2010年5月5日水曜日

CIA テロリスト狩り

CIAはテロリスト狩りを始めた。
 パキスタンで、無人武装偵察機を使った国際テロ組織アル・カーイダ
幹部らの殺害作戦を展開しているCIAが、新型の小型ミサイル
「スコーピオン」の使用を始めたと報じた。

15ヵ月で、Predator(UAV)使用による攻撃は70回以上、テロリストや
武装勢力構成員計約400人を殺害、民間人20数人が犠牲。
Scorpion(ロッキードマーチン製)
・長さ55cm、重さ16kg。
・命中精度が高い、破壊する範囲が広くはなく、「精密攻撃」。
・小型燃料気化弾頭。サーモバリック爆薬粉を混合し爆発。
 衝撃波を発生させ、放出した粉が圧力を受け、周囲を高温にする。
 構造を比較的無傷のまま、衝撃波や窒息で人間は死亡する。
MicroUAVはピザ大皿の大きさで、至近距離から標的を何日も監視。

スコーピオンは、湾岸戦争の頃から使用され、最近では、ロケット
ランチャーやグレネードランチャーでも使用できるようになったようだ。

用途が増えれば、専用の武器が開発される。良いか悪いかは別の話だ。


---巻き添え減らせ、CIAが対テロ新型ミサイル---
2010年4月27日18時39分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/news/20100427-OYT1T00388.htm

 【ワシントン=黒瀬悦成】26日付の米紙ワシントン・ポストは、パキスタンで、無人武装偵察機を使った国際テロ組織アル・カーイダ幹部らの殺害作戦を展開している米中央情報局(CIA)が、新型の小型ミサイル「スコーピオン」の使用を始めたと報じた。
 同ミサイルは長さ55センチ、重さ16キロ・グラム。これまで使われていたミサイル「ヘルファイア2」に比べ命中精度が高いことに加え、破壊する範囲が広くはなく、「精密攻撃」によって民間人の巻き添え死を少なくする効果があるという。
 CIA当局者が同紙に語ったところでは、2009年1月以降、無人偵察機を使った攻撃は70回以上行われ、テロリストや武装勢力構成員計約400人を殺害した一方、民間人二十数人が犠牲になったとしている。また、同紙によると、CIAは、超小型の無人偵察機を使い、至近距離から標的を何日も監視するなど、テロリスト狩りにあらゆるハイテク兵器を使っていると紹介している。


---US drone kills five militants in Pakistan---
Posted : Mon, 26 Apr 2010 08:17:28 GMT
By : dpa
http://www.earthtimes.org/articles/show/320546,us-drone-kills-five-militants-in-pakistan.html

Islamabad - A US drone fired three missiles Monday into a militant compound in Pakistan's tribal region along the Afghan border, killing five Islamist insurgents, security officials said.

Several more people were wounded in the strike, which took place in the Mir Ali area of North Waziristan, a known hotbed of Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters.

An intelligence official who spoke on the condition of anonymity said it was not immediately clear if any high-valued targets were among those killed and wounded.

A second intelligence official confirmed the incident and death toll. He said the four unmanned aircraft flew overhead for around one hour after the attack, preventing people from rescue work.

The US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has intensified a covert drone war against Taliban and al-Qaeda operatives who launch cross-border attacks on NATO forces in Afghanistan.

US officials said the drones are a vital tool in their efforts against the rising Taliban insurgency in the mountainous border areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan.

More than 850 people have died in almost 100 drone strikes since August 2008.

Critics said a large number of civilian casualties in such strikes are fuelling resentment among locals, further radicalizing the generally anti-American population.

A report in The Washington Post said Monday that the CIA is now using new, smaller missiles and advanced surveillance techniques to minimize civilian casualties in drone strikes in Pakistan's tribal region.

Among the missiles available to the agency are the 53-centimetre small smart weapon. Called a Scorpion, the missiles weighs 16 kilograms and has roughly the diameter of a coffee cup. They can pinpoint as small a target as a single person in complete darkness.

These weapons can cause much less destruction that the Hellfire guided missiles that the CIA has been using in the drone strikes, the newspaper said.

The agency is also using a variety of warheads for the Hellfire, one former senior intelligence official told The Washington Post.

Among them is a small thermobaric warhead, which detonates a cocktail of explosive powders, creating a pressure wave that kills humans but leaves structures relatively intact.

The CIA also has at its disposal micro-UAVs, or unmanned aerial vehicles, as small as the size of a pizza platter. They are capable of close monitoring of a potential target and are nearly impossible to detect at night.

"It can be outside your window, and you won't hear a whisper," one former official who has worked with such aircraft told the newspaper.


---Amid outrage over civilian deaths in Pakistan, CIA turns to smaller missiles---
By Joby Warrick and Peter Finn
Washington Post Staff Writers
Monday, April 26, 2010
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/04/25/AR2010042503114.html

The CIA is using new, smaller missiles and advanced surveillance techniques to minimize civilian casualties in its targeted killings of suspected insurgents in Pakistan's tribal areas, according to current and former officials in the United States and Pakistan.

The technological improvements have resulted in more accurate operations that have provoked relatively little public outrage, the officials said. Pakistan's government has tolerated the airstrikes, which have killed hundreds of suspected insurgents since early 2009, but that support has always been fragile and could quickly evaporate, U.S. and Pakistani officials said.

The CIA declines to publicly discuss its clandestine operations in Pakistan, and a spokesman would not comment on the kinds of weapons the agency is using. But two counterterrorism officials said in interviews that evolving technology and tactics have kept the number of civilian deaths extremely low. The officials, along with other U.S. and Pakistani officials interviewed for this article, spoke on the condition of anonymity because the drone campaign is both classified and controversial.

Last month, a small CIA missile, probably no bigger than a violin case and weighing about 35 pounds, tore through the second floor of a house in Miram Shah, a town in the tribal province of South Waziristan. The projectile exploded, killing a top al-Qaeda official and about nine other suspected terrorists.

The mud-brick house collapsed and the roof of a neighboring house was damaged, but no one else in the town of 5,000 was hurt, according to U.S. officials who have reviewed after-action reports.

Urban strikes

The agency, using 100-pound Hellfire missiles fired from remotely controlled Predator aircraft, once targeted militants largely in rural settings, but lighter weapons and miniature spy drones have made killings in urban areas more feasible, officials said.

According to an internal CIA accounting described to The Washington Post, just over 20 civilians are known to have died in missile strikes since January 2009, in a 15-month period that witnessed more than 70 drone attacks that killed 400 suspected terrorists and insurgents. Agency officials said the CIA's figures are based on close surveillance of targeted sites both before and after the missiles hit.

Unofficial tallies based on local news reports are much higher. The New America Foundation puts the civilian death toll at 181 and reports a far higher number of alleged terrorists and insurgents killed -- more than 690.

The drone strikes have been controversial in Pakistan, where many view them as an infringement on national sovereignty. In the past the strikes have spawned protests, as well as angry denunciations in newspaper editorials and in speeches by opposition politicians.

The clamor over the strikes has died down considerably over the past year, however, and Pakistani officials acknowledge that improved accuracy is one of the reasons. Pakistani security officials say that better targeting technology, a deeper pool of spies in the tribal areas, and greater cooperation between the U.S. and Pakistani intelligence services have all led to strikes that cause fewer civilian deaths.

Still, the drone strikes are often cited by Pakistanis as a prime reason for their displeasure with U.S. policy in the region. Pakistan has repeatedly asked for its own armed drones so that it can carry out the strikes -- a move that could help the government with the perception that it has ceded authority to the United States. The United States has agreed to provide Pakistan with surveillance drones but has declined to arm them.

Peter Bergen, a senior fellow at the New America Foundation, said the agency's accounting of the effects of the drone campaign can neither be confirmed nor refuted without greater access to the tribal areas for outsiders or independent scrutiny of CIA video of the strikes.

Driving perceptions
Officials say CIA targeteers are increasingly driven to avoid civilian deaths, in part to tamp down any political blowback from Pakistan and from U.S. and international human rights groups. Current and former officials point to the relative absence of complaints from local and regional leaders as evidence of the success of their efforts.

"Where are the photos of atrocities? Where are the protests?" asked one U.S. official who closely monitors the program. "After civilian deaths in Afghanistan, there are always press reports. Why don't you ever see that in Pakistan?"

Peter Warren Singer, director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institution, noted that while Americans use words such as "efficient" and "costless" to describe the campaign, some Pakistanis view it as war without honor.

"The civilian-casualties narrative is a misnomer; it's not a driver of perceptions," said Singer, the author of "Wired for War: The Robotics Revolution and Conflict in the 21st Century." He said that in the tribal areas, the technology itself can be seen as evil because it is so alien.

The fear of collateral damage has led to what officials describe as a rigorous process for confirming the identity of terrorism suspects -- a process that includes what one U.S. official described as "advance visual observation" by operatives or surveillance drones. But new tools and weapons are equally important, the officials said.

"We're talking about precision unsurpassed in the history of warfare," said the official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the CIA program is highly classified.

Today, several small missiles are available to the agency, including the 21-inch Small Smart Weapon, created by Lockheed Martin. Weighing 35 pounds and having roughly the diameter of a coffee cup, the Scorpion, as it is now called, was designed to be launched from the Predator. It causes far less destruction than a Hellfire, and it can be fitted with four different guidance systems that allow it to home in on targets as small as a single person, in complete darkness, according to U.S. officials familiar with the missile.

A Lockheed spokesman declined to say whether the CIA is currently using the Scorpion, which, according to a Lockheed brochure, is intended for "precision attack using a small, lethal warhead against targets in areas requiring low collateral damage." The agency is also using a variety of warheads for the Hellfire, one former senior intelligence official said. Among them is a small thermobaric warhead, which detonates a cocktail of explosive powders on impact to create a pressure wave that kills humans but leaves structures relatively intact. The wave reaches around corners and can penetrate the inner recesses of bunkers and caves, according to weapons experts.

The CIA's expanded arsenal also includes surveillance drones that carry no weapons, two former intelligence officials said. These "micro-UAVs" -- unmanned aerial vehicles -- can be roughly the size of a pizza platter and are capable of monitoring potential targets at close range, for hours or days at a stretch. At night, they can be nearly impossible to detect, said one former official who has worked with such aircraft.

"It can be outside your window and you won't hear a whisper," the official said.

Correspondent Griff Witte and staff writer Karen DeYoung in Islamabad and staff researcher Julie Tate in Washington contributed to this report.

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