2010年1月23日土曜日

米国 核兵器は抑止力か

核兵器を抑止力とする主張があった。
 キッシンジャー、シュルツ、ペリー、ナンは、米国の保有する核兵器数
が減少している現在、核戦力の保守や安全管理に予算を振り向けて信頼性
を保ち、十分な抑止力を保つことが肝要と訴えた。

4人は過去に核廃絶を提唱した。
「核兵器・物資や知識の拡散が加速している」と情報共有も呼び掛けた。

オバマの主張する「核なき世界」のため、核兵器を維持する予算を削減
すれば、科学者の削減となり、最終的には核兵器は放置となると言う論法
のようだ。事業仕分けの「スーパーコンピュータ予算」と同じに見える。

情報の明暗
・テキサスの核兵器製造工場付近で、銃所有者二名が迷彩服を着用し。
 身を隠しながら、工場に接近し、工場が一時閉鎖した報道があった。
 結果は、カモ狩猟者の情報が確認でき、工場は再開された。

・昨年のクリスマスには、航空機テロ未遂があり、情報が未整理でテロ
 阻止が、できなかった事件があった。

核兵器が抑止力となる条件はいくつかある。
核兵器保有国は、核兵器未保有国にとって抑止力となる。
親米国が管理する核兵器保有国は、米国が抑止力となる。
親米国が管理しない核兵器保有国は、米国にとって抑止力となる。
核兵器使用者(実験)による被害者が、核兵器使用者にとって抑止力となる。
しかし、核兵器未保有国でも、被害を知らない者は、抑止力とはならない。
他にもあるかもしれない。

オバマの広島・長崎訪問となれば、米軍関係者の多くの人は、「大東亜
戦争での原爆投下は、正しい選択ではない」と認めることになる。
米国民の不満である社会主義、不景気(高失業率)、増税(国民皆保険)に
加え、軍士気低下が加わる。
オバマにとって、
「変革は私達の順番だ」
「そう、みんなができる」
と言う言葉が身にしみることになるかもしれない。


オバマ大統領 広島訪問したい


Part 1: Scott Brown (R) Gives Victory Speech In Massachusetts Senate Race - 01/19/10


Part 2: Scott Brown (R) Gives Victory Speech In Massachusetts Senate Race - 01/19/10


Part 3: Scott Brown (R) Gives Victory Speech In Massachusetts Senate Race - 01/19/10


オバマの戦争論

---「広島に行ってみたい」とオバマ大統領 秋葉市長らと面会---
2010.1.22 09:47
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/america/100122/amr1001220950007-n1.htm

 【ワシントン=犬塚陽介】オバマ米大統領は21日、訪米中の秋葉忠利広島市長ら全米市長会議の参加者とホワイトハウスで面会した。秋葉市長が広島訪問を要請するとオバマ大統領は「行きたいと思う」と返答した。秋葉市長が明らかにした。ただ、具体的な時期などについての言及はなかったという。
 核兵器の廃絶を訴えるオバマ大統領は、広島、長崎の被爆地訪問に当初から強い関心を示しており、昨年11月の初訪日の際にも訪問案が浮上。最終的に実現は見送られたが、オバマ大統領は「広島と長崎を将来訪れることができたら非常に名誉なこと。私には非常に意味があることだ」と日米首脳会談後の会見で語っていた。
 だが、米国内には「原爆投下は戦争終結のためやむを得なかった」との声も根強く、大統領の被爆地訪問は退役軍人などからの激しい反発も予想される。このため、秋葉市長はオバマ大統領に「来るときには皆の祝福を受けられる環境を整えたい」と述べ、広島市としても関係機関との協議を積極的に進めていく意向を伝えた。


---核抑止力保持へ管理の徹底を 米国の元国務長官ら4人が訴え---
2010.1.21 13:00
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/america/100121/amr1001211300009-n1.htm

 米国のキッシンジャー、シュルツ両元国務長官、ペリー元国防長官、ナン元上院議員は20日、米国の保有する核兵器数が減少している現在、核戦力の保守や安全管理に予算を振り向けて信頼性を保ち、十分な抑止力を保つことが肝要と訴えた。同日付のウォールストリート・ジャーナル紙に寄稿した。
 4人は2007年に核廃絶を提唱したことでも知られるが、他国が核保有を続ける限り米国は「抑止力を保持することが必要」と主張。一方で「核兵器・物資や知識の拡散が加速している」として、核保有国と安全管理策などについての情報共有も呼び掛けた。
 バイデン副大統領は寄稿を受けて同日発表した声明で「米国が現在直面している最大の脅威は、核兵器が(現在保有していない)国家やテロリストに渡ることだ」と言及した。(共同)


---「核なき世界、人々の意志がつくる」 広島市長が米首都で訴え---
2010.1.21 11:04
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/america/100121/amr1001211105004-n1.htm

 訪米中の秋葉忠利・広島市長は20日午後(日本時間21日午前)、首都ワシントンのホテルで開かれた全米市長会議のレセプションであいさつし、同日面会したミシェル・オバマ米大統領夫人の言葉を引き合いに「オバマ大統領が提唱した『核なき世界』に向けて決定的に重要なのは人々の意志だ」と訴えた。
 秋葉氏は集まった全米の市長らに対し、世界約3500の都市で構成する平和市長会議(会長・秋葉氏)に参加し、2020年までに核廃絶を実現する「意志」を示すことを要請。「今年5月の核拡散防止条約(NPT)再検討会議に向けて5千都市、つまり10億人の市民の参加を目指している。皆さんが核なき世界をつくる指導者になってほしい」と強調した。
 秋葉氏は21日に全米市長会メンバーとともにホワイトハウスでオバマ大統領と面会する予定。(共同)


---How to Protect Our Nuclear Deterrent---
JANUARY 19, 2010, 7:09 P.M. ET
By GEORGE P. SHULTZ, WILLIAM J. PERRY, HENRY A. KISSINGER, AND SAM NUNN
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704152804574628344282735008.html

Maintaining confidence in our nuclear arsenal is necessary as the number of weapons goes down.

The four of us have come together, now joined by many others, to support a global effort to reduce reliance on nuclear weapons, to prevent their spread into potentially dangerous hands, and ultimately to end them as a threat to the world. We do so in recognition of a clear and threatening development.

The accelerating spread of nuclear weapons, nuclear know-how, and nuclear material has brought us to a tipping point. We face a very real possibility that the deadliest weapons ever invented could fall into dangerous hands.

But as we work to reduce nuclear weaponry and to realize the vision of a world without nuclear weapons, we recognize the necessity to maintain the safety, security and reliability of our own weapons. They need to be safe so they do not detonate unintentionally; secure so they cannot be used by an unauthorized party; and reliable so they can continue to provide the deterrent we need so long as other countries have these weapons. This is a solemn responsibility, given the extreme consequences of potential failure on any one of these counts.

For the past 15 years these tasks have been successfully performed by the engineers and scientists at the nation's nuclear-weapons production plants and at the three national laboratories (Lawrence Livermore in California, Los Alamos in New Mexico, and Sandia in New Mexico and California). Teams of gifted people, using increasingly powerful and sophisticated equipment, have produced methods of certifying that the stockpile meets the required high standards. The work of these scientists has enabled the secretary of defense and the secretary of energy to certify the safety, security and the reliability of the U.S. nuclear stockpile every year since the certification program was initiated in 1995.

The three labs in particular should be applauded for the success they have achieved in extending the life of existing weapons. Their work has led to important advances in the scientific understanding of nuclear explosions and obviated the need for underground nuclear explosive tests.

Yet there are potential problems ahead, as identified by the Strategic Posture Commission led by former Defense Secretaries Perry and James R. Schlesinger. This commission, which submitted its report to Congress last year, calls for significant investments in a repaired and modernized nuclear weapons infrastructure and added resources for the three national laboratories.

These investments are urgently needed to undo the adverse consequences of deep reductions over the past five years in the laboratories' budgets for the science, technology and engineering programs that support and underwrite the nation's nuclear deterrent. The United States must continue to attract, develop and retain the outstanding scientists, engineers, designers and technicians we will need to maintain our nuclear arsenal, whatever its size, for as long as the nation's security requires it.

This scientific capability is equally important to the long-term goal of achieving and maintaining a world free of nuclear weapons-with all the attendant expertise on verification, detection, prevention and enforcement that is required.

Our recommendations for maintaining a safe, secure and reliable nuclear arsenal are consistent with the findings of a recently completed technical study commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration in the Department of Energy. This study was performed by JASON, an independent defense advisory group of senior scientists who had full access to the pertinent classified information.

The JASON study found that the "[l]ifetimes of today's nuclear warheads could be extended for decades, with no anticipated loss in confidence, by using approaches similar to those employed in Life Extension Programs to date." But the JASON scientists also expressed concern that "[a]ll options for extending the life of the nuclear weapons stockpile rely on the continuing maintenance and renewal of expertise and capabilities in science, technology, engineering, and production unique to the nuclear weapons program." The study team said it was "concerned that this expertise is threatened by lack of program stability, perceived lack of mission importance, and degradation of the work environment."

These concerns can and must be addressed by providing adequate and stable funding for the program. Maintaining high confidence in our nuclear arsenal is critical as the number of these weapons goes down. It is also consistent with and necessary for U.S. leadership in nonproliferation, risk reduction, and arms reduction goals.

By providing for the long-term investments required, we also strengthen trust and confidence in our technical capabilities to take the essential steps needed to reduce nuclear dangers throughout the globe. These steps include preventing proliferation and preventing nuclear weapons or weapons-usable material from getting into dangerous hands.

If we are to succeed in avoiding these dangers, increased international cooperation is vital. As we work to build this cooperation, our friends and allies, as well as our adversaries, will take note of our own actions in the nuclear arena. Providing for this nation's defense will always take precedence over all other priorities.

Departures from our existing stewardship strategies should be taken when they are essential to maintain a safe, secure and effective deterrent. But as our colleague Bill Perry noted in his preface to America's Strategic Posture report, we must "move in two parallel paths-one path which reduces nuclear dangers by maintaining our deterrence, and the other which reduces nuclear dangers through arms control and international programs to prevent proliferation." Given today's threats of nuclear proliferation and nuclear terrorism, these are not mutually exclusive imperatives. To protect our nation's security, we must succeed in both.

Beyond our concern about our own stockpile, we have a deep security interest in ensuring that all nuclear weapons everywhere are resistant to accidental detonation and to detonation by terrorists or other unauthorized users. We should seek a dialogue with other states that possess nuclear weapons and share our safety and security concepts and technologies consistent with our own national security.

Mr. Shultz was secretary of state from 1982 to 1989. Mr. Perry was secretary of defense from 1994 to 1997. Mr. Kissinger was secretary of state from 1973 to 1977. Mr. Nunn is former chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee.


---米唯一の核兵器製造・解体施設が一時閉鎖と、治安問題の発生で---
2010.01.16 Web posted at: 14:03 JST Updated - CNN
http://www.cnn.co.jp/usa/CNN201001160006.html

(CNN) 米テキサス州南部のカーソン郡にある核兵器製造や解体を行うパンテックス施設が15日午前、治安対策上の問題が起きたとして一時閉鎖される騒ぎがあった。同施設は声明を出したが、発生したとする問題の内容には触れていない。

核安全保障局(NNSA)によると、職員の報告を受けての施設閉鎖で、職員は一時、退避施設に入ったという。

施設の敷地内に銃を持ったハンターが侵入したため閉鎖されたとの情報がある。2人を調べたところ危険を与える事態にはならないことが確認されたという。、

同施設はアマリロから北東へ約27キロ離れた地点にあり、米国では唯一、核兵器製造、解体に当たっている。エネルギー省、NNSAとの契約でB&W Pantex社が運営しているという。

---Duck Hunters Cause Alarm at Nuclear Weapons Facility---
Wednesday, Jan. 20, 2010
http://www.globalsecuritynewswire.org/gsn/nw_20100119_8267.php

A nuclear weapons facility in Texas was temporarily under heightened security Friday after two duck hunters were seen in the area, Reuters reported (see GSN, Jan. 14).

Supervised by the U.S. Energy Department, the Pantex Plant is the sole U.S. facility for assembly and disassembly of nuclear weapons.

A state official said the lockdown was merely a safety measure and that the weapon-wielding hunters posed no threat to any arms at the plant.

"There was not a threat to the Pantex plant assets, workers, or the public, and the plant is now returning to normal operations," the company stated.

The incident occurred when two hunters were seen in camouflage clothing near the facility, said Carson County Sheriff Tam Terry. They were arranging duck decoys and constructing a blind when law officials arrived on the scene, according to Terry.

"They were very cooperative and compliant," Terry said. "We identified them. We checked their criminal history" (Chris Baltimore, Reuters, Jan. 15).


---Hunters cause scare at nuclear bomb plant---
Associated Press
Jan. 15, 2010, 1:03PM
http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/metropolitan/6817730.html

AMARILLO - Two goose hunters caused a security lockdown at the nation's only nuclear weapons assembly and disassembly plant near Amarillo.

Carson County Sheriff Tam Terry says two hunters were spotted today about two miles south of the Pantex site by some employees as they headed to work.

The employees reported the hunters to plant officials, who then called Terry's office and asked for an investigation.

Terry says the hunters turned out to be Department of Energy employees assigned to the plant. Both were found to be hunting legally in an area not on plant property.

Pantex, in a news release late this morning, said the security issue at the plant had been resolved. An earlier statement said the plant was responding to concerns reported by Pantex employees.


---Texas: Goose Hunters Shut Nuclear Plant---
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
Published: January 15, 2010
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/16/us/16brfs-GOOSEHUNTERS_BRF.html

Two goose hunters inadvertently caused a security lockdown at the nation’s only nuclear weapons assembly and disassembly plant. Employees on their way to work at the plant saw two people in camouflage carrying rifles about two miles south of the Pantex plant near Amarillo and notified plant officials, who then closed the plant for a couple of hours. The hunters turned out to be Department of Energy employees assigned to the plant. They were hunting legally and were not on plant property.

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