2009年12月31日木曜日

F35 共同開発検討

F35の共同開発を検討するようだ。
 日米両政府が、米英を中心とする次世代戦闘機F35の国際共同開発への
日本の参加を検討していることが分かった。空自向けの製品に関与を限定
し、武器輸出三原則に抵触するのを回避する方針。

国防総省は、F35仕様回答に対して、億単位の金銭要求をし、飛行管理
機器周辺のソースコードは、共同開発国であっても非公開と広報している。
英国はF35開発から撤退する可能性があるとの報道もあったが、戦勝国が
決めた日本の武器輸出規制の解釈を曲げ、日本の共同開発費出資を募ると
言うのは皮肉のものだ。

多くの戦闘機は、主要な飛行管理機器をノックダウン生産方式でも日本
国内で開発することができたようだが、ダウンスペックで提供される
可能性が高い日本向けのF35の場合、同様になるとは限らない。

2010年半ばで運用開始と言うが、部品の耐久試験をしている段階であり、
飛行性能も不明で当初の工程どおりには行かないだろう。

F35が運用される限り、利益を上げるビジネスモデルを考えた米軍複産業
界。他国の税金も吸い上げる。国民を守る防衛費と納得しても最終的には
一部の企業の遊行費に消えるのは釈然としない。


---F35国際共同開発に参加検討 日米両政府、空自向け限定---
2009年12月29日 18時23分
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/s/article/2009122901000411.html

 【ワシントン共同】日米両政府が、米英を中心とする次世代戦闘機F35の国際共同開発への日本の参加を検討していることが29日、分かった。航空自衛隊向けの製品に関与を限定し、武器輸出三原則に抵触するのを回避する方針。空自の次期主力戦闘機(FX)早期導入に道を開くのが狙いだ。
 日米両国の政府筋が明らかにした。米側は参加を認める方向で調整しており、日本側は実務レベルで検討中。ただ、他国向け武器輸出を禁じる三原則が形骸化する可能性もあり議論を呼ぶのは必至で、日本政府の最終判断がどうなるかは見通しが立ちにくい。
 F35は米英、イタリア、オランダなどが共同開発。日本は三原則に抵触するとして参加していない。運用開始は2010年代半ばの予定。通常は開発参加国の調達が優先されるため、日本が開発に加わらない場合、早期に調達できるか不安視され、日本向け部品生産などの形で開発に参加する案が浮上した。参加が可能との判断が下れば、正式な機種選定前でも詳しい性能や価格の情報提供が想定されるという。
 次期主力戦闘機は、老朽化が進むF4戦闘機の後継で、米国のF15FX、欧州共同開発のユーロファイターなど6機種が選定対象。

2009年12月30日水曜日

核密約 元次官ら認識

核密約を元次官らが認識していたようだ。
 外務省の日米密約に関する有識者委員会(座長・北岡伸一東大大学院
教授、6人)による聞き取り調査に対し、複数の同省事務次官経験者らが
「核搭載米艦船の寄港などを認めた密約の存在を認識していた」と証言
した。

核密約について、有識者委は報告書で「密約はあった」と結論づける
ようだ。
報道された佐藤栄作の密約文書を外務省は、「私文書にあたる」として
扱い、省の見解は、いまだに「核密約はない」とするようだ。
「ない」とする真意は不明だが、外務省への忠誠心とすると「ない」と
言うことで、見返りがあると想像してしまう。


---核持ち込み密約:複数元次官ら「認識」 有識者委の調査に回答---
毎日新聞 2009年12月30日 東京朝刊
http://mainichi.jp/select/seiji/news/20091230ddm002010022000c.html

 外務省の日米密約に関する有識者委員会(座長・北岡伸一東大大学院教授、6人)による聞き取り調査に対し、複数の同省事務次官経験者らが「核搭載米艦船の寄港などを認めた密約の存在を認識していた」と証言していたことが29日、分かった。核密約については、関連文書が外務省内に保管されていたことが明らかになっている。文書を扱った当事者らが密約の存在を認めたことで、有識者委は来年1月下旬にもまとめる報告書で「密約はあった」と結論づける見通しとなった。
 今年6月、村田良平元事務次官が前任次官から密約の引き継ぎを受けたことを毎日新聞などに明らかにしているが、今回の調査では、より詳細な文書の管理実態などが裏付けられたとみられる。有識者委は、検証を深める手がかりになるとして証言を重視している。
 調査に応じたのは、次官経験者ら4人で、村田氏は含まれていない。密約の解釈や交渉経過、背景などをまとめた関連文書の有無や保管状況を証言したという。日本の政権交代に加え、冷戦終結など、密約を結んだ当時と時代背景が異なることから、「密約はない」としていた従来の外務省の公式見解を覆しても、今後の日米関係に与える影響は小さいと判断したとみられる。
 また有識者委は、69年11月に当時の佐藤栄作首相とニクソン米大統領が署名した、沖縄への核再持ち込みを認める密約について、文書を保管していた次男の佐藤信二元通産相に調査協力を要請する。
 岡田克也外相は29日の記者会見で、信二氏が外務省OBに、保管していた文書を同省の外交史料館などに預ける相談をした際、OBが「私文書にあたる」と指摘していたことについて、「外務省関係者の『(文書が後に)出てきては困る』という反応だ」と述べた。【中澤雄大】


---朝鮮半島有事密約も文書で確認 外務省有識者委---
2009年12月29日 15時32分
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/s/article/2009122901000243.html

 安全保障に絡む日米間の4密約に関する外務省有識者委員会(座長・北岡伸一東大教授)は29日までに、従来の省内調査では確証が得られずにいた朝鮮半島有事の際の核持ち込み容認をはじめ3密約の存在を関連文書発見などにより確認した。
 残る沖縄返還時の原状回復費肩代わりに関する密約については、旧大蔵省関係者へも対象を拡大し聞き取り調査する方針。検証作業は来年1月中の報告書作成を目指し急ピッチで進んでいる。
 有識者委は11月27日の初会合以降、外務省チームによる調査報告書の精査と同時に密約の存在を認めた元幹部らからの聞き取りを実施。この過程で朝鮮半島有事の際に米軍が事前協議を経ずに在日米軍基地を使用できるとの密約について、根拠となる当時の藤山愛一郎外相とマッカーサー駐日米大使の会談議事録を確認した。
 米軍の核兵器搭載艦船の領海通過や寄港を日米安保条約の事前協議の対象外とする密約は、外務省チームが見つけた草案とみられる文書を、有識者委も密約の存在を示す証拠と断定した。米側で公開されている安保条約改定時の藤山、マッカーサー両氏間の「秘密議事録」と同様の内容。両氏の署名はなかった。(共同)


---核搭載空母 長期停泊も認める密約 米ミッドウェー 事前協議の対象外---
2009年12月28日 朝刊
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/politics/news/CK2009122802000073.html

 米海軍が一九七三年に空母ミッドウェーを神奈川県の横須賀基地に配備するに当たり、核兵器を搭載した状態での入港・停泊を日米安全保障条約の事前協議の対象外とする「密約」を日米両政府が結んでいたことが二十七日、分かった。外務省の内部調査で、そうした事実を示した文書が見つかった。複数の関係者が明らかにした。
 六〇年の日米安保条約改定の際、米軍の装備などに変更がある場合は事前協議を行うと定めたが、核搭載艦船の寄港・通過は対象にしないとした密約の存在が、同省の調査で既に確認されている。ミッドウェーの横須賀配備に先立つ七二年、大平正芳外相(当時)とジョンソン米国務次官(同)との会談などで、六〇年の密約の有効性を再確認し、「寄港」にとどまらず母港化に伴う長期の「停泊」の場合にも適用することで合意した。
 四五年に就役したミッドウェーは、ベトナム戦争の作戦に加わった後、七三年十月に横須賀基地に配備された。後継艦インディペンデンスと交代した九一年まで同基地を母港とした。
 日本側が核搭載空母の横須賀配備を黙認する「密約」を結んだのは、首都圏に位置する同基地への核持ち込みが表面化して、混乱が起きることへの懸念もあったとみられる。
 岡田克也外相の要請に基づき、密約の検証作業を進めている有識者委員会(座長・北岡伸一東大教授)も、ミッドウェー配備をめぐる日米間のやりとりに大きな関心を寄せており、関連文書を検証の対象とする考えだ。
◆外交文書 『30年で公開』徹底へ
 岡田克也外相は二十七日、情報公開を促進する観点から、作成後三十年を経た外交文書を原則公開するとした制度について、抜本的に見直す方針を固めた。運用を厳しく監視する第三者委員会の設置や明確な開示基準の策定を通じ「原則三十年公開」を徹底させる。日米間の「核密約」解明を契機に、実際に公開するかどうかを全面的に外務官僚の裁量に委ねてきた在り方に問題があると判断した。
 核密約を精査している有識者委員会による来年一月の提言を受け、具体的な検討に着手する。
 米政府の公開文書で核密約の存在が判明しながら日本では非公開のため、国会で問題化した経緯を教訓に、海外で明らかにされた案件の関連文書は日本でも原則公開するよう検討。外務省の幹部や担当課が密約文書を抱え込んでいた実態を重視し、文書の保存・廃棄の必要性を審査する専門職員の育成も課題とする。
 現在の文書公開は、外務省の外交記録審査室が判断し、官房長や各局長で構成する外交記録公開審査委員会で承認する。外交記録審査室は三十年基準を満たした文書について、OBを含む十数人で案件ごとのファイルを審査しているが、週一人当たり五、六冊が限度で人手不足という。


---核密約「当初は認識せず」 外務省、報告書に見解---
2009年12月27日3時9分
http://www.asahi.com/politics/update/1226/TKY200912260420.html

 外務省が日米密約の調査報告書の中で、1960年の核持ち込み密約について、日本政府が当初、「密約」の根拠とされた合意の意味を認識していなかったとの見解を示していることが26日、わかった。調査では米政府から密約の説明を受ける63年までの文書で、合意を問題視したものが見つからなかったという。
 この密約をめぐっては、63年3月に池田勇人首相(当時)が「核弾頭を持った船は、日本に寄港はしてもらわない」と密約に反する国会答弁をし、米政府を驚かせた。これを受け、ライシャワー駐日米大使が同年4月に大平正芳外相(いずれも当時)に会って密約の説明をしたことが米公文書でわかっており、日米間の解釈の食い違いがこれまでも指摘されていた。
 関係者によると、外務省は、この大平・ライシャワー会談まで、60年の合意により核搭載艦船の寄港を認めたことになると日本政府が認識していなかった、と結論づけている。調査では会談当日の記録は見つからなかったが、会談の存在を裏付けるその後の関連文書は見つかっているという。
 ただ、外務省の調査では、60年当時の交渉で中心的役割を果たした東郷文彦元北米局長が68年1月に密約の解釈を米側から聞かされ、自らの不明を恥じた自筆メモなども見つかっている。63年の大平・ライシャワー会談以降も、密約としての認識が政府内で広がらなかった可能性がある。
 密約をめぐっては、岡田克也外相が外務省に調査を命令。同省は11月20日に調査結果を岡田氏に報告し、これを受けて有識者委員会が検証に着手した。外務省の調査報告は、有識者委員会の検証結果とともに発表される。岡田氏は外務省調査で事実関係を洗い出し、歴史的評価は有識者委員会に委ねる方針を示していたが、外務省自身も検証に先立って一定の見解を出していたことになる。
 有識者委員からは外務省の見解に「認識していなかったはずはない」「(文書の記述から)推察する方向が違う」との異論も出ている。(鶴岡正寛、倉重奈苗)

2009年12月29日火曜日

過激宗派が布教

「貢物は生命」という宗教の布教が進む。
 デルタ機爆破テロ未遂事件で、ウマル・ファルーク・アブドゥルム
タラブ容疑者の両親が、息子を原理主義者から離そうと必死に試みていた
ことが分かった。

富裕層で高学歴の成人が、「貢物は生命」という過激宗派に染まった。
報道からすると留学先で、接触を持ったようだ。
2008年の英国留学からドバイへ語学留学と言うことだが、過激宗派との
接触は、英国留学時代からあった可能性がある。ドバイでさらに信仰を
深めたのかもしれない。
2005年から2008年まで、英国の大学のイスラム協会理事長に就任して
いたようだが、2007-2009にかけて英国では、頻繁に過激宗派が事件を
起こし報道されていた記憶がある。英国のこれら事件で、興味を引いた
のだろうか。

恵まれた環境で育った人は、障害に憧れる傾向があるようで、
「風にあたる」だけで、信仰を持つこともあるようだ。
日本でも恵まれた環境で育った人が、テロ宗教を信仰し、テロ行為を行
ない、行為に対して、判決を受けている。
子息の更生と親の正当性への行為により、親は批判を受けにくくなるが、
日本で同様のことをした場合、今までの報道から想像すると、親の責任と
責任放棄等の多面から問題視されることが考えられる。

近頃、関空では近赤外線の技術を応用した検地装置が実証試験された。
飲料とそれ以外を見分ける方式のようだが、今回のような経緯の場合でも
判別できるのだろうか。
監視施設に対して、企業からの顔認識装置、指紋判別装置等の生体監視
識別装置やX線による検査装置の売込みが増加するのだろう。


Terror Probe Continues CBS


---容疑者両親の思い拒む 米爆破未遂 原理主義者と引き離さねば…---
2009年12月28日 夕刊
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/world/news/CK2009122802000192.html

 【ロンドン=星浩】デルタ機爆破テロ未遂事件で、訴追されたナイジェリア人のウマル・ファルーク・アブドゥルムタラブ容疑者(23)の両親が、息子を原理主義者から離そうと必死に試みていたことが分かった。英BBC放送が伝えた。
 同放送が親族らへの取材を基に伝えたところでは、父親でナイジェリア屈指の実業家でもあるウマル・ムタラブさん(70)は、二〇〇八年にロンドンでの留学を終えたアブドゥルムタラブ容疑者を、中東ドバイにあるビジネススクールに行かせた。
 アラビア語を学びたいという本人の意思を尊重しつつ、生活環境を大きく変え原理主義から離そうという試みだったが、容疑者はイエメンで学びたいことができたと言って学業を放棄。母親は何とか考え直すよう諭したが、「新しい人生を見つけたので、二度と接触するな」と言われてしまった。
 それでも父親のウマルさんは政界にも人脈が広い有力者らしく、米国やナイジェリア、サウジアラビア当局にも協力を求め、イエメンから息子を連れ戻そうと試みたという。
 結局、容疑者はイエメンからエチオピア、ガーナを経由し、ナイジェリアに密入国してから、飛行機で米国に向かったとされる。ウマルさんは今年六月には、米当局に息子の危険思想について情報提供までしたにもかかわらず、事件を防ぎきれなかったことに衝撃と失望を感じているという。


---米テロ未遂の爆発物、機体に穴開けるに十分な量---
2009年12月28日13時46分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/news/20091228-OYT1T00649.htm

 【ニューヨーク=吉形祐司】米ノースウエスト航空機で起きたテロ未遂事件で、CNN(電子版)は27日、捜査状況を知る関係者の話として、訴追されたナイジェリア人のウマル・ファルーク・アブドゥルムタッラブ容疑者(23)が使おうとしていた爆発物は同機の機体に穴をあけるのに十分な量だったと報じた。
 米連邦捜査局(FBI)によると、機内から高性能爆薬のPETNが検出され、詳細な分析が行われている。爆薬の量は明らかにされていない。
 一方、テロを起こそうとしてやけどを負い、ミシガン州内の病院に入院していた同容疑者は27日、退院して拘置施設に移された。


---焦点:米機爆破未遂、航空業界の弱点突く過激派の狙い---
2009年12月28日
http://www.asahi.com/international/reuters/RTR200912280031.html

 [ロンドン 26日 ロイター] クリスマスに発生した米航空機の爆破未遂事件は、壊滅的損害を狙って常に警備態勢の裏をかこうとする過激派武装勢力に対して、航空業界が絶えず警戒を続ける必要があることを浮き彫りにした。
 航空機は武装勢力にとって格好の標的であることから、警備には常に一歩進んだ技術革新が必要になるが、絶え間ない技術革新を持ってしても、航空機利用者を完全に守ることは他の輸送手段に比べて難しくなっている。
 こうした状況を「競争だ」と語るのは、ロンドンの警備会社Janusian Securityのヘンリー・ウィルキンソン氏。同氏は武装勢力が航空警備の弱点を当然ながら調べ上げていることを指摘し、「今回の事件を受けた警備強化が実行されれば、テロリスト側もそれを回避する策を考え出すだろう」と言う。
 この事件では、アルカイダと関連があるとみられるナイジェリア人のウマル・ファルーク・アブドルムタラブ容疑者が25日、アムステルダム発デトロイト行きのデルタ航空機内で爆発装置を作動させようとし、逮捕・訴追された。
<危険な物質>
 専門家によると、航空業界の警備態勢は近年進歩しているが、爆発物を体内に隠したり、体に縛り付けたりする攻撃を常に防御するための技術は広く普及していないという。
 オランダのテロ対策機関であるNCTbは、アブドルムタラブ容疑者がアムステルダムのスキポール空港でセキュリティーチェックをパスしたものの、危険物質が機内に持ち込まれた可能性は否定できないと発表。「特に、金属探知機といった現在の警備技術では発見するのが難しい物質」が持ち込まれたかもしれないという。
 専門家は、アブドルムタラブ容疑者が爆発装置を機内に持ち込んだ方法と、危険人物を監視するテロ対策機関が同容疑者についてどれだけ情報を得ていたのかをはっきりさせることが重要としている。
 航空輸送会社Jane's Aviationのクリス・イェーツ氏は、「今回の事件は、目的を果たそうとする組織や個人が、航空業界の弱点をどのように探り続けているかを示す例だ」と語る。
 イェーツ氏や専門家らは、搭乗前のセキュリティゲートで警報が鳴らなければ、簡単かつ効果の高い身体検査を警備員が行う可能性も少なくなるとも話す。
 過激派が、航空機を標的リストの上位に置き、成功に向けて最大限に工夫を凝らすには大きな理由がある。民間航空機を爆破の標的に選ぶだけで、自分たちの大きな宣伝となるからだ。それが国際線であれば、ニュースやそれに伴う恐怖が世界中に広まり、その効果は増幅される。
<新しいタイプの爆発物>
 さらに、航空機の向かう先が米国で、攻撃が成功した場合、米国人に危害を加えることになり、アルカイダやそれに近い反西側武装勢力にとって最も大きな目的の実現にもつながる。
 警備アナリストのポール・ビーバー氏は、民間航空産業が西側で誕生したという理由から、航空機が依然として西側の代表として標的になっていることを、今回の事件が示したと話す。
 同氏は、「比較してみると、船はほとんど攻撃されていない。船では同じような(武装勢力にとっての)宣伝になるのは難しい」と言う。
 警備コンサルタント会社Stirling Assyntのテロ・国リスク部門の責任者を務めるジャスティン・クランプ氏は、2001年9月の米同時多発攻撃が、航空機に対する過激派の執着を示す最たる例だと指摘。「航空機は西側諸国であり、グローバルな商業、グローバルな通信の象徴。攻撃が成功すれば破壊度も大きく、警備が厳重になることで、あらゆる人を不便にさせる」と分析する。
 液体の爆発物という新手法を使用しようとした顕著な例では、2006年に北米行き大西洋路線の爆破計画が摘発され、今年9月に英国人の3被告が終身刑を言い渡されたケースがある。
 この事件では、ロンドンと米国、カナダ間を結ぶ乗客200人以上の航空機少なくとも7機に対し、ソフトドリンクの瓶に入れた液体の爆発物を用いて同時攻撃が企てられた。
 計画実行の数日前に摘発されたというこの事件には、アルカイダの関与も指摘され、その後機内への液体の持ち込みが厳しく制限されるようになるなど、世界的に大きな影響を与えた。


---Explosive on Flight 253 Is Among Most Powerful---
By KENNETH CHANG
Published: December 27, 2009
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/28/us/28explosives.html?scp=1&sq=umar+&st=nyt

Sewn into the underwear of Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab was a powerful plastic explosive, the authorities say.

Had Mr. Abdulmutallab, sitting in seat 19A of Northwest Airlines Flight 253 on Friday from Amsterdam to Detroit, been able to set off the explosive, it might have blown a hole in the side of the airplane and caused it to crash, experts believe.

Mr. Abdulmutallab, 23, a Nigerian citizen, was charged in a federal criminal complaint on Saturday with the willful attempt to destroy an aircraft with an explosive device.

The complaint identified the explosive as pentaerythritol tetranitrate, or PETN.

Introduced after World War I, PETN is in the same chemical family as nitroglycerin and among the most powerful of explosives. It was the same explosive that Richard C. Reid tried to detonate in his shoes during an American Airlines flight in December 2001.

But one characteristic of PETN is that it does not easily detonate, and that apparently thwarted Mr. Abdulmutallab, officials said. Dropping it or setting it on fire will not typically detonate it, explosive experts said.

Usually, a shock wave from a blasting cap or an exploding wire detonator is needed to set off PETN. Mr. Abdulmutallab was reported to have used a syringe to try to inject a liquid into the explosive.

“It sounds like he was trying to cause a chemical reaction that would initiate it, and that didn’t work out so well,” said Jimmie C. Oxley, an explosives expert and professor of chemistry at the University of Rhode Island.

Some passengers aboard Flight 253 said they heard popping noises similar to firecrackers, smelled a burning odor and observed Mr. Abdulmutallab’s pants leg and a wall of the airplane on fire. Passengers and crew members subdued Mr. Abdulmutallab and used blankets and fire extinguishers to put out the flames, according to the criminal complaint.

“A passenger stated that he observed Abdulmutallab holding what appeared to be a partially melted syringe, which was smoking,” the complaint said. “The passenger took the syringe from Abdulmutallab, shook it to stop it from smoking and threw it to the floor of the aircraft.”

F.B.I. agents recovered what appeared to be the remnants of a syringe from near Mr. Abdulmutallab’s seat, officials said, but the agency has not said what it suspects was in the syringe.

Dr. Oxley said it was conceivable that the contents of the syringe were sufficient to set off the PETN. “I’ve been thinking about it,” she said. “I know what I would do now, but I’m not going to tell you.”

In Mr. Reid’s shoe bombs, in 2001, a highly unstable explosive known as triacetone triperoxide, or TATP, was the detonator for the PETN, but Mr. Reid failed to set it off when he was unable to light the fuse. But TATP is a solid, so it is unlikely that that was the substance in Mr. Abdulmutallab’s syringe, Dr. Oxley said.


---More Questions on Why Terror Suspect Was Not Stopped---
By ERIC LIPTON and SCOTT SHANE
Published: December 27, 2009
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/28/us/28terror.html?scp=2&sq=umar+&st=nyt

WASHINGTON - When a prominent Nigerian banker and former government official phoned the American Embassy in Abuja in October with a warning that his son had developed radical views, had disappeared and might have traveled to Yemen, embassy officials did not revoke the young man’s visa to enter the United States, which was good until June 2010.

Instead, officials said Sunday, they marked the file of the son, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, for a full investigation should he ever reapply for a visa. And when they passed the information on to Washington, Mr. Abdulmutallab’s name was added to 550,000 others with some alleged terrorist connections - but not to the no-fly list. That meant no flags were raised when he used cash to buy a ticket to the United States and boarded a plane, checking no bags.

Now that Mr. Abdulmutallab is charged with trying to blow up a transcontinental airliner over Detroit on Christmas Day, some members of Congress are urgently questioning why, eight years after the Sept. 11 attacks, security measures still cannot keep makeshift bombs off airliners.

On Sunday, as criticism mounted that security lapses had led to a brush with disaster, President Obama ordered a review of the two major planks of the aviation security system - the creation of watch lists and the use of detection equipment at airport checkpoints.

At the same time, a jittery air travel system coped with a new scare. On the same flight that Mr. Abdulmutallab took on Friday - Northwest 253 from Amsterdam to Detroit - an ailing Nigerian man who spent a long time in the restroom inadvertently set off a security alert. It turned out to be a false alarm.

Officials in several countries, meanwhile, worked to retrace Mr. Abdulmutallab’s path and to look for security holes. In Nigeria, officials said he arrived in Lagos on Christmas Eve, just hours before departing for Amsterdam. American officials were tracking his travels to Yemen, and Scotland Yard investigators were checking on his connections in London, where he studied from 2005 to 2008 at University College London and was president of the Islamic Society.

Obama administration officials scrambled to portray the episode, in which passengers and flight attendants subdued Mr. Abdulmutallab and doused the fire he had started, as a test that the air safety system passed.

“The system has worked really very, very smoothly over the course of the past several days,” Janet Napolitano, the Homeland Security secretary said, in an interview on “This Week” on ABC. Robert Gibbs, the White House spokesman, used nearly the same language on “Face the Nation” on CBS, saying that “in many ways, this system has worked.”

But counterterrorism experts and members of Congress were hardly willing to praise what they said was a security system that had proved to be not nimble enough to respond to the ever-creative techniques devised by would-be terrorists.

Congressional leaders said the tip from Mr. Abdulmutallab’s father, Alhaji Umaru Mutallab, should have resulted in closer scrutiny of the suspect before he boarded the plane in Amsterdam. Senator Susan Collins, Republican of Maine, the ranking minority member of the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Committee, said that his visa should have been revoked, or that he at least should have been given a physical pat-down or a full-body scan.

“This individual should not have been missed,” Ms. Collins said in an interview on Sunday. “Clearly, there should have been a red flag next to his name.”

The episode has renewed a debate that has quietly continued since the 2001 attacks over the proper balance between security and privacy. The government has spent the last several years cutting the size of the watch list, after repeated criticism that too many people were being questioned at border crossings or checkpoints. Now it may be asked to expand it again.

“You are second-guessed one day and criticized on another,” said one Transportation Security Administration official, who asked not to be named because he was not authorized to discuss the matter.

Privacy advocates, for example, have tried to stop or at least slow the introduction of advanced checkpoint screening devices that use so-called millimeter waves to create an image of a passenger’s body, so officers can see under clothing to determine if a weapon or explosive has been hidden. Security officers, in a private area, review the images, which are not stored. Legislation is pending in the House that would prohibit the use of this equipment for routine passenger screening.

To date, only 40 of these machines have been installed at 19 airports across the United States - meaning only a tiny fraction of passengers pass through them. Amsterdam’s airport has 15 of these machines - more than just about any airport in the world - but an official there said Sunday that they were prohibited from using them on passengers bound for the United States, for a reason she did not explain.

Michael Chertoff, former secretary of homeland security, and Kip Hawley, who ran the Transportation Security Administration until January, said the new body-scanning machines were a critical tool that should quickly be installed in more airports nationwide.

For now, American aviation officials have mandated that airports across the world do physical pat-downs of passengers on flights headed to the United States, a practice that in the past has also raised privacy objections.

“I understand people have issue with privacy,” Mr. Hawley said Sunday. “But that is a tradeoff, and what happened on the plane just highlights what the stakes are.”

So far, an additional 150 full-body imaging machines have been ordered, but nationwide there are approximately 2,200 checkpoint screening lanes.

One subject of the administration’s security review will be the Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment, or Tide, the extensive collection of data on more than 500,000 people into which the warning from Mr. Abdulmutallab’s father’s was entered.

A law enforcement official said it was not unusual that a one-time comment from a relative would not place a person on the far smaller no-fly list, which has only 4,000 names, or the so-called selectee list of 14,000 names of people who are subjected to more thorough searches at checkpoints.

The point of the Tide database, the official said, is to make sure even the most minor suspicious details are recorded so that they can be connected to new data in the future.

“The information goes in there, and it’s available to all the agencies,” the official said. “The point is to marry up data from different sources over time that may indicate an individual might be a terrorist.”

The debate over watch lists and screening will be shaped in part by the still-emerging details about Mr. Abdulmutallab, his radicalization, his alleged training in Yemen and the bombing attempt. On Sunday, officials were still examining his claim that he received help from a bomb expert in Yemen associated with Al Qaeda.

Mr. Abdulmutallab was moved on Sunday from a University of Michigan hospital and transferred to a federal prison in Milan, Mich.

Mr. Mutallab, the suspect’s father, was scheduled to make a public statement on Monday after talking to Nigerian security officials in Abuja. A cousin of Mr. Abdulmutallab, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he did not want to offend the family, said in an interview on Sunday that there was no sign of radicalism in Mr. Abdulmutallab while he was growing up in Nigeria, though he was devout.

“We understand that he met some people who influenced him while in London,” where Mr. Abdulmutallab studied engineering, the cousin said. “He left London and went to Yemen where, we suspect, he mixed up with the people that put him up to this whole business.”

He added: “I think his father is embarrassed by the whole thing, because that was not the way he brought the boy up. All of us are shocked by it.”

Adam Nossiter contributed reporting from Lisbon, Portugal; Senan Murray from Abuja, Nigeria; Imam Imam from Funtua, Nigeria; and Marlise Simons from Paris.


---Bomb Suspect Came From Elite Family, Best Schools---
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Published: December 27, 2009
http://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2009/12/27/world/AP-Airliner-Attack-Profile.html?scp=3&sq=umar&st=nyt

Filed at 8:10 p.m. ET

LAGOS, Nigeria (AP) -- As a member of an uppercrust Nigerian family, Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab received the best schooling, from the elite British International School in West Africa to the vaunted University College London.

But the education he wanted was of a different sort: Nigerian officials say his interest in extremist Islam prompted his father to warn U.S. authorities. As Abdulmutallab was being escorted in handcuffs off the Detroit-bound airliner he attempted to blow up on Christmas Day, he told U.S. officials that he had sought an extremist education at an Islamist hotbed in Yemen.

A portrait emerged Sunday of a serious young man who led a privileged life as the son of a prominent banker, but became estranged from his family as an adult. Devoutly religious, he was nicknamed ''The Pope'' for his saintly aura and gave few clues in his youth that he would turn radical, friends and family said.

''In all the time I taught him we never had cross words,'' said Michael Rimmer, a Briton who taught history at the British International School in Lome, Togo. ''Somewhere along the line he must have met some sort of fanatics, and they must have turned his mind.''

Abdulmutallab has been charged with trying to destroy a Northwest flight on Christmas Day with 278 passengers and 11 crew members on board. The detonator on his explosive apparently malfunctioned and he was subdued by other passengers.

Through an official, Abdulmutallab's father ''expressed deep shock and regret over his son's actions.''

His family home sits in the city of Funtua, in the heart of Nigeria's Islamic culture. Religion figured into the family's life: His father, Alhaji Umar Mutallab, who had a successful career in commercial banking, also joined the board of an Islamic bank -- one that avoids the kind of interest payments banned by the Quran.

The large house, surrounded by a wall and a metal fence just off the main road running through the city, stood empty, a common occurrence for a jet-set family that sought an education abroad for Abdulmutallab. Family members told The Associated Press they could not comment but expected the family to issue a statement.

Mutallab was working with the FBI and not expected to grant media interviews, Information Minister Dora Akunyili said.

The elder Mutallab was ''a responsible and respected Nigerian, with a true Nigerian spirit,'' she said. He had been estranged from his son for several months and alerted U.S. officials last month about the youth's growing hard-line Islamic religious beliefs.

A close neighbor told the AP he believed Abdulmutallab did not get his extremist ideas from his family or from within Nigeria.

Basiru Sani Hamza, 35, said Abdulmutallab was a ''very religious'' and a ''very obedient'' to his parents as a boy in the well-to-do banking family.

''I believe he must have been lured where he is schooling to carry out this attack,'' Hamza said. ''Really, the boy has betrayed his father because he has been taking care of all their needs.''

Rimmer, a teacher at his high school in West Africa, said Abdulmutallab had been well-respected.

''At one stage, his nickname was 'The Pope,''' Rimmer said from London in a telephone interview. ''In one way it's totally unsuitable because he's Muslim, but he did have this saintly aura.''

But Abdulmutallab also showed signs of inflexibility, Rimmer said.

In a discussion in 2001, Abdulmutallab was the only one to defend the actions of the Taliban in Afghanistan, Rimmer said. At the time, Rimmer thought the boy was just playing the devil's advocate.

He also noted that during a school trip to London, Abdulmutallab became upset when the teacher took students to a pub and said it wasn't right to be in a place where alcohol was served.

Rimmer also remembered the youngster choosing to give 50 pounds to an orphanage rather than spend it on souvenirs in London.

Rimmer described the institution -- an elite college preparatory school, attended by children of diplomats and wealthy Africans -- as ''lovely, lovely environment'' where Christians often joined in Islamic feasts and where some of the best Christmas carolers were Muslims.

Abdulmutallab showed no signs of intolerance toward other students, Rimmer said, explaining that ''lots of his mates were Christians.''

The Briton noted that he has not seen or heard from his former pupil since 2003 when he was still a teenager.

Abdulmutallab went on to study engineering and business finance at the University College London, where he graduated last year, the college confirmed.

Students at his prestigious university in London, where Abdulmutallab lived in a smart white stone apartment block in an exclusive area of central London, said Abdulmutallab showed no signs of radicalization and painted him as a lax student with deep religious views.

''We worked on projects together,'' Fabrizio Cavallo Marincola, a 22-year-old mechanical engineering student at University College, told The Independent newspaper. ''He always did the bare minimum of work and would just show up to classes. When we were studying, he always would go off to pray.

''He was pretty quiet and didn't socialize much or have a girlfriend that I knew of. I didn't get to talk to him much on a personal level. I was really shocked when I saw the reports. You would never imagine him pulling off something like this.''

Marincola declined further comment when contacted by the AP.

------

Associated Press writers Raphael Satter in London and Salisu Rabiu in Funtua, Nigeria, contributed to this report.


---アルカーイダか デトロイトで航空機爆破未遂、テロの疑い---
2009.12.26 09:19
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/america/091226/amr0912260919003-n1.htm

 【ワシントン=山本秀也】AP通信によると、25日、米ミシガン州デトロイトに到着したアムステルダム発の米ノースウエスト航空(NWA)253便の乗客が、同機を爆破しようとしたとして司法当局に身柄を拘束された。容疑者は国際テロ組織アルカーイダとの関連を供述しているとされ、ホワイトハウス当局者は同日、「テロ行為の疑いがある」との見方を示した。
 乗客の話として伝えられたところでは、容疑者は同便が降下中に何かを発火させようとした。わずかに発火したものの爆発などは起きず、容疑者は直ちに機内で取り押さえられたが、機内は騒然となったという。容疑者は男性だといわれる。
 当初、これは花火とみられていたが、その後の調べで粉末と液体を混合した爆発物の可能性が出ている。現在、連邦捜査局(FBI)が取り調べを進めている。
 AP通信は、ニューヨーク州選出のキング下院議員の話として、容疑者はアブドゥル・ムダラドと名乗るナイジェリア国籍の人物だと伝えた。報道によれば、年齢は23歳。容疑者は、ナイジェリアからアムステルダム経由で米国に向かったという。
 当時、同便には乗客・乗員278人が乗っていた。着陸後、乗客の1人がデトロイトの病院に搬送されたが、容疑者か別の乗客なのかは明らかでない。
 オバマ米大統領はハワイで静養中。同通信は同行しているホワイトハウス当局者の話として、テロ行為の可能性を伝えた。 


---Terror Attempt Seen as Man Tries to Ignite Device on Jet---
By ANAHAD O’CONNOR and ERIC SCHMITT
Published: December 25, 2009
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/26/us/26plane.html?_r=1&scp=7&sq=&st=nyt

A Nigerian man tried to ignite an explosive device aboard a trans-Atlantic Northwest Airlines flight as the plane prepared to land in Detroit on Friday, in an incident the United States believes was “an attempted act of terrorism,” according to a White House official who declined to be identified.

The device, described by officials as a mixture of powder and liquid, failed to fully detonate. Passengers on the plane described a series of pops that sounded like firecrackers.

Federal officials said the man wanted to bring the plane down.

“This was the real deal,” said Representative Peter T. King of New York, the ranking Republican on the House Homeland Security Committee, who was briefed on the incident and said something had gone wrong with the explosive device, which he described as somewhat sophisticated. “This could have been devastating,” Mr. King said.

The incident is likely to lead to heightened security during the busy holiday season.

It was unclear how the man, identified by federal officials as Abdul Farouk Abdulmutallab, 23, managed to get the explosive on the plane, an Airbus A330 wide-body jet carrying 278 passengers that departed from Amsterdam with passengers who had originated in Nigeria. A senior administration official said that the government did not yet know whether the man had had the capacity to take down the plane.

“We’re trying to ascertain exactly what he had and what he thought he was doing, but our sense is he wanted to wreak some havoc here and was attempting to do just that,” the official said. “Whether at the end of the day he had the ability to do that is what I think we’ll be able to pull together over the next several days as we investigate this.”

A senior Department of Homeland Security official said that the materials Mr. Abdulmutallab had on him were “more incendiary than explosive,” and that he had tried to ignite them to cause a fire as the airliner was approaching Detroit.

Mr. Abdulmutallab told law enforcement authorities, the official said, that he had had explosive powder taped to his leg and that he had mixed it with chemicals held in a syringe.

A federal counterterrorism official who asked not to be identified said Mr. Abdulmutallab was apparently in a government law enforcement-intelligence database, but it is not clear what extremist group or individuals he might be linked to.

“It’s too early to say what his association is,” the counterterrorism official said. “At this point, it seems like he was acting alone, but we don’t know for sure.” Although Mr. Abdulmutallab is said to have told officials that he was directed by Al Qaeda, the counterterrorism official expressed caution about that claim, saying “it may have been aspirational.”

The incident unfolded just before noon. “There was a pop that sounded like a firecracker,” said Syed Jafry, a passenger who said he had been sitting three rows ahead of the suspect. A few seconds later, he said, there was smoke and “some glow” from the suspect’s seat and on the left side of the plane.

“There was a panic,” said Mr. Jafry, 57, of Holland, Ohio. “Next thing you know everybody was on him.” He said the passengers and the crew subdued the man.

The suspect was brought by the crew to the front of the plane - Northwest Airlines Flight 253, bearing Delta’s name - and the plane made its descent into Detroit Metropolitan Airport, landing at 11:53 a.m. (The two airlines merged last year.) Once on the ground, it was immediately guided to the end of a runway, where it was surrounded by police cars and emergency vehicles and searched by a bomb-disabling robot.

Sandra Berchtold, a spokeswoman with the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Detroit office, said F.B.I. agents were at the scene Friday night and were investigating the matter.

One federal official who requested anonymity said Mr. Abdulmutallab had suffered severe burns but was expected to survive. A Michigan state official confirmed that he was being treated at the University of Michigan hospital in Ann Arbor.

President Obama was kept informed throughout the day as he spent Christmas with his family and friends at a secluded Hawaiian beach house. After a secure conference call, he was given several follow-up briefings on paper. John O. Brennan, the White House counterterrorism chief, convened an interagency meeting in the late afternoon to go over what was known about the incident and discuss what precautions should be taken.

A second Department of Homeland Security official said that the Transportation Security Administration used layers of security measures at the nation’s airports and that it would be tightening them as a result of the incident in Detroit.

These measures - some visible to passengers, some not - include bomb-sniffing dog teams, carry-on luggage and passenger screening measures, and plainclothes behavioral-detection specialists inside airport terminals. The official said there were no immediate plans to elevate the nation’s threat level, which has been at orange since 2006.

Mr. King, of the Homeland Security Committee, said there was no indication at this point that anyone else was involved, but he said officials would look back to see if any intelligence signals were missed. “For a while now we have had real concerns about Al Qaeda or terrorist connections in Nigeria,” he said.

Of the device used on Friday, he said, “It appears to be different from explosive devices that have been used before. That is perhaps why it escaped detection. Maybe that is why it made it through.”

Questions have been raised for years about aviation security in Nigeria. Last month, however, the T.S.A. said that standards at the Lagos airport met international criteria for security.

Friday’s incident brought to mind Richard C. Reid, the so-called shoe bomber, who attempted to blow up an American Airlines flight between Paris and Miami in December 2001 by igniting explosives in his shoes. Mr. Reid was subdued by a flight attendant and passengers and the plane landed safely in Boston. Mr. Reid later pleaded guilty to three terrorism-related counts and was sentenced to life in prison. Since then, airline passengers have had to remove their shoes before passing through security checkpoints in American airports.

In August 2006, British authorities uncovered a plot to blow up planes bound for the United States using explosives that would be mixed with liquids on board. Eight men were arrested, and three were convicted in the case this fall. British authorities estimated that as many as 2,000 airplane passengers might have been killed had the plotters been successful. The plot led security officials to limit the amount of liquids and gels that passengers can bring on board in their carry-on baggage.

Anahad O’Connor reported from New York, and Eric Schmitt from Washington. Peter Baker contributed reporting from Hawaii, Eric Lipton from Washington, and Micheline Maynard, Nick Bunkley and Bill Vlasic from Detroit.


---近赤外線を使った新しい爆発物検知装置 関空で実証試験---
2009.12.15 21:03
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/region/kinki/osaka/091215/osk0912152119014-n1.htm

 近赤外線を使った新技術の爆発物検知装置の実証試験が15日、関西国際空港国内線ゲートエリアの職員用ゲートで始まった。ペットボトルの内容物をこれまで以上に精密に判別できるという。17日まで行われ、動作状況を確認する。
 大阪大と農機具メーカー「クボタ」(大阪市)が文科省の委託事業として共同研究。クボタが果物の甘みなどを計測する装置に使ってきた近赤外線の技術を応用。従来の検知装置では、判別不能だった危険物も識別できるのが特徴。
 実証試験では、ペットボトルを装置の穴に差し込むと、近赤外線が照射され、内容物を2~3秒で判別。内容物が安全な飲料では緑のランプが点灯、「OK」と画面表示するが、爆発物の成分に似せたサンプル液体では、赤のランプがつき「NG」と表示される。
 試験で動作を確認後、来年にも製品化する見通し。共同研究した糸崎秀夫・大阪大大学院教授(電子光科学)は「装置を小型化するほか、化粧品やシャンプーなど多様な液体を判別できるよう改良し、安全性や利便性を高めていきたい」としている。

2009年12月28日月曜日

インフル新薬

インフル新薬が話題。
T-705 富山化学工業
H5N1ウイルスの遺伝子を複製する酵素の働きを妨げ、増殖を抑える。

タミフル 中外製薬
ドライシロップ剤。体重が37.5キロ以上なら13歳未満でも使える。

ラピアクタ(ペラミビル) 塩野義製薬
点滴注射薬。15歳以上に対して1回300mg投与。

大量に生産ができたタミフルが主流だが、ウィルスの酵素の働きの
増殖を抑える効果がある薬剤は大量生産が可能になれば期待できる
だろう。


---タミフル耐性の鳥インフル、国産新薬が効果---
2009年12月22日14時07分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/news/20091222-OYT1T00738.htm

 臨床試験中の新しい国産インフルエンザ治療薬が、治療薬タミフルが効きにくい高病原性鳥インフルエンザウイルス(H5N1型)にも効果があることを、東京大の河岡義裕教授(ウイルス学)らが確認した。
 このタイプが流行しても感染者の致死率を大幅に下げることができると証明したもので、22日の米科学アカデミー紀要電子版に掲載された。
 新薬は富山化学工業が開発した「T―705」。研究チームの木曽真紀研究員らは、H5N1型ウイルスの遺伝子を組み換え、タミフル耐性ウイルスを作製。マウスに感染させた上で、T―705を投与したところ、3週間以上生き残るなど治療効果が確認された。薬を与えられなかったマウスは7~12日で死んだ。
 T―705は、ウイルスの表面たんぱくの機能を阻害するタミフルやリレンザと違い、ウイルスの遺伝子を複製する酵素の働きを妨げ、増殖を抑える。新型や季節性にも効果を発揮することが確認されている。早ければ来年秋からの流行期に市販される見通しだ。


---「タミフル」ドライシロップ剤、予防薬として承認---
2009年12月20日18時35分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/news/20091220-OYT1T00567.htm

 厚生労働省は、中外製薬のインフルエンザ治療薬「タミフル」のドライシロップ剤を、予防薬として新たに承認した。
 予防投薬は保険適用外になる。
 治療用では1日2回、5日間投与するが、予防薬としては、15歳以上では1日1回を7~10日間、1~14歳では1日1回を10日間投与する。1歳未満には使用できない。
 また、タミフルのカプセル剤は、これまで予防薬としては対象を13歳以上に限定していたが、体重が37・5キロ以上なら13歳未満でも使えるようになった。


---インフル第3の治療薬ペラミビル、来月承認へ---
2009年12月19日07時14分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/news/20091219-OYT1T00044.htm

 厚生労働省は18日、新型インフルエンザ対策として、タミフル、リレンザに続く第3のインフルエンザ治療薬「ペラミビル」(商品名・ラピアクタ)を1月にも承認する方針を決めた。
 タミフル耐性の新型インフルエンザウイルスが出現しており、医療現場での治療薬選択の幅を広げるのが狙い。
 ペラミビルは点滴注射薬。経口や吸入で服用するタミフルなどと異なり、人工呼吸器で管理されたり、意識不明の状態に陥ったりした重症患者に使いやすいとされる。15歳以上に対して1回300ミリ・グラムを投与する。

2009年12月25日金曜日

FHI AH64D開発費請求訴訟か

FHIは、AH64D開発費の請求訴訟を起こすようだ。
 AH64D(アパッチ・ロングボウ)の調達が防衛省の方針変更で中止された
問題で、ヘリを受注していた富士重工業は、同省に対し来年にも、未回収
のライセンス料など数百億円を支払うよう求める民事訴訟を起こす方針を
明らかにした。

結局、裁判の判決により予算を割り当てざるを得ないようだ。
判決はどうなるかわからないが、FHIの言い分が全て通れば、税金で裁判
費用を余計に支払うこととなる。こんなことのために税金を支払っている
人は少ないだろう。


---富士重工、防衛省提訴へ…戦闘ヘリ発注中止巡り---
2009年12月23日21時47分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/atmoney/news/20091223-OYT1T00788.htm

 陸上自衛隊の戦闘ヘリコプター「AH64D」(アパッチ・ロングボウ)の調達が防衛省の方針変更で中止された問題で、ヘリを受注していた富士重工業は23日、同省に対し来年1月にも、未回収のライセンス料など数百億円を支払うよう求める民事訴訟を起こす方針を明らかにした。国との結びつきが強いとされる防衛関連企業が国を訴えるのは極めて異例だ。
 アパッチは、防衛省が2001年に62機の導入を決定。富士重工と関連部品メーカーは、製造元の米ボーイング社からライセンスを取得してライセンス料や初期費用など500億円弱を支払い、これを国から回収する予定だった。
 その後、ボーイングが生産中止を決めたため、防衛省は02~07年度に計10機を調達した後、発注を事実上打ち切った。
 富士重工は今年9月、「ライセンス料や設備投資費用は国が一定額を負担すべきだ」として500億円弱の支払いを求める文書を防衛省に提出。これに対し、防衛省は11月、「単年度ごとに契約しており、62機すべてを購入する契約をしたわけではない」などと回答し、支払い義務を否定していた。

2009年12月24日木曜日

シティ ハッカー被害なしか

シティがハッカー被害はないと言う。
 シティグループは、傘下の銀行に対するハッカー攻撃で数千万ドル
(数十億円)の損害が出た恐れがあるとする報道は誤りだとする声明を
発表した。
 FBIがシティグループ傘下の銀行に対するハッカー攻撃を捜査している
と報じていた。

現在の捜査では、Black Energyを使ったThe Russian Business Network
によるものだと言う。
ボットネットやマルウェアに感染させたPCをシティに向けて攻撃する
方法が使われているようだ。詳細は、不明。

2007年、ニューヨークでは、セブンイレブンのサーバが、露からの
SQLインジェクションの脆弱性をついた攻撃を受け、5500台のシティ
バンクブランドのATMがアクセスに影響を及ぼした事件があり、裁判を
行っているようだ。

実質、窃盗の国際犯罪だが、売名行為の方がはるかに得るものが多い
と思う。


---ハッカー被害なしとシティ 損害報道は誤り---
2009/12/23 14:07 【共同通信】
http://www.47news.jp/CN/200912/CN2009122301000245.html

 【ワシントン共同】ダウ・ジョーンズ通信によると、米金融大手シティグループは22日、傘下の銀行に対するハッカー攻撃で数千万ドル(数十億円)の損害が出た恐れがあるとする報道は誤りだとする声明を発表した。
 米紙ウォールストリート・ジャーナルは同日付で、米連邦捜査局(FBI)がシティグループ傘下の銀行に対するハッカー攻撃を捜査していると報じていた。


---米シティにハッカー侵入か FBIが捜査と米紙---
2009.12.23 00:45
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/america/091223/amr0912230046001-n1.htm

 22日付の米紙ウォールストリート・ジャーナルは米連邦捜査局(FBI)が米金融大手シティグループ傘下の銀行に対するハッカー攻撃を捜査していると報じた。ロシアのサイバー犯罪集団と関連があり、数千万ドル(数十億円)の損害が出た恐れがあるという。
 報道によると、今年夏ごろに発覚したが、その1年前から侵入されていた可能性がある。同じハッカーは米政府機関を含む複数のシステムへの侵入も試みている。
 シティグループは同紙の取材に対し「われわれのシステムに対する妨害行為は複数あるが、いずれも侵入や顧客情報の漏えいに至っていない」と被害を否定している。(共同)


---Citi Denies Theft Report, Says Accounts Are Safe---
Bank Disputes Journal Article on Cyber Breach, Gives Employees a Memo to Help Respond to Clients' Questions
DECEMBER 23, 2009
By DAVID ENRICH
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126152915252002233.html?mod=googlenews_wsj

Citigroup Inc. denied a report in The Wall Street Journal that federal authorities are investigating the theft of tens of millions of dollars from customer accounts by hackers, and sought to reassure clients that their funds are safe.

The New York financial company sent employees in U.S. bank branches a memo to help respond to questions. The moves came after The Wall Street Journal reported that the Federal Bureau of Investigation is probing a computer-security breach aimed at accounts of the company's Citibank unit.

It couldn't be learned how funds were stolen, whether through Citibank's systems or by other means. The breach could have involved a contractor that processes transactions for the U.S. financial institution. Investigators suspect that the theft was conducted by a well-known Russian cyber gang.

"Allegations reported today by The Wall Street Journal of a breach of Citi systems and associated losses are false," Citi said in a statement Tuesday. "Any allegation that the FBI is working on a case at Citigroup involving a breach of Citi systems resulting in tens of millions of dollars of losses is false. There has been no breach and there have been no associated losses.'' Citi added: "Occasionally, as with virtually all financial institutions, there are instances of fraud or breaches of third-party systems that result in our taking actions to protect our customers and Citi. However, contrary to the Wall Street Journal report today, there has been no breach of Citi's systems."

Citigroup officials fielded inquiries Tuesday from customers wondering whether their money was vulnerable due to the attack, according to people familiar with the matter.

The internal memo urged employees to respond to questions by assuring customers that "we take the security of our customers and systems very seriously," adding that Citi has "state-of-the-art processes to detect and prevent criminal activity."

Other large U.S.-based banks declined to comment on whether they have faced similar attacks. Experts said financial institutions are grappling with increasingly frequent attempts to pierce their technological defenses, often by hackers with ties to organized crime rings in Eastern Europe.

Such attacks can occur through breaches of internal bank systems; by accessing data through outside firms that process transactions for financial firms; or by infecting customers' computers to gain access to bank systems when customers log on to bank Web sites.

The shift of bank transactions to online channels from traditional branches is one source of the crime wave, said Steve Kenneally, vice president at the American Bankers Association, a bank trade group in Washington. "It creates a bigger threat," he said. "Bank robbers go where the money is. Banks recognize that."

Banks have been redoubling efforts to tighten security. Bank of America Corp. is offering online-banking customers a free, one-year version of antivirus software to install on their computers. "We're always taking steps to protect the safety and security of our systems," spokeswoman Tara Burke said Tuesday.
-Siobhan Gorman contributed to this article.


---FBI investigates cyber attack on Citigroup, WSJ reports---
The FBI is investigating a hacker attack that targeted Citigroup and resulted in the theft of tens of millions of dollars, The Wall Street Journal reported, but the bank denied its systems had been breached.
Reuters
Published: 7:02AM GMT 23 Dec 2009
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/banksandfinance/6870681/FBI-investigates-cyber-attack-on-Citigroup-WSJ-reports.html

"There has been no breach and there have been no associated losses," Citigroup said in a statement.

"Occasionally, as with virtually all financial institutions, there are instances of fraud or breaches of third-party systems that result in our taking actions to protect our customers and Citi," the bank added.

The cyber attack, believed to be linked to a Russian gang, was aimed at Citigroup's Citibank subsidiary, the Journal reported paper reported, citing unnamed government officials. It also said the hackers may have gained access to the bank's systems through third parties.

The attack on Citibank is believed to have taken place over the summer and was detected at that time, but investigators suspect it could have taken place up to a year earlier, the paper said.

Two other entities, including a US government agency, were also attacked by hackers, the paper said, citing people familiar with the Citibank incident.

FBI spokesman Richard Kolko declined to comment, saying it is agency policy to neither confirm nor deny whether investigations are in progress. A spokesman for the Department of Homeland Security also declined to comment.

The issue of computer hacking financial institutions has been a growing concern. And after months of searching, the White House said on Tuesday that President Barack Obama picked Howard Schmidt, a former eBay and Microsoft executive, to serve as the national cyber security coordinator.

Mr Schmidt is president of the Information Security Forum, a non-profit consortium of 300 large corporations and public-sector organizations working on cybersecurity issues. He also worked under US President George W. Bush on cyber issues.

The Wall Street Journal mentioned a Citibank customer who saw more than $1m removed from his account and sent to banks in Latvia and Ukraine. The bank helped him recover most of the money and reimbursed him for the rest, the newspaper reported, adding that it was not clear whether the incident was part of the larger attack on Citigroup.

In a statement, the bank said it was an isolated case of fraud.

Citigroup also said that attacks are directed against companies globally, and while there had been attempts to interfere with the bank's systems, none had been successful.

But Fred Cate, director of the Center for Applied Cybersecurity Research at Indiana University, said, "I don't want to sound alarmist ... but the evidence is just overwhelming today that attacks are successful in many instances, particularly socially engineered attacks."


---FBI Probes Hack at Citibank---
Russian Cyber Gang Suspected of Stealing Tens of Millions; Bank Denies Breach
DECEMBER 22, 2009
By SIOBHAN GORMAN and EVAN PEREZ
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126145280820801177.html?mod=rss_Today%27s_Most_Popular

The Federal Bureau of Investigation is probing a computer-security breach targeting Citigroup Inc. that resulted in a theft of tens of millions of dollars by computer hackers who appear linked to a Russian cyber gang, according to government officials.

The attack took aim at Citigroup's Citibank subsidiary, which includes its North American retail bank and other businesses. It couldn't be learned whether the thieves gained access to Citibank's systems directly or through third parties.

The attack underscores the blurring of lines between criminal and national-security threats in cyber space. Hackers also assaulted two other entities, at least one of them a U.S. government agency, said people familiar with the attack on Citibank.

The Citibank attack was detected over the summer, but investigators are looking into the possibility the attack may have occurred months or even a year earlier. The FBI and the National Security Agency, along with the Department of Homeland Security and Citigroup, swapped information to counter the attack, according to a person familiar with the case. Press offices of the federal agencies declined to comment.

The threat was initially detected by U.S. investigators who saw suspicious traffic coming from Internet addresses that had been used by the Russian Business Network, a Russian gang that has sold hacking tools and software for accessing U.S. government systems. The group went silent two years ago, but security experts say its alumni have re-emerged in smaller attack groups.

Security officials worry that, beyond stealing money, hackers could try to manipulate or destroy data, wreaking havoc on the banking system. When intruders get into one bank, officials say, they may be able to blaze a trail into others.

Last month, a federal indictment in Atlanta named eight alleged Russian and Eastern European hackers, most still at large, who prosecutors say broke into a U.S. unit of Royal Bank of Scotland in 2008 and stole $9 million from ATMs in 280 cities world-wide in a matter of hours. RBS cooperated with investigators and ensured that its customers were reimbursed.

Losses to online crime of all types exceeded $260 million in the U.S. last year, the FBI estimates. Attacks on corporations are "at an epidemic level," former White House cyber-security director Melissa Hathaway said recently.

U.S. banks have generally been loath to disclose computer attacks for fear of scaring off customers. In part this is an outgrowth of an experience Citibank had in 1994, when it revealed that a Russian hacker had stolen more than $10 million from customer accounts. Competitors swooped in to try to steal the bank's largest depositors. Citibank said at the time that it was able to recover most of the money and that the attack didn't put customer funds at risk.

The new attack targeting Citibank highlights the growing sophistication and threat posed by overseas criminal networks. "There were a couple of days of struggling," said one person familiar with the attack. "There were some sophisticated elements that made it hard to block."

Among weapons the hackers used, according to people familiar with the case, was a small army of infected computers commanded by software called Black Energy. Hackers use Black Energy primarily to block access to Web sites. Somebody used it during Russia's brief 2008 war with Georgia to shut down Georgian government and bank Web sites. Someone also used it in 2007 to block government and bank Web sites in Estonia and to attack the Web site of a political foe of Vladimir Putin, then Russia's president and now its prime minister.

Black Energy was written by a Russian hacker who goes by the name Cr4sh, said Joe Stewart, a researcher for SecureWorks, a computer-security company. The software sells online for $40, according to Jose Nazario, a manager at Arbor Networks, which analyzes computer threats.

Black Energy can be upgraded to invade computer systems and snatch data. DigitalStakeout, a firm that monitors cyber attacks, found in April that Black Energy was being used with a tool that steals bank-account log-on information. The combination was being sold online for $700 as a package called the YES Exploit System, said DigitalStakeout's chief executive, Adam Mikrut.

Over the summer, Mr. Stewart said, he discovered that Cr4sh had developed a new version of Black Energy with an added feature that steals banking credentials. In the Citi attack, the software included a tailor-made feature designed to attack the bank, according to two people familiar with the incursion. The thieves stole an estimated tens of millions of dollars, according to three people familiar with the matter. It remains under investigation, and whether any of the money has been recovered couldn't be learned.

The migration of payments to the Internet, in combination with new bank systems that settle transactions the same day, "has enabled bank heists to occur in seconds from thousands of miles away," said Tom Kellermann, a former World Bank cyber-security official and now an executive at Core Security Technologies.

Robert Blanchard, co-owner of Bridge Metal Industries, a lighting company in Mount Vernon, N.Y., can attest to that.

At 3 a.m. on July 6, Mr. Blanchard tried to log on to his company's Citibank account but couldn't do so with his regular password and token code. He says he called Citibank and was told it would change his password and send him a new one by overnight mail. "I thought at that point I was safe," he says.

But he still couldn't get in. By the time he called his local bank branch to sort out the problem, he says, online thieves had sent $1,007,655 to banks in Latvia and Ukraine. "Even the bank can't act as quickly as these guys," Mr. Blanchard says.

It isn't clear whether the incident was part of the larger attack on Citibank.

Investigators discovered that a computer at Mr. Blanchard's lighting company had been infected by a computer at another company he co-owns. That one then dragooned his lighting-company computer into a group of computers used to attack others -- the same modus operandi as Black Energy's.

The software loaded on one of Mr. Blanchard's computers included a spyware program that logged the keystrokes he typed and could capture the data he used to sign on to his bank account, he says. He adds that after days of prodding, Citibank sleuths began working to help him recover $810,855 from the Latvian bank, and Citibank then gave him the remainder.

Asked about the Blanchard case, Citigroup said: "While we do not discuss customer details, the individual case described was an isolated incident of fraud. Consistent with legal requirements, our customers are not liable for any unauthorized use of their accounts."
-David Enrich contributed to this article.


---Report: Russian Gang Linked to Big Citibank Hack---
December 21, 2009 10:50 PM
By Owen Fletcher, IDG News Service
http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/article/185271/report_russian_gang_linked_to_big_citibank_hack.html

U.S. authorities are investigating the theft of an estimated tens of millions of dollars from Citibank by hackers partly using Russian software tailored for the attack, according to a news report.

The security breach at the major U.S. bank was detected mid-year based on traffic from Internet addresses formerly used by the Russian Business Network gang, The Wall Street Journal said Tuesday, citing unnamed government sources. The Russian Business Network is a well-known group linked to malicious software, hacking, child pornography and spam. The Federal Bureau of Investigation is probing the case, the report said.

It was not known whether the money had been recovered and a Citibank representative said the company had not had any system breach or losses, according to the report.

The report left unclear who the money was stolen from but said a program called Black Energy, designed by a Russian hacker, was one tool used in the attack. The tool can be used to command a botnet, or a large group of computers infected by malware and controlled by an attacker, in assaults meant to take down target Web sites. This year a modified version of the software appeared online that could steal banking information, and in the Citi attack a version tailored to target the bank was used, the Journal said.

The attackers also targeted a U.S. government agency and one other unnamed entity, the report said, adding that it was unknown if the attackers accessed Citibank systems directly or through other parties.


---7-Eleven Hack From Russia Led to ATM Looting in New York
By Kevin Poulsen Email Author
December 21, 2009 5:03 pm
http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2009/12/seven-eleven/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+wired%2Findex+%28Wired%3A+Index+3+%28Top+Stories+2%29%29

Flashback, early 2008: Citibank officials are witnessing a huge spike in fraudulent withdrawals from New York area ATMs - $180,000 is stolen from cash machines on the Upper East Side in just three days. After a stakeout, police arrest one man walking out of a bank with thousands of dollars in cash and 12 reprogrammed cards. A lucky traffic stop catches two more plunderers who’d driven in from Michigan. Another pair are arrested after trying to mug an undercover FBI agent on the street for a magstripe encoder. In the end, there are 10 arrests and at least $2 million dollars stolen.

The wellspring of the dramatic megaheist turns out to be more prosaic than imagined: It started with a breach of the public website of America’s most famous convenience store chain: 7-Eleven.com.

In his most-recent plea agreement, filed in court Monday, confessed hacker Albert Gonzalez admitted conspiring in the 7-Eleven breach and fingered two Russian associates as the direct culprits. The Russians are identified as “Hacker 1″ and “Hacker 2″ in Gonzalez’s plea agreement, and as “Grigg” and “Annex” in an earlier document inadvertently made public by his attorney.

The Russians, evidently using an SQL injection vulnerability, “gained unauthorized access to 7-Eleven, Inc.’s servers through 7-Eleven’s public-facing internet site, and then leveraged that access into servers supporting ATM terminals located in 7-Eleven stores,” the plea agreement reads. “This access caused 7-Eleven, Inc., on or about November 9, 2007, to disable its public-facing internet site to disable the unauthorized access.”

At the time, there were 5,500 Citibank-branded ATMs at 7-Eleven stores around the country. According to SEC documents, 7-Eleven ran its own transaction-processing server to handle 2,000 of them: advanced models called Vcom machines, manufactured by NCR. The 7-Eleven Vcoms support special functions like bill payment, check cashing and money-order purchases. For two weeks in September 2007, anyone who typed a PIN in one of these was exposed.

Court records from the New York-area Citibank cases show how that single breach from Russia trickled over the internet and down to the streets of New York.

The first break in the case had its roots in a Jan. 30, 2008, traffic stop. Westchester County police pulled a car over for speeding on the Saw Mill River Parkway in Dobbs Ferry, New York. The driver, 21-year-old Nue Quni, was driving on a suspended license, so the officers decided to have the vehicle impounded. While they waited for the tow truck, they conducted a routine “inventory search” of the car.

Inside, police found $3,000 in cash, a laptop computer, a magstripe writer - which is used to reprogram cards - and 102 blank, white plastic cards. They also recovered receipts showing cash withdrawals from ATMs in Manhattan and the Bronx, and more showing wire transfers.

Facing federal access-device-fraud charges, the passenger in the car, 22-year-old Luma Bitti, began cooperating with the FBI. She explained that she was hired over the internet in December 2007 to program cards with the stolen information, then withdraw money from ATMs and wire it to other people. With Bitti’s consent, an FBI agent took over her IM and e-mail accounts, and began corresponding with the person who hired her.

The FBI arranged in April 2008 to meet the man in Manhattan, supposedly to provide him with a magstripe writer. An FBI agent, still posing as a fraudster, showed up at the meeting with a magstripe writer in hand.

But the man, who is identified in one court record by the initials “DK”, double-crossed the undercover agent, and sent two proxies in his place: 21-year-old Andrey Baranets and one Aleksandr Desevoh, according to an FBI affidavit. When the agent refused to hand over the magstripe writer, Desevoh took a swing at the agent, who ducked the blow and ran away.

The two men gave chase through the streets of Manhattan, before they were grabbed by other FBI agents who’d been watching the scene. In pleading guilty last February, Desevoh said DK had told him to “take this device using force.”

Federal prosecutors in New York had by then charged three more people in the ATM-cashing conspiracy, including 32-year-old Ukrainian immigrant Yuriy Ryabinin, aka Yuriy Rakushchynets, and 30-year-old Ivan Biltse.

In addition to looting Citibank accounts, Ryabinin had participated in a global cybercrime feeding frenzy that tore into four specific iWire prepaid MasterCard accounts, issued by St. Louis-based First Bank, in the fall of 2007. On Sept. 30 and Oct. 1 - just two days - the iWire accounts were hit with more than 9,000 actual and attempted withdrawals from ATM machines around the world, resulting in $5 million in losses.

At the time of the ATM capers, FBI and U.S. Secret Service agents had been investigating Ryabinin for his activities on Eastern European carder forums. Ryabinin used the same ICQ chat account to conduct criminal business, and to participate in amateur-radio websites. The feds compared photos of Ryabinin from some of the ham sites to video captured by New York ATM cameras in the Citibank and iWire withdrawals, and determined it was the same man - right down to the tan jacket with dark-blue trim.

When they raided Ryabinin’s home, agents found his computer logged into a carding forum. They also found a magstripe writer and $800,000 in cash - including $690,000 in garbage bags, shopping bags and boxes stashed in the bedroom closet. Another $99,000 in cash turned up in one of the safe-deposit boxes rented by Ryabinin and his wife, Olena. Biltse was also found with $800,000 in cash.

Ryabinin’s wife told investigators that she witnessed her husband “leave the couple’s house with bundles of credit cards in rubber bands and return with large sums of cash,” a Secret Service affidavit (.pdf) reads.

Two of the ATM scammers arrested by the FBI filled in the bureau on the details of the operation, explaining how, beginning in December 2007, they began working with a ringleader in Russia, who provided them with ATM account numbers and PINs. The deal was straightforward: They’d use the information to encode fraudulent ATM cards and withdraw cash, sending 70 percent of the take to the Russian and keeping 25 percent for themselves. Another 5 percent went for expenses.

The duo initially used Western Union money transfers to get cash to their boss in Russia, according to an FBI affidavit. Later, they exploited a relationship with 30-year-old Ilya Boruch, an “exchanger” for the site WebMoney, a PayPal-like internet-payment system.

Exchangers are normally legitimate businesspeople who swap cash for WebMoney’s internet currency. But according to the feds, Boruch had gone bad and become a money-laundering service for the Citibank ATM heists, transferring hundreds of thousands of dollars to the ringleader in Russia, without reporting the transactions to the government, as required by U.S. law.

Through his business, Bidding Expert, Boruch allegedly funneled as much as $80,000 to $100,000 a week on behalf of the two fraudsters, who delivered the cash to Boruch in person, sometimes by tossing envelopes into an open window in his car.

One of the FBI informants, identified as co-conspirator 1, or CC-1, in court documents, held this instant-message exchange with Boruch on Jan. 10, 2008, according to the FBI. (Punctuation is added).

CC-1: Need more wm [WebMoney] …

Boruch: How much?

CC-1: 60 [$60,000]

Boruch: Wow. OK. Listen, is everything OK?

CC-1: So far. Why?

Boruch: Well, you need so much wm! It’s just kinda strange

CC-1: We’re working

Boruch: OK. Drop it off all in 100s …

CC-1: When can the wm be ready?

Boruch: Don’t know

CC-1: Approximately

Boruch: If you pay an additional 0.5 percent then it’ll be ready tomorrow

CC-1: And if not?

Boruch: Then I don’t know. I can buy it from my people, but they’re expensive

Boruch was charged last year with conspiracy to launder money.

The final known arrests in New York came on May 8 of last year. Citibank noticed that a large number of the fraudulent withdrawals were coming through its 65th Street branch, prompting them to put the location under surveillance. When the Citibank official staking out the spot got a call alerting him to a theft in progress, he crossed the street to peer through the vestibule glass, and watched as a man in a baseball cap, jeans and a sports coat put a thick envelope into a briefcase and moved from one ATM to the next.

The official flagged down two nearby NYPD officers who’d already been briefed on the fraud, and the cops arrested 28-year-old Aleksandar Aleksiev. With his consent, they searched his bag and found six ATM-deposit envelopes stuffed with cash, and 12 blank cards with stickers on them and a different PIN code written on each.
-

2009年12月23日水曜日

核兵器貯蔵地 嘉手納、那覇、辺野古

嘉手納、那覇、辺野古は核兵器貯蔵地のようだ。
 「密約」文書を佐藤氏の遺族が保管していたことが明らかになった。
 佐藤家で発見されたのは、ワシントンで行われた日米首脳会談で極秘
に交わされた「合意議事録」の実物。 

文書では、
米側
「日本を含む極東諸国防衛のため、重大な緊急事態が生じた際は、日本
と事前協議を行ったうえで、核兵器を沖縄に再び持ち込むこと、及び
沖縄を通過する権利が認められることを必要とする。米国政府は好意的
回答を期待する」とし、有事の際の沖縄への核持ち込みを両首脳が合意
したことが記録されている。

「米国政府は重大な緊急事態に備え、沖縄に現存する核兵器の貯蔵地、
すなわち嘉手納、那覇、辺野古、及びナイキ・ハーキュリーズ基地を
いつでも使用できる状態に維持しておく必要がある」と記している。

日本側
「そうした事前協議があれば、遅滞なくその要求に応える」と明記され
ている。

以前から噂されていたことが確実となった。
核兵器が貯蔵されていることが確実になった嘉手納、那覇、辺野古は
戦略的に攻撃対象となる。基地があるから、攻撃されると言うが、
なくても、中国のような沖縄大使館要請、韓国の対馬侵略、豪の白馬
融合化等の問題は発生している。アジア中心主義を唱える政府は、
米国だけでなく、次はアジアからの要求をのむのだろうか。


---米国務長官「普天間、日米関係に影響」 駐米大使に伝達---
2009年12月23日4時1分
http://www.asahi.com/politics/update/1223/TKY200912220542.html

 クリントン米国務長官が藤崎一郎駐米大使と国務省内で意見交換した際、米軍普天間飛行場の移設問題について、早期に現行案を履行できなければ、「日米関係の様々なところに影響が出かねない」との懸念を伝えていたことが22日、わかった。国務長官が駐米大使にこうした考えを直接伝えるのは、極めて異例だ。
 鳩山由紀夫首相は17日、コペンハーゲンで開かれたデンマーク女王主催の晩餐(ばんさん)会で、クリントン氏に普天間問題の決着先送りの経緯を説明。日米外交筋によると、首相は(1)政権交代で県外移設を求める沖縄県民の期待が高まっている(2)移設先決定に時間がかかる(3)現行案の名護市辺野古以外の移設候補地を探る――などを伝えた。その後、首相はクリントン氏から理解を得たとの認識を示していた。
 クリントン氏は藤崎氏との会談で普天間移設について、「今の案で早くまとめてほしい」とも求め、首相の受け止めを事実上否定。さらに普天間移設が頓挫すれば、米海兵隊のグアム移転や米軍の訓練移転など米軍再編全体に影響を及ぼす可能性も示唆した。外務省幹部は「普天間問題の先送り容認はあり得ないという米側の意思を、正式な外交ルートできちんと伝えたということだろう」と説明する。
 この会談を受け、岡田克也外相は22日の記者会見で、日米関係について「楽観はしていない」と言及。「首相が新しい候補地を検討すると言っているので迅速に作業を進めなければならない」と述べ、移設先選定を早急に進める必要があるとの考えを示した。


---核密約文書現存、佐藤元首相宅に保管 日米首脳の署名---
2009年12月23日3時2分
http://www.asahi.com/politics/update/1222/TKY200912220513.html

 日米の両首脳が1969年に沖縄返還を合意した際、有事における沖縄への核兵器の再持ち込みについて取り決めたとされる秘密の合意文書が、当時の首相、故・佐藤栄作氏の遺品の中に残されていたことが分かった。佐藤氏の次男で元通産相の信二氏(77)が明らかにした。この密約については、佐藤氏の「密使」として水面下で米側と接触した故・若泉敬氏=元京都産業大教授=が著作で存在を明らかにしているが、文書の現物は見つかっていなかった。外務省が進める「密約」調査の有識者委員会も強い関心を示している。
 信二氏が保管していた文書は「1969年11月21日発表のニクソン米大統領と日本の佐藤首相による共同声明に関する合意議事録」と表題があり、69年11月19日付。「重大な緊急事態」に際し、米政府は「日本政府との事前協議を経て、核兵器の沖縄への再持ち込みと沖縄を通過させる権利を必要とするであろう」とあり、日本政府は「米国政府としての諸要件を理解し、そのような事前協議が行われた場合には、これらの要件を遅滞なく満たすであろう」と記されている。文書の取り扱いについては「最高級の機密のうちに取り扱うべきであるということで合意した」と記し、当時のニクソン大統領と佐藤氏の署名がある。
 沖縄への「核再持ち込み」を米側に保証する秘密合意は、69年11月にホワイトハウスで日米両首脳が交わしたとされる。94年刊行の若泉氏の著書「他策ナカリシヲ信ゼムト欲ス」によると、若泉氏は佐藤首相の密使として、沖縄返還に際して米軍の核兵器を撤去することなどを求め、キッシンジャー大統領補佐官と秘密裏に交渉に当たった。
 日本側は「核抜き本土並み」返還を求めたが、米側は緊急事態の際の再持ち込みを要請し、文書による合意を求めた。そこで若泉氏はキッシンジャー氏と「合意議事録」を作成。首脳会談の際に、両首脳がホワイトハウスの執務室に隣接する「小部屋」で署名を交わしたという。
 当時、佐藤氏は若泉氏の申し入れに難色を示したものの、最終的には秘密合意に同意。文書について佐藤氏は若泉氏に「破ったっていいんだ」と語っていたと同書に記されている。また、予定では頭文字での署名のはずだったが、佐藤氏は大統領がフルネームで署名したため自分もそうしたと若泉氏に語ったという。
 信二氏によると、「議事録」は佐藤氏が75年に死去したあと、机の中から見つかった。首相退任後に自宅に持ち帰った執務机という。
 外務省の密約調査では、この合意議事録が同省保管ファイルにはなかったことが関係者の話で判明している。この文書は米側でも公開されておらず、調査の検証を進める有識者委員会の委員らは強い関心を寄せている。今後、必要と判断すれば、佐藤氏の遺族と連絡をとる方針だ。
 委員の一人は「若泉氏の著書の記述から、署名文書は破られたものと思っていた。外務省も関知していないとの態度だった。この目で現物を見て委員会で議論したい」と話している。(川端俊一、倉重奈苗)

 〈日米間の「密約」〉 (1)核持ち込み時の事前協議の対象から艦船の寄港などを外す核密約(2)朝鮮半島有事の際に米軍が在日米軍基地を出撃拠点として使うことを認めたもの(3)有事の際の沖縄への核の再持ち込みに関するもの(4)米側が負担すべき原状回復費400万ドルを日本側が肩代わりするなどの財政取り決め、の4密約の存在がこれまでに指摘されている。


---「歓迎」の北朝鮮、「懸念」の韓国 普天間巡る日米紛糾---
2009年12月20日2時37分
http://www.asahi.com/international/update/1219/TKY200912190394.html

 【ソウル=牧野愛博】米軍普天間飛行場(沖縄県宜野湾市)の移設問題を巡る日米関係のぎくしゃくぶりに、韓国と北朝鮮が対照的な反応を見せている。北朝鮮メディアが摩擦を歓迎する一方、韓国では懸念の声が広がり、朝鮮半島有事の際、後方支援に回る在日米軍の存在の重要性が改めて浮き彫りになった。
 16日付の北朝鮮の内閣機関紙「民主朝鮮」は、移設問題を巡る鳩山政権の対応について「日本社会の全面的な支持を得ている」と異例の高評価。8日付でもこの問題を取り上げ、日米同盟強化を唱えた在日米軍幹部の発言を「反平和行為」と批判していた。米国の「敵視政策」を強く警戒する北朝鮮のメディアは、日米同盟の混乱を肯定的に意義づけ、民主党政権への批判は控えている。
 これに対し、韓国政府高官は「日米関係の安定を強く願っている」と語る。韓国メディアにも「在韓米軍の機能や規模に影響を与える」(ソウル新聞)として、懸念を持って注視する記事が目立つ。韓国・外交安保研究院の尹徳敏(ユン・ドンミン)教授は東亜日報への寄稿で「我々の安全に支障がでないよう、日本の考えを問いただすべきだ」と主張した。
 韓国の懸念の背景にあるのが、朝鮮半島有事の際に在日米軍が持つ重みだ。米韓両国は、有事に備えた共同作戦計画「5027」を持つ。かつて、最大時で兵力約69万人、艦艇約160隻、航空機約2千機からなる米軍の増援を約束した時期もあった。その中核を担うのが「後方支援基地」の機能を持つ在日米軍だ。
 米軍が機動性を追求して取り組むトランスフォーメーション(変革)や、米軍が保有する戦時統制(指揮)権の韓国軍移管に伴う「5027」の見直しなどで、米軍の増援規模は縮小するが、在日米軍の役割の重要性に変わりはないとみられる。
 在韓米軍関係者などによると、在日米軍のなかで海兵隊は、朝鮮半島や台湾海峡、中東も含めたアジア太平洋を守備範囲に置く。朝鮮半島有事の際には、米海軍の強襲揚陸艦で、ヘリコプターと海兵隊員を現地に投入するとみられる。ヘリコプター基地の普天間飛行場が仮にグアムに移設されれば現地到着が2日程度遅くなり、作戦に大きな支障が出るという。
 北朝鮮が中距離弾道ミサイル「ノドン」(射程約1300キロ)を開発したのも、在日米軍による支援機能を阻止する目的がある。韓国政府関係者は普天間移設問題について、「我々は当事者ではないから何もできない。ただ、非常に強い関心を持って事態を見守っている」と語った。


---核密約文書:佐藤元首相の遺族が保管 日米首脳署名---
毎日新聞 2009年12月22日 21時11分(最終更新 12月23日 2時10分)
http://mainichi.jp/select/seiji/news/20091223k0000m010093000c.html

 沖縄返還(1972年)の交渉過程で、当時の佐藤栄作首相とニクソン米大統領が69年11月に署名した、沖縄への有事の際の核持ち込みを認める密約文書を、佐藤氏の遺族が保管していたことが22日、明らかになった。草案などで密約の内容はすでに分かっていたが、両首脳の署名がある実物の存在が明らかになったのは初めて。
 密約は69年11月にワシントンで行われた日米首脳会談の際、両首脳がひそかに署名した「合意議事録」。返還交渉で佐藤氏の密使を務めた若泉敬・元京都産業大教授(故人)が94年に著書でその草案の写真とともに明らかにした。今回の文書は文末にフルネームで署名があり、2通作成され、日米首脳がそれぞれ保管するとした本文の日本保管分とみられる。若泉氏は著書で「イニシャル署名する予定だったが、フルネームで署名したと佐藤首相から知らされた」と記述しており、符合する。
 この密約は現在、岡田克也外相が進めている密約調査でも対象になっており、調査では「外務省には保管されていない」という結論になっている。密約をめぐるやりとりは外務当局とは別に若泉氏の「密使」ルートで行われたため、外務省には保存されていないとみられる。しかし、両首脳の署名が残っており、米側は有効な公文書と見なしている可能性が高い。
 佐藤氏の次男の佐藤信二元通産相によると、元首相から引き継ぎなどはなく、75年の元首相の死去後に、元首相が使用していた書斎机を整理した際に見つかった。机は首相在任時に首相公邸で使っていて、その後、東京・代沢の自宅に運ばれたもので、元首相が文書を保管してそのままになっていたとみられる。
 佐藤元通産相によると、文書を発見した際に、密約が結ばれた69年当時駐米大使だった下田武三氏(故人)ら複数の外務省OBに「(外務省の)外交史料館で保管したい」と相談したが「公文書ではなく、私文書にあたる」と指摘されたという。佐藤元通産相は「資料として保管してほしいと思ったが、二元外交を否定しているのだと感じた」と話している。【中澤雄大】
【ことば】沖縄核持ち込み密約
 1969年11月にワシントンで行われた日米首脳会談時に、当時の佐藤栄作首相とニクソン米大統領が署名した。首脳会談では沖縄の「核抜き本土並み」の返還が合意されたが、同時に密約で有事の際の沖縄への核兵器の再持ち込みを認めた。密約では、米国が核兵器を持ち込む事前協議を日本政府に申し入れた場合、「(日本が)遅滞なく必要を満たす」と明記しており、核持ち込みの事前協議の意味を事実上空洞化する内容となっている。若泉敬・元京都産業大教授(故人)が94年に出版された著書「他策ナカリシヲ信ゼムト欲ス」で文書草案の写真と共に内容や経緯を明らかにした。]

---核密約文書、佐藤元首相邸に…初の存在確認---
2009年12月22日16時01分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/news/20091222-OYT1T00775.htm

 沖縄返還交渉を巡り、当時の佐藤栄作首相とニクソン米大統領の間で交わされたとされる有事の際の核持ち込みに関する「密約」文書を佐藤氏の遺族が保管していたことが22日、明らかになった。
 密約の存在を裏付ける決定的な証拠が発見されたことになる。
 外務省はこれまで文書の存在を否定してきた。日米間の密約の存否の検証を行っている外務省の有識者委員会の判断にも大きな影響を与えるのは必至だ。
 佐藤家で発見されたのは、ワシントンで行われた日米首脳会談で極秘に交わされた「合意議事録」の実物。読売新聞社が入手した「合意議事録」の写し(英文2枚)は、1969年11月19日付で、上下に「トップ・シークレット(極秘)」とある。文末には佐藤、ニクソン両首脳の署名がある。
 文書では、米側が「日本を含む極東諸国防衛のため、重大な緊急事態が生じた際は、日本と事前協議を行ったうえで、核兵器を沖縄に再び持ち込むこと、及び沖縄を通過する権利が認められることを必要とする。米国政府は好意的回答を期待する」とし、有事の際の沖縄への核持ち込みを両首脳が合意したことが記録されている。日本側は「そうした事前協議があれば、遅滞なくその要求に応える」と明記されている。また、「米国政府は重大な緊急事態に備え、沖縄に現存する核兵器の貯蔵地、すなわち嘉手納、那覇、辺野古、及びナイキ・ハーキュリーズ基地をいつでも使用できる状態に維持しておく必要がある」と記している。
 文書は2通作成され、1通は日本の首相官邸、もう1通は米国のホワイトハウスで保管するとしてある。佐藤氏は首相退陣後、自宅の書斎に私蔵していた。
 佐藤氏が75年に死去した際、東京・代沢の自宅にあった遺品を遺族が整理していたところ、書斎机の引き出しから見つかった。
 机は首相在任時、首相公邸に置かれ、退任後は、自宅に持ち運ばれた。関係者によると、元首相は生前、文書の存在について寛子夫人(故人)も含めて家族に漏らしたことはなかった。佐藤元首相の二男の佐藤信二元通産相は「(元首相は)外遊の際はアタッシェケースに書類を入れて持ち歩いていた。69年の訪米の際も、帰国してその文書をアタッシェケースから書斎机に移したのだと思う」と証言する。
 密約の存在は、返還交渉で密使を務めたとされる若泉敬・京都産業大教授(故人)が1994年に著書「他策ナカリシヲ信ゼムト欲ス」(文芸春秋刊)で暴露した。


---日米首脳「合意議事録」全文和訳---
2009年12月22日16時02分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/news/20091222-OYT1T00797.htm?from=main1

 極秘
 1969年11月21日発表のニクソン米大統領と日本の佐藤首相による共同声明に関する合意議事録
 米国大統領

 我々の共同声明にあるように、沖縄の施政権が実際に日本に返還されるまでに、沖縄からすべての核兵器を撤去するのが米国政府の意図である。それ以降は、共同声明で述べているように、日米安全保障条約、および関連する諸取り決めが沖縄に適用される。
 しかし、日本を含む極東諸国の防衛のため米国が負う国際的責任を効果的に遂行するため重大な緊急事態に際して米国政府は日本政府との事前協議の上、沖縄に核兵器を再び持ち込み、通過させる権利が必要となるだろう。米国政府は好意的な回答を期待する。米国政府はまた、現存の核兵器貯蔵地である沖縄の嘉手納、那覇、辺野古、ナイキ・ハーキュリーズ基地をいつでも使用できるよう維持し、重大な緊急事態の際に活用することが必要となる。

 極秘
 日本国首相
 日本政府は、大統領が上で述べた重大な緊急事態に際し、米国政府が必要とすることを理解し、そのような事前協議が行われた場合、遅滞なくこれらの必要を満たすだろう。大統領と首相は、この議事録を2通作成し、大統領と首相官邸にのみ保管し、米大統領と日本国首相との間でのみ、最大の注意を払って極秘に取り扱うべきものとすることで合意した。

 1969年11月19日

 ワシントンDCにて
 リチャード・ニクソン
 (直筆署名)
 エイサク・サトウ
 (直筆署名)

2009年12月22日火曜日

COP15 勢力対立

COP15で、勢力が対立した。
先進国対途上国と言う構図のようだ。

先進国:米国、EU
途上国:中国、インド、スーダン、ベネズエラ

米英仏共に中国が抵抗したため協議が進まなかったと言う。
次回メキシコで、中国は、先進国として扱い、本当の途上国と分離
すべきだろう。これができなければメキシコでは決裂となると思う。
温暖化データの偽造疑惑は、インパクトはあったが、「留意」には
負けてしまったようだ。
疑惑が偽造となれば、世界を巻き込んだ詐欺事件となる。
研究者が研究費を増額させるため、政府が税額を増加させるため、
新産業参入企業が利益を増額させるため、もっとも利益を増額させ
たいのは、化石燃料に左右されることを嫌う人達だろう。


Obama Praises Copenhagen Agreement The Associated Press


---先進国、途上国に合意案で大幅譲歩 COP15---
2009/12/21 20:40
http://www.nikkei.co.jp/kaigai/eu/20091219D1C1900619.html

 【コペンハーゲン=古谷茂久】2013年以降の温暖化対策の枠組みを協議する第15回国連気候変動枠組み条約締約国会議(COP15)は、決裂回避を優先して主要国による合意案をまとめた。発言力を強める中国が温暖化ガス排出削減の国際的な検証などに猛反発。米国が説得に努めたが、途上国は「自主検証」を軸にすることになった。先進国が大幅譲歩した色彩が濃いことは否めず、先進国と途上国の力関係の変化も印象づけた。
 「交渉をブロックしているのは中国だ」。18日午前、夜を徹して続く首脳級会合の合間に、記者団の前に姿を現したフランスのサルコジ大統領は厳しい表情で語った。


---【COP15】「最悪の混乱ショー」英閣僚、中国の抵抗を批判---
2009.12.21 01:36
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/europe/091221/erp0912210137001-n1.htm

 ミリバンド英エネルギー・気候変動相は、気候変動枠組み条約第15回締約国会議(COP15)が「世界最悪の大混乱ショー」となり「結果には失望させられた」と強調した。中国などが法的拘束力のある枠組みづくりに抵抗したことを最大の理由に挙げ、中国を名指しで批判した。英テレビに20日出演して述べた。
 ミリバンド氏は、いくつもの国が財政支出を伴う貢献を確約したことなどを評価する一方、「法的合意を望まない中国など少数の発展途上国の、とんでもない抵抗に直面した」と訴えた。
 中国に同調したインドや、協議を転覆させようとしたスーダン、ベネズエラの姿勢も非難した。(共同)


---Numbers put nail in COP15 coffin---
Science, finance tore talks apart
Monday, Dec. 21, 2009
By ERIC JOHNSTON
Staff writer
http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20091221a1.html

COPENHAGEN - In the end, the COP15 climate conference here was about numbers.

"We need numbers on the table. Specifically, we need developed nations to commit to short-term greenhouse-gas reductions between 2012 and 2020," Yvo de Boer, executive secretary of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change, said just before the 15th Conference of the Parties started Dec. 7.

"We also need short-term financing of climate mitigation in developing countries, and a commitment to long-term financing," he added.

The first set of numbers that formed the basis of the Copenhagen negotiations came from science - a Feb. 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warning global warming was unequivocal.

The IPCC report made it clear the safest way to prevent a climate catastrophe would be to take action quickly.

In addition, the IPCC said all nations would have to ensure that global emissions will peak by 2015 in order to keep the Earth's average temperature below 2 degrees C by century's end, although even with 2 degrees as the goal, parts of Africa could see more than a 3-degree rise and massive damage.

The report added that taking action to limit the average rise to 1.5 degrees was best to ensure rising sea levels won't force the evacuations of island states.

These numbers became the basis for negotiations later in 2007 at the U.N. conference in Bali, where parties agreed that emissions reductions for the post-Kyoto Protocol period of 2012 to 2020 would be signed at Copenhagen in 2009.

But many developed nations worried about the huge cost and supply instability problems of switching from fossil fuels to alternative energy sources, a step essential to reducing carbon dioxide concentrations.

At least $30 billion was needed in the short term, various U.N. commissioned studies concluded, while long-term adaption costs were more unpredictable. Figures suggested by the World Bank and private research firms ranged from $100 billion to $200 billion annually for the developing world by 2020.

Thus, negotiators went to Copenhagen with two different sets of numbers, scientific and financial. But well before COP15, the numbers were already causing controversy.

The United States, along with China, the world's largest emitter, angered developed and developing nations by first refusing to announce an emissions-reduction target and then, under President Barack Obama, discarding the recommendation of the IPCC report by suggesting it might be willing to reduce, but by only 17 percent compared with 2005 levels.

U.S. officials spent much time in Copenhagen attempting to convince the skeptical European Union nations, which had agreed to a 20 percent reduction from 1990 levels.

Island states, meanwhile, angry that U.N. negotiators came to Copenhagen talking about limiting the rise to 2 degrees rather than 1.5 as the IPCC report had recommended for their survival, protested during the first week, stopping the conference in the middle of proceedings.

Demonstrators chanted "1.5 to stay alive" as envoys attempted to deal with the issue.

The most taboo scientific number of the conference, however, was the 2015 peak year for emissions.

After de Boer briefly mentioning the importance of agreeing on this in the first couple of days, nobody wanted to deal with the daunting political task of forcing nations to meet a deadline only six years away.

"Science does not wait, and by next year's COP16 in Mexico, the further effects of climate change will be more visible and will hopefully push negotiators to come to agreements on those issues (they) didn't agree to here," de Boer said.

Or, as he indicated, maybe by then, the reality of what the numbers on global warming mean will convince negotiators they cannot afford another conference of the size and scale of Copenhagen that produces only more arguments on numbers rather than an agreement to do something about them.


---「重要な成果」と評価 中国、COP15で---
2009.12.20 23:46
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/china/091220/chn0912202347005-n1.htm

 中国外務省の秦剛副報道局長は20日、気候変動枠組み条約第15回締約国会議(COP15)について「気候変動に対応するため、国際的に協力する重要な契機だった。各国の努力で、会議は重要で積極的な成果を挙げた」と評価する談話を発表した。
 秦副局長は、同条約と京都議定書で確立した枠組みと原則がしっかりと維持されたと指摘。その上で「特に『共通だが差異ある責任』の原則が維持された」と述べ、途上国の自発的な削減目標に拘束力は課されないと、あらためて強調した。
 また「中国は国際社会とともに、人類が気候変動に対応する歴史的なプロセスを推進するために積極的に貢献したい」と述べた。(共同)


---気候問題、国連主導は限界 COP15決議で米紙---
2009.12.20 11:54
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/america/091220/amr0912201155005-n1.htm

 気候変動枠組み条約第15回締約国会議(COP15)で、米中など主要国が合意した「コペンハーゲン協定」が採択に至らず、協定に「留意する」との弱い内容の決議しか合意できなかったことについて、米紙ニューヨーク・タイムズ(電子版)は19日、国連主導での地球温暖化対策交渉は限界にきたとの内容の記事を掲載した。
 同紙は、参加者の多くが、協定は「温室効果ガスの中長期削減目標、拘束力のある条約の合意期限など不可欠と考える要素がない」として、非常に失望していると指摘。
 さらに、温暖化対策に対する先進国、新興国、発展途上国の利害が本質的に大きく異なるため、1992年から続いてきた国連主導の話し合いの枠組みは「機能しなくなった」との見方が強いとした。
 ウォールストリート・ジャーナル(電子版)も、米国が中国、インド、ブラジル、南アフリカとの間で合意にこぎつけた協定は「冷淡な承認」しか受けなかったと指摘。産業革命以来の気温上昇を2度以下に抑えるとの目標や、途上国向けの毎年1千億ドル(約9兆円)の支援について、具体的な方法が全く言及されていないとした。(共同)


---An Air of Frustration for Europe at Climate Talks---
By JAMES KANTER
Published: December 20, 2009
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/21/world/europe/21scene.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all

COPENHAGEN - By early Saturday morning, the atmosphere at the European Union pavilion at the Bella Center had turned funereal.

A group of ashen-faced European negotiators sipped beer from bottles in dim light as crews began dismantling food stalls, television monitors and giant displays of the Union’s blue and gold flags.

Not far away, Jose Manuel Barroso, the president of the European Commission, and Fredrik Reinfeldt, the prime minister of Sweden, which holds the bloc’s rotating presidency, were telling European leaders that to reach a strong global deal eventually, they would have to endorse the Copenhagen accord despite its shortcomings.

Brian Cowen, the Irish prime minister, had an air of grim resignation as he trudged out of that meeting shortly before 2 a.m.

“It’s less than what we wanted, but the process has to go on,” Mr. Cowen said.

And in what appeared to be a sharp reference to the wrangling between China, the United States and African countries that had blocked a more far-reaching accord, Mr. Cowen, as he headed for the exits, shouted: “Certainly it’s not Europe’s fault!”

Mr. Reinfeldt said President Barack Obama had been “very constructive” at the talks, creating a basis for the accord by smoothing over the dispute with China over an international monitoring system for emissions.

Still, the Swedish leader hinted that the Europeans had been caught badly off guard.

Mr. Reinfeldt said he had gotten his first signals that a deal had been struck while still engrossed in meetings.

“We had very tough negotiations two and a half hours after I read on my mobile telephone that we were already done,” he said.

If there was a rush by the Americans to announce the deal, he said, it appeared to have been because of bad weather in the United States.

“He was in a hurry home, he said, because they were closing the airport in Washington,” Mr. Reinfeldt said of Mr. Obama. “There was a snowstorm coming in.”

Ed Miliband, the British secretary of state for climate and energy, acknowledged Europeans’ disappointment in the talks’ result but said he was “absolutely not in the blame game.” Rather, he said, negotiating strategies needed to be examined.

Delaying discussion of the toughest issues until the final moments of the conference came close to dooming the chances of an accord, Mr. Miliband said. “My biggest frustration at this conference is not talking about substance, apart from the last day, frankly,” he said.

Mr. Miliband said the months of jockeying leading up to Copenhagen had resulted in some benefits.

“The process has been a nightmare, but the substance of the last year means you have ambitious targets from lots of countries,” he said.

He noted that Brazil, South Africa, India, China and Japan were among the nations that had proposed limits on their emissions before the talks.

“The success of this process has been the fact that it has concentrated minds and has made all the major players put numbers on the table,” Mr. Miliband said.

But he added: “I would have preferred a much more comprehensive agreement. I think going forward there are some difficult issues if emerging economies don’t want to be part of a legal treaty - which they obviously don’t - about what is the framework in which you operate. We do want a legal treaty, and we will be campaigning for it, but I think there are some difficult issues there.”

Jo Leinen, a German member of the European Parliament who led the chamber’s delegation, said Saturday that the talks “demonstrated the highly unsatisfactory and inefficient method of U.N. conferences” and that “deep reform of the decision-making in the framework of the United Nations” was “an urgent necessity.”

For European industry - which has long complained that policy makers in Brussels, by passing binding limits on emissions, have been moving too far ahead of the rest of the industrialized world - the result in Copenhagen could scarcely have been worse, according to one of its top representatives.

“Our major economic partners only repeated their limited mitigation commitments,” said Philippe de Buck, the director general of BusinessEurope, a powerful lobby group representing European industry.

“Therefore the Copenhagen accord has not brightened the prospect for a global level-playing field in the future,” said Mr. de Buck, adding that “we strongly regret” that result.

He suggested that industries based in Europe would increasingly move their operations to less regulated parts of the world.

Representatives of the renewable energy industry were also bitterly disappointed at what they considered Europe’s marginalization at the talks.

“The E.U.’s strategy of leading by example failed and left them without influence,” said Christian Kjaer, chief executive of the European Wind Energy Association.

China and the United States “managed to get India, Brazil and South Africa on board” before departing Friday, “leaving it to the remaining 188 countries to work through to Saturday morning on accepting or rejecting the empty accord without changes,” Mr. Kjaer said.

Apisai Ielemia, the prime minister of Tuvalu, a small island state that could disappear under water if sea levels rise dramatically, said he was “gravely concerned” with the way the conference had gone.

Mr. Ielemia said the decision came down to “backroom deals by a select few.”

Tuvalu had pushed strongly for a global agreement that would ensure temperatures would peak at 1.5 degrees Celsius, or 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit, above average pre-industrial temperatures.

Instead, in the accord in Copenhagen, there was a reference to limit temperatures to a peak of 2 degrees Celsius and no specific timetable to achieve this.

In the past, Pacific islands like Tuvalu have worked in tandem with their larger neighbors Australia and New Zealand at United Nations conferences. But they appeared to be sharply at odds in Copenhagen.

In an apparent reference to noisy campaigns led by some nations at the front lines of climate change during the two-week conference, Tim Groser, the New Zealand minister of trade, criticized the “extremist negotiating culture” of some delegates.

Yasmine Ryan contributed reporting.


---A great step forward: Obama's verdict on climate change pact--
President's intervention was failure, say critics
Ed Pilkington in New York
guardian.co.uk, Sunday 20 December 2009 20.49 GMT
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/20/copenhagen-summit-pact-obama-verdict

Barack Obama returned to a snowbound Washington at the weekend clutching a deal that was cast as a step forward by his administration but decried as a waste of paper by critics on both sides of the climate change debate.

At the end of another of his interventions on the world stage that are becoming a hallmark of his presidency, Obama said the Copenhagen talks amounted to an "important breakthrough" and they had laid the foundation for international action "in the years to come".

But he also accepted it was a partial victory, saying the pact was "not enough", the road ahead would be hard and there was a long way still to go.

David Axelrod, his chief adviser, took to the airwaves this morning to defend the outcome of the 31-hour negotiations in similar vein: it was not perfect but it was a start. "Nobody says that this is the end of the road," Axelrod told CNN. "The end of the road would have been the complete collapse of those talks. This is a great step forward."

Politico, a Washington-based political news website, said the agreement was "more notable for what it doesn't accomplish than what it does, an inconvenient truth Obama ruefully acknowledged".

The last time Obama imposed himself into a gathering of world leaders in Copenhagen in October, when he lent his weight to Chicago's bid for the 2016 Olympics, it ended in humiliation. This time the outcome was not so ignominious, and the administration could and did claim credit for some, albeit non-binding, results.

Critics were quick to disparage Obama's achievement as a meaningless compromise. Friends of the Earth US dismissed the agreement as a sham. "This is not a strong deal or a just one - it isn't even a real one," said the group's president Erich Pica. He blamed the US for the absence of concrete results saying it was the main polluter behind the climate crisis yet it had failed to put enough money on the table to help poor countries cope with its consequences.

On the other side of the debate, Club for Growth, a campaign for small government and low taxes, hailed the agreement as an ironic triumph. Its head, Chris Chocola, said a binding deal would have destroyed 30 million American jobs, but he was relieved when Obama described it as a meaningful pact. "When politicians call something 'meaningful', that means it isn't," Chocola said.

The question for the White House now is how the Copenhagen agreement will affect its ambitions to present Congress with a wide ranging energy bill that would enshrine a cap-and-trade system for reducing emissions through bartering. Opponents of cap-and-trade, such as the Club for Growth, are likely to be emboldened in their efforts to frustrate the administration, pointing to the absence of a firm commitment internationally to set emissions reduction targets. Against that, the White House will argue there is enough of a global mandate to merit pressing ahead with its legislative plans.

The New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman said it was time for America to move quickly to develop a unilateral strategy in which the Senate would pass an energy bill setting a long-term price on carbon "that will really stimulate America to become the world leader in clean-tech. If we lead by example, more people will follow us by emulation than by compulsion of some UN treaty."

In an editorial, the Washington Post saw grounds for limited optimism that the Senate would act. It said that the Copenhagen agreement was weak and inadequate, but "this outcome, however imperfect, should prod the US Senate to take up climate-change legislation. Even if China hadn't moved, reducing America's dependence on foreign sources of energy and tacking domestic pollution are strong enough reasons to pass a bill."

The Post also noted that Copenhagen had given a glimpse of a new world order in which the US and China would increasingly shape international diplomacy. This so-called G2 of the world's two biggest emitters of greenhouse gases had the fate of any climate change treaty in its hands.


---COP15「決裂回避」を与党評価---
2009年12月19日12時29分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/eco/news/20091219-OYT1T00399.htm

 国連気候変動枠組み条約第15回締約国会議(COP15)で、主要国が政治合意したことについて、民主党の輿石東参院議員会長は19日午前、「決裂しなかったことは評価できる。早くから議論を主導した鳩山首相やオバマ米大統領のリーダーシップが大きい。政府として今後も積極的に取り組んでもらいたい」と述べた。
 社民党党首の福島消費者相は同日朝のTBS番組で、「地球温暖化防止で、これだけの世界のトップリーダーが集まって議論することは歴史的意味がある」と強調した。
 首相は就任直後の9月、温室効果ガス対策について「2020年までに1990年比で25%減」という高い目標を掲げた。それだけに、民主党内からは「会議が決裂していれば、首相の手腕が問われかねなかった。今後に課題が残るとはいえ、政権運営にも弾みになる」(幹部)との声も出ている。
 一方、公明党の斉藤政調会長(前環境相)は19日午前、「米国や中国が入らない可能性を残す合意に至ったのは、本当に遺憾の極みだ。枠組み作りは失敗したと言わざるを得ない」と指摘した。自民党の鴨下一郎政調会長代理(元環境相)は「現政権が示した25%の削減目標が評価されなかったということだろう。仕切り直しとなる会議の京都開催を引き受けるなど、日本としてのイニシアチブを示すべきだ」と注文をつけた。

2009年12月21日月曜日

AR447事故 ピトー管変更勧告

A330、A340は8月にピトー管変更勧告を受けたようだ。
 A330-200が6月に大西洋上に墜落した事故で、フランスの事故調査
委員会に当たる調査分析事務所は、2度目の報告書を公表し、航空機の
速度計測装置(ピトー管)の耐空証明基準の改善を図るよう勧告した。

装備された仏タレス社製のピトー管が、内部で結氷したため、測定不能
になり、自動操縦装置が機能しなくなり、墜落の一因とみられていた。
海外報道では、EASAは、8月にピトー管をタレスからグッドリッチに
変更するように勧告している。
11月末に発生したA330のインシデントは、ピトー管を交換していな
かったのだろうか。
整備会社は自費で交換するしかないが、交換したのだろうか。


---速度計の耐空基準改善勧告 仏機墜落で事故調---
2009年12月18日 00時29分
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/s/article/2009121701001030.html

 【パリ共同】リオデジャネイロ発パリ行きエールフランスのエアバスA330―200が6月に大西洋上に墜落した事故で、フランスの事故調査委員会に当たる調査分析事務所は17日、2度目の報告書を公表し、航空機の速度計測装置(ピトー管)の耐空証明基準の改善を図るよう勧告した。
 事故原因を断定するには至っていないが、ピトー管の不具合が事故に密接に関係していたことを事実上認める報告で、同事務所は欧州航空安全局に適切な耐空証明基準を設けるための調査・研究を依頼した。
 ピトー管は進行方向に向いた管に入る空気の圧力で速度を計測する仕組みだが、事故機などが装備する仏タレス社製のピトー管では、内部で結氷し測定不能に陥る問題が起きていた。この場合、自動操縦装置が機能しなくなり、これが暴風圏を飛行中だった事故機の墜落の一因とみられた。
 報告書は「ピトー管の安全性テストで、特に高高度を飛行中に問題がみられた」と指摘。「高高度で分厚い雲の中を進む場合にも十分な耐空証明基準を設けるべきだ」としている。


---Report into Flight 447 crash shows passengers had not been told of emergency---
December 18, 2009
Charles Bremner in Paris
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/europe/article6960721.ece

Death came without warning for the 216 passengers aboard the Air France Airbus that crashed into the Atlantic off Brazil last June, according to the investigators’ account published yesterday.

The latest report on Flight 447, a landmark disaster for aviation, said that no cause could yet be attributed but it confirmed that faulty speed sensors were partly to blame and once again implied possible errors by the crew.

Study of debris and 51 salvaged bodies showed that passengers had not been told of an emergency as Flight 447, with 228 aboard, hurtled towards the ocean while the pilots fought to regain control.

The cabin crew were not in their seats, no oxygen masks had deployed and life jackets were still in their wrappers. The aircraft did not lose cabin pressure, as previously thought, and it was not configured for ditching when it smashed belly-down into the water, said the report from the BEA (Bureau of Investigation and Analysis). This made clear that the crew had not prepared passengers for an emergency, pilots said.

Adding new detail to previous findings, the investigators said that 43 of the 51 bodies, which were from all parts of the cabin, showed severe fractures to spinal columns, pelvises and chests. These injuries reflected the upward shock to seated passengers of an aircraft hitting the water belly first, it said.

The investigators touched on an assumption that the two co-pilots may have been flying the aircraft rather than the veteran captain. “The captain may have been taking a rest or may have been at the controls, something that the investigation has not yet been able to determine,” they said. Long-haul captains usually rest for a period during the night-time cruise. The captain’s body was the only one of the three to have been recovered, which suggested that he was not on the flight deck, experts said.

The BEA, which is under fire from victims’ families for the slow pace of its work, said that no cause could be assigned without the “black box” flight recorders. A new deep-sea search is to start in the new year in the area where the regular Rio-Paris flight fell out of the sky.

The report partly blamed the speed sensors, known as Pitot tubes. Automatic data messages from the stricken aircraft showed within hours of the June 1 crash that the airliner had lost Pitot data while flying in a storm. This in turn led to a loss of automated flight controls. “It was an inconsistency in the measurements that initiated the disconnection of the various control systems: autopilot, autothrust and flight director,” the BEA said.

The consensus among Air France pilots and aviation experts is that the technology failure led to the airliner entering a high-altitude aerodynamic stall from which the crew were unable to recover.

The BEA recommended international measures to raise standards for speed data systems at high altitude. Also, not enough is known about the weather at high cruising levels, it said. It also called for better flight data recorders and new links to report parameters in “real time” by satellite.

The investigators angered the unions by implying again that the pilots of the A330 Airbus may have failed to follow standard procedures for retaining control of an aircraft with a faulty flight system. The agency studied 32 incidents of pitot failure since 2003 and noted that the crew in each of them had kept control by following Airbus methods. It also said that the three pilots on AF 447 had just completed refresher training in handling speed anomalies and that there had been no failure in the attitude instruments - modern artificial horizons - which are vital to piloting airliners.

Air France’s main union said that the BEA was seeking to help Airbus and the airline by shifting blame to dead pilots rather than questioning the systems of the highly automated airliner. “The only established fact in this investigation is the false speed data,” said Eric Derivry, an Air France captain and official with the National Airline Pilots’ Union (SNPL). “We are not saying that pilots never make mistakes, but the BEA is pointing the finger to create the impression that the pilots were not up to handling the plane,” he told The Times.

Gerard Arnoux, head of the Union of Air France Pilots (SPAF), told The Times that the pilots do not understand why the investigators are reluctant to conclude that the aircraft was in a deep aerodynamic stall "which it was obviously in". The Bureau was trying to implicate the pilots without any evidence, he said. "There is nothing to justify saying that our colleagues did not behave correctly." It suits everyone to point the finger at them.

He also questioned why the investigators had not highlighted the lack of reliable weather information on the flight decks of modern airliners. With satellite pictures that are freely available, the crew would never have become entangled in severe weather, he said.


---Air France crash report set for release---
December 17, 2009 -- Updated 0642 GMT (1442 HKT)
http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/europe/12/16/airfrance.report/

(CNN) -- Investigators probing the June crash of an Air France flight off Brazil will release their second interim report Thursday with a press briefing, officials said.

France's Investigation and Analysis Bureau will hold the briefing Thursday afternoon, the bureau said in a statement.

Flight 447 -- an Airbus A330 -- went down in stormy weather in the Atlantic Ocean on June 1 while flying from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Charles de Gaulle Airport in Paris, France. All 228 people on board were killed.

Large parts of the plane, including both flight data recorders, have never been found, despite an extensive search operation that included a French navy submarine.

Investigators said earlier this week they were planning to resume the search for the data recorders, according to Agence France-Presse. Jean-Paul Troadec, director of the investigation bureau, told reporters that the new search, about 1,000 kilometers (600 miles) off Brazil's northeast coast, will begin in February. The new underwater sweeps will last a maximum three months and involve sonar and robot submarines, he said.

Troadec was in Rio de Janeiro to speak to the relatives of the 58 Brazilians who were on board, AFP reported Sunday. "We tried to convince the families that we are conducting the investigation with the full intention of getting to the truth," he said.

The upcoming report contained "no surprises" but did set out "new details, notably in terms of safety recommendations," he said.

Tests have already brought into question the performance of pitot tubes, which are used to measure the pressure exerted on the plane as it flies through the air, and are part of a system used to determine air speed.

Before it crashed, Flight 447 sent out 24 automated error messages that suggested the plane may have been flying too fast or too slow through the thunderstorms, officials have said.

The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) issued a directive in late August requiring airlines to replace pitot tubes manufactured by Thales Avionics on Airbus A330s and A340s. It said airlines should replace them with other Thales tubes and those manufactured by Goodrich.