海岸などの日系人や、ハワイの先住民など「人種的少数派」に対する謝罪決議を採択しているが、米国民の1割強を占める黒人については、「賠償請求につながる恐れがある」として採択が見送られてきた経緯がある。
 今回の決議は、金銭的補償などについては一切触れていない。
 決議の代表提出者は、南部テネシー州の黒人有権者が過半数を占める選挙区選出で白人のスティーブ・コーエン議員(民主党)。11月の再選に向けた党内予備選で黒人候補と争う見通し。


---US politicians apologise for slavery---
Wednesday, 30 July, 2008
http://news.sbs.com.au/worldnewsaustralia/us_politicians_apologise_for_slavery_553112

he US House of Representatives has apologised to black Americans for the wrongs committed against them and their ancestors under slavery and segregation laws.

"Today represents a milestone in our nation's efforts to remedy the ills of our past," said Carolyn Cheeks, chairwoman of the Congressional Black Caucus.

The resolution, passed by voice vote on Tuesday, was the work of Tennessee Democrat Steve Cohen, the only white politician to represent a majority black district.

Mr Cohen faces a formidable black challenger in a primary run-off next week.

Previous apologies

Congress has issued apologies before - to Japanese-Americans for their internment during World War II and to native Hawaiians for the overthrow of the Hawaiian kingdom in 1893.

In 2005, the Senate apologised for failing to pass anti-lynching laws.

Five states have issued apologies for slavery, but past proposals in Congress have stalled, partly over concerns that an apology would lead to demands for reparations.

The Cohen resolution does not mention reparations.

It does commit the House to rectifying "the lingering consequences of the misdeeds committed against African-Americans under slavery and Jim Crow."

Slaves 'dehumanised'

It says Africans forced into slavery "were brutalised, humiliated, dehumanised and subjected to the indignity of being stripped of their names and heritage".

It also says that black Americans today continue to suffer from the consequences of slavery and so-called Jim Crow laws that fostered discrimination and segregation.

The House "apologises to African-Americans on behalf of the people of the United States, for the wrongs committed against them and their ancestors who suffered under slavery and Jim Crow".

"Slavery and Jim Crow are stains upon what is the greatest nation on the face of the earth," Mr Cohen said.

Congress 'facing mistakes'

Part of forming a more perfect union, he said, "is such a resolution as we have before us today where we face up to our mistakes and apologise as anyone should apologise for things that were done in the past that were wrong."

Mr Cohen became the first white to represent the 60 per cent black district in Memphis in more than three decades when he captured a 2006 primary where a dozen black candidates split the vote.

He has sought to reach out to black constituents, and early in his term showed interest in joining the Congressional Black Caucus until learning that was against caucus rules.

Another act as a freshman congressman in early 2007 was to introduce the slavery apology resolution.

His office said the House resolution was brought to the floor only after learning that the Senate would be unable to join in a joint resolution.

More than a dozen of the 42 Congressional Black Caucus members in the House were original co-sponsors of the measure.


---US House of Representatives set to apologise to black Americans for 'enslavement and racial segregation'---
Elana Schor in Washington
guardian.co.uk,
Tuesday July 29 2008
Article history
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jul/29/usa

A branch of the US government is expected today to offer black Americans what it gave American Indians earlier this year: an apology for their past mistreatment.

A formal apology to black Americans for "enslavement and racial segregation," sponsored by a white Jewish congressman who represents the majority-black city of Memphis, is slated for a vote today in the House of Representatives.

The apology resolution marks a unique step forward in the US, coming as the country embraces its first black presidential nominee in Barack Obama. It officially acknowledges that "lingering consequences" from slavery and segregation continue to haunt blacks in America.

"[A]n apology for centuries of brutal dehumanisation and injustices cannot erase the past, but confession of the wrongs committed can speed racial healing and reconciliation and help Americans confront the ghosts of their past," the apology states.

Senior black members of Congress have long sought a formal apology for slavery, often coupled with a look at whether reparations should be paid to the descendants of Africans brought to America as slaves.

Slavery was abolished in the US in 1865 under the 13th amendment to the constitution. Racial segregation persisted in the southern states for up to 100 more years thanks to biased rules known as Jim Crow laws.

If the apology passes today, the Senate would need to approve it before George Bush could sign the measure into law. A formal apology to American Indians for their centuries of abuse at the hands of the government passed the Senate earlier this year but has yet to receive a vote in the House.

The US government has apologised for the abuse of ethnic minorities at least twice in the past. In 1988, Congress admitted culpability in the forced internment of Japanese Americans during second world war, and an apology to native Hawaiian peoples was approved in 1993.

Cohen, the sponsor of the slavery apology, is facing a re-election challenge next week from a young black female lawyer, Nikki Tinker. He became the second white congressman to express interest in joining the influential Black Caucus group earlier this year, but abandoned the bid amid opposition from black colleagues.

Obama has not had an opportunity to weigh in on the slavery apology, as no counterpart resolution exists yet in the Senate.

Six US states - Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, Florida, North Carolina and Alabama - have approved separate apologies for slavery during the past 18 months.

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