2010年4月12日月曜日

東京圏 人口集中

東京圏に人口が集中し世界的巨大都市になったようだ。
国連がこのほど発表した報告書によると、人口千万人を超える巨大都市の
住民は現在、世界の都市人口の9.4%以上を占め、2025年には10.3%に達する
ことが予想される。

世界都市化展望2009年修正報告が見つからなかったので、同種の資料
State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009で確認。
人口1000万人以上の巨大都市
2007年
  Population(Thousands)
01 Tokyo 35676
02 MexicoCity 19028
03 NewYork-Newark 19040
04 SaoPaulo 18845
05 Mumbai 18978
06 Delhi 15926
07 Shanghai 14987
08 Kolkata 14787
09 BuenosAires 12795
10 Dhaka 13485
11 LosAngeles-LongBeach-SantaAna 12500
12 Karachi 12130
13 RiodeJaneiro 11748
14 Osaka-Kobe 11294
15 Cairo 11893
16 Beijing 11106
17 Manila 11100
18 Moscow 10452
19 Istanbul 10061

2025年
  Population(Thousands)
01 Tokyo 36400
02 Mumbai 26385
03 Delhi 22498
04 Dhaka 22015
05 SaoPaulo 21428
06 MexicoCity 21009
07 NewYork-Newark 20628
08 Kolkata 20560
09 Shanghai 19412
10 Karachi 19095
11 Kinshasa 16762
12 Lagos 15796
13 Cairo 15561
14 Manila 14808
15 Beijing 14545
16 BuenosAires 13768
17 LosAngeles-LongBeach-SantaAna 13672
18 RiodeJaneiro 13413
19 Jakarta 12363
20 Istanbul 12102
21 Guangzhou,Guangdong 11835
22 Osaka-Kobe 11368
23 Moscow 10526
24 Lahore 10512
25 Shenzhen 10196
26 Chennai 10129

上海、北京、ムンバイ、デリーは、人口が多い国だが、それでも東京に
比べると都市人口は少ない。
日本では東京の次は神戸のようだ。


---世界の人口、巨大都市に集中の傾向 最大は東京圏---
2010.04.09 Web posted at: 18:08 JST Updated - CNN
http://www.cnn.co.jp/world/AIC201004090016.html

(CNN) 国連がこのほど発表した報告書によると、人口1000万人を超える巨大都市の住民は現在、世界の都市人口の9.4%以上を占め、2025年には10.3%に達することが予想される。巨大都市の人口では、東京圏が世界首位に立っている。

国連経済社会局が3月末に発表した「世界都市化展望2009年修正報告」によると、世界には同年現在、人口1000万人以上の巨大都市が21カ所あり、この数は2025年までに29カ所に増える見通しだ。

巨大都市のうち、東京圏の人口は横浜、千葉などの周辺部を含め3650万人で、世界2位のインド・デリーを大幅に引き離している。これは国別人口のランクに当てはめると、アルジェリアやカナダ、ウガンダをしのぐ数字だ。

中国経済の中心地、上海は面積2914平方キロメートルと、世界で最も広い都市圏を形成している。

巨大都市の規模は今後さらに大きくなるとみられる。デリーの人口が現在の2099万人から、2025年には2949万人に増えるとの推計もある。

国連によると、巨大都市には資産や雇用が集まるだけでなく、文化的なメリットもある。また、米国人口の2.7%が集中するニューヨークが、二酸化炭素排出量では全米の1%にとどまるなど、省エネ効果も指摘される。

一方で、インフルエンザなどのウイルス感染が広がりやすく、貧困やストレスによる精神的トラブルが多いなど、保健衛生上の問題も報告されている。


---UN report: World's biggest cities merging into 'mega-regions'---
John Vidal, environment editor
guardian.co.uk, Monday 22 March 2010 17.50 GMT
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/mar/22/un-cities-mega-regions

Trend towards 'endless cities' could significantly affect population and wealth in the next 50 years

The world's mega-cities are merging to form vast "mega-regions" which may stretch hundreds of kilometres across countries and be home to more than 100 million people, according to a major new UN report.

The phenomenon of the so-called "endless city" could be one of the most significant developments - and problems - in the way people live and economies grow in the next 50 years, says UN-Habitat, the agency for human settlements, which identifies the trend of developing mega-regions in its biannual State of World Cities report.

The largest of these, says the report - launched today at the World Urban Forum in Rio de Janeiro - is the Hong Kong-Shenhzen-Guangzhou region in China, home to about 120 million people. Other mega-regions have formed in Japan and Brazil and are developing in India, west Africa and elsewhere.

The trend helped the world pass a tipping point in the last year, with more than half the world's people now living in cities.

The UN said that urbanisation is now "unstoppable". Anna Tibaijuka, outgoing director of UN-Habitat, said: "Just over half the world now lives in cities but by 2050, over 70% of the world will be urban dwellers. By then, only 14% of people in rich countries will live outside cities, and 33% in poor countries."

The development of mega-regions is regarded as generally positive, said the report's co-author Eduardo Lopez Moreno: "They [mega-regions], rather than countries, are now driving wealth."

"Research shows that the world's largest 40 mega-regions cover only a tiny fraction of the habitable surface of our planet and are home to fewer than 18% of the world's population [but] account for 66% of all economic activity and about 85% of technological and scientific innovation," said Moreno.

"The top 25 cities in the world account for more than half of the world's wealth," he added. "And the five largest cities in India and China now account for 50% of those countries' wealth."

The migration to cities, while making economic sense, is affecting the rural economy too: "Most of the wealth in rural areas already comes from people in urban areas sending money back," Moreno said.

The growth of mega-regions and cities is also leading to unprecedented urban sprawl, new slums, unbalanced development and income inequalities as more and more people move to satellite or dormitory cities.

"Cities like Los Angeles grew 45% in numbers between 1975-1990, but tripled their surface area in the same time. This sprawl is now increasingly happening in developing countries as real estate developers promote the image of a 'world-class lifestyle' outside the traditional city," say the authors.

Urban sprawl, they say, is the symptom of a divided, dysfunctional city. "It is not only wasteful, it adds to transport costs, increases energy consumption, requires more resources, and causes the loss of prime farmland."

"The more unequal that cities become, the higher the risk that economic disparities will result in social and political tension. The likelihood of urban unrest in unequal cities is high. The cities that are prospering the most are generally those that are reducing inequalities," said Moreno.

In a sample survey of world cities, the UN found the most unequal were in South Africa. Johannesburg was the least equal in the world, only marginally ahead of East London, Bloemfontein, and Pretoria.

Latin American, Asian and African cities were generally more equal, but mainly because they were uniformly poor, with a high level of slums and little sanitation. Some of the most the most egalitarian cities were found to be Dhaka and Chittagong in Bangladesh.

The US emerged as one of the most unequal societies with cities like New York, Chicago and Washington less equal than places like Brazzaville in Congo-Brazzaville, Managua in Nicaragua and Davao City in the Phillippines.

"The marginalisation and segregation of specific groups [in the US] creates a city within a city. The richest 1% of households now earns more than 72 times the average income of the poorest 20% of the population. In the 'other America', poor black families are clustered in ghettoes lacking access to quality education, secure tenure, lucrative work and political power," says the report.

The never-ending city

Cities are pushing beyond their limits and are merging into new massive conurbations known as mega-regions, which are linked both physically and economically. Their expansion drives economic growth but also leads to urban sprawl, rising inequalities and urban unrest.

The biggest mega-regions, which are at the forefront of the rapid urbanisation sweeping the world, are:

・ Hong Kong-Shenhzen-Guangzhou, China, home to about 120 million people;

・ Nagoya-Osaka-Kyoto-Kobe, Japan, expected to grow to 60 million people by 2015;

・ Rio de Janeiro-Sao Paulo region with 43 million people in Brazil.

The same trend on an even larger scale is seen in fast-growing "urban corridors":

・ West Africa: 600km of urbanisation linking Nigeria, Benin, Togo and Ghana, and driving the entire region's economy;

・ India: From Mumbai to Dehli;

・ East Asia: Four connected megalopolises and 77 separate cities of over 200,000 people each occur from Beijing to Tokyo via Pyongyang and Seoul.


---State of the World’s Cities 2008/2009 - Harmonious Cities---
http://www.unhabitat.org/pmss/listItemDetails.aspx?publicationID=2562

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