2010年7月20日火曜日

トヨタ事故 運転ミスが主因か

米国でのトヨタ車の事故は運転ミスが主因のようだ。
 トヨタ自動車の米リコール問題に関連し、運転者が意図せぬ急加速を
訴えた事故の多くは、車の欠陥ではなく運転ミスが原因である可能性が
あると報じた。

NHTSAによるEDR解析
・EDRはNHTSAによる選択
・ほとんどでブレーキを踏んだ形跡がない
・運転者がブレーキと間違えてアクセルペダルを踏む

TOYOTAは、3月に10台のEDR読取装置をNHTSAに提供。
NHTSAによる3月のトヨタ車の急加速で75件の死亡事故が起き、93人が死亡、
うち車両の問題が原因と認められた事故は1件。
認められた事故は、8月28日レクサスに乗ったCHP隊員と3人の乗客が死亡。
アクセルペダルとフロアマットの不具合が主原因。
アクセルペダルが戻らなくてもブレーキを踏めば暴走は止まったと言う
結論になるようだ。

英FSAのハイランダの検証では、EDRを調べても急加速が原因と判断でき
なかった。

電磁波の影響による電子機器装置の誤動作は、再現すれば証明も改修も
可能になるが、再現できなければ原因不明のまま。
最近の電磁波の影響での規格は、一部は軍用品規格に近いらしい。
それでもだめなら、宇宙関係の規格に準じるしかないか。
EDRで、電磁波の影響はないと証明できるのだろうか。

トヨタ騒動 鎮静化へ


米紙「運転ミスの可能性高い」トヨタ車急加速問題(10/07/13) テレビ朝日


---トヨタ株買われる、リコール車が運転ミスの可能性との報道---
2010年 07月 14日 13:42 JST
http://jp.reuters.com/article/topNews/idJPJAPAN-16281720100714

 [東京 14日 ロイター] 14日の東京株式市場で、トヨタ自動車(7203.T: 株価, ニュース, レポート)株が安寄りした後、切り返して買われている。意図しない急加速の問題で、一部の事故は運転手に過失がある可能性が示された。
 ウォールストリート・ジャーナルは、米運輸省が不意の急加速が原因で事故を起こしたとされるトヨタ車の複数のデータレコーダーを分析した結果、エンジンのスロットルが全開となっており、ブレーキは使用されていなかったことが分かったと報じた。運転ミスの可能性との分析という。
 市場では「寄り付きではこの報道が浸透していなかったが、徐々に材料視されたようだ」(国内証券トレーダー)との声が出ている。


---トヨタ車急加速事故は運転ミス主因? 米紙報道、当局が解析---
2010/7/14 9:56
http://www.nikkei.com/news/category/article/g=96958A9C9381959FE3E6E2E3E68DE3E6E2E5E0E2E3E2E2E2E2E2E2E2;at=ALL

 【ニューヨーク=小高航】トヨタ自動車の米リコール(回収・無償修理)問題に関連し、米紙ウォール・ストリート・ジャーナル(電子版)は 13日、運転者が意図せぬ急加速を訴えた事故の多くは、車の欠陥ではなく運転ミスが原因である可能性があると報じた。
 米運輸省の高速道路交通安全局(NHTSA)がトヨタ車での事故に関し、事故前後の運転状況を記録するイベント・データ・レコーダー(EDR)を解析したところ、そのほとんどでブレーキを踏んだ形跡がなかったという。同紙は、解析結果は運転者がブレーキと間違えてアクセルペダルを踏んだことを示すとした。
 当局は3月、トヨタ車の急加速で75件の死亡事故が起き、93人が死亡したとの報告書をまとめた。ウォール紙によると、このうち車両の問題が原因と認められた事故は1件しかなかったという。
 トヨタはすでに、アクセルペダルがフロアマットに引っかかる問題と、アクセルの部品不具合で踏み込んだ状態から戻りにくくなる2件について、欠陥を認めリコールしている。ただ米議員らは、2件以外にも電子系統の不具合が急加速を招いた可能性を指摘していた。
 米当局の調査は継続中だが、EDRの解析が進めば電子系統の不具合を否定するトヨタの主張が裏付けられる可能性がある。また、継続中の集団訴訟にも影響を及ぼす。トヨタは13日、「米当局からまだ調査結果の報告を受けていない」とコメントした。


---トヨタ車急加速大半は運転ミス? 米紙報道---
2010.7.14 08:52
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/economy/business/100714/biz1007140856003-n1.htm

 【ワシントン=渡辺浩生】米紙ウォールストリート・ジャーナル(電子版)は13日、米運輸省が、トヨタ自動車の車両で不意の急加速が原因とされる交通事故について、車両のデータ記録装置を分析した結果、事故が起きた際にスロットルは全開でブレーキは使われていなかったと報じた。ブレーキをかけようとしてアクセルを誤った踏んだ運転ミスとみられる。
 関係筋の話として伝えた。ただし、戻りにくいアクセルペダルや、アクセルペダルに引っかかりやすいフロアマットの2つの欠陥については、急加速問題の原因として疑いが残っているとしている。
 道路交通安全局(NHTSA)が、ブレーキを踏み込んでも加速状態から停止せず衝突したというトヨタ車の運転者の苦情をもとに調べたもので、分析結果は、急加速の原因は電子制御スロットル装置の異常ではないというトヨタの主張に沿ったものとなる。
 NHTSAは3月時点の集計で、トヨタ車の急加速問題で3千件を超す苦情を受け、人身事故は75件、死者は93人に上る。また、100人以上が電子制御装置の欠陥が事故の原因としてトヨタを訴えている。
 しかし、NHTSAは、昨年8月にカリフォルニア州でレクサスの急加速により4人が死亡した事故は車両の欠陥が原因と立証したという。
 トヨタはこれまで、アクセルペダルなどの不具合にからみ、世界で800万台以上のリコール(回収、無償修理)を実施。NHTSAから、安全問題の対応をめぐり1637万5千ドルの民事制裁金の支払いを課された。


---US, Toyota cite driver error in crashes---
By D.C. Denison and Erin Ailworth
Globe Staff / July 14, 2010
http://www.boston.com/business/articles/2010/07/14/us_toyota_cite_driver_error_in_crashes/

Analysis suggests consumers accelerating instead of braking

Government investigators and Toyota Motor Corp. have reportedly found that driver error, not sudden unintended acceleration, may have caused dozens of accidents involving Toyota vehicles.

A federal analysis of the crash data, first reported in The Wall Street Journal yesterday, suggested that drivers who lost control of their cars were mistakenly flooring the accelerator when they intended to hit the brakes. Thousands of cases of unintended acceleration are currently being investigated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, in conjunction with NASA.

Following the Journal story, Bloomberg News quoted Toyota Motor Corp. spokesman Mike Michels as saying “virtually all’’ of 2,000 cases of reported unintended acceleration reviewed by the automaker resulted from drivers stepping on the gas pedal instead of the brake.

Michels said in an interview with the Globe that his comment only referred to “crashes in which the driver reported that his or her foot was on the brake,’’ but would not say how many incidents fit that description.

But the families of victims argued that driver error could not be the reason behind so many reports of Toyota vehicles allegedly spinning out of control.

“I don’t believe it. I don’t believe it. . . . I remember my father saying in his instance that he had his foot on the brake as hard as he could and it was still going, so I don’t buy that argument,’’ said Jack Boddaert, whose father, Peter, told federal investigators that his Lexus LS 400 raced ahead on its own.

“There are too many people [complaining about sudden acceleration] for everybody to be making the same mistake,’’ Boddaert said.

The federal safety agency is “not confirming or commenting’’ on the data discussed in the Journal article, according to a spokesperson. But the Japanese automaker has recalled millions of vehicles, saying their gas pedals might stick or that floor mats could jam pedals.

Toyota said yesterday that the company’s investigations into the accidents that have been blamed on sudden acceleration have determined “a number of explanations or causes,’’ but Toyota insisted that “in no case have we found electronic throttle controls to be a cause.’’

Among the causes cited by Toyota are “pedal entrapment by floor mats or other objects, sticking pedals, pedal misapplication, engine idle up.’’ In some cases, the company said, there was “no trouble found.’’

Keith Henry, news chief at the NASA Langley Research Center, said a NASA team is working with the NHTSA and should have results to deliver to federal investigators in September.

Toyota said yesterday it has yet to receive any information on the federal investigations.

A Globe review of the federal traffic agency’s database last spring revealed at least seven fatal accidents since 2003 - resulting in 10 deaths - involving New England drivers, Toyota-made cars, and the possibility of unintended acceleration.

In May, investigators from the federal safety agency and three Toyota engineers examined a Toyota Highlander in a Billerica salvage yard. Four people were killed in a crash involving the Highlander, which according to witness descriptions, was consistent with reports of unintended acceleration. Investigators from the traffic safety agency also examined the crash site, which is near the Peterborough-Jaffrey town line in New Hampshire.

Colleen Krause, whose husband died when the Highlander collided with his car, said she hasn’t heard from investigators since the inspection. But, Krause added, she doubts that driver error is behind so many problems with Toyota brand vehicles.

“I just don’t think that at that time of day you could get that type of car up to 90 miles an hour going around a curve without something wrong with the car,’’ Krause said yesterday.

But even as officials continue to study the vehicles and their data recorders, determining whether a crash was caused by a sudden acceleration is difficult, investigators say. Some crashes leave no survivors, badly damaged vehicles, and few witnesses. Often, safety officials must pick through hazy memories, competing accounts, and extenuating factors - like weather or driver impairment from alcohol or drugs - before they can reconstruct a crash or find its cause. An official report could be months away.

A 1989 study of sudden acceleration conducted by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center in Cambridge looked at two Audi models, a Chevrolet Camaro, and a Toyota Cressida, and concluded that design flaws were causing drivers to hit the wrong pedal or step on the gas and brake at the same time.

E. Donald Sussman, coauthor of that report, said yesterday that in his opinion, the conclusion that Toyota’s current problems are caused simply by driver error is “not a good answer.’’

Saying “there is always driver error,’’ Sussman said investigators should ask, “Why does one particular brand or model of a brand have a large, large number of a particular type of driver error?’’

Rebecca Lindland, an analyst with IHS Automotive in Lexington, said she is suspicious of yesterday’s reports that suggest driver error was the behind the accidents.

“I don’t think anything can be gained by pointing the finger at the consumer at this point. Plus, electronic issues are always difficult to pinpoint,’’ she said. “Toyota definitely isn’t in the clear yet.’’


---Early Tests Pin Toyota Accidents on Drivers---
JULY 13, 2010
By MIKE RAMSEY And KATE LINEBAUGH
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703834604575364871534435744.html?mod=WSJASIA_hpp_MIDDLETopNews

The U.S. Department of Transportation has analyzed dozens of data recorders from Toyota Motor Corp. vehicles involved in accidents blamed on sudden acceleration and found that the throttles were wide open and the brakes weren't engaged at the time of the crash, people familiar with the findings said.

The early results suggest that some drivers who said their Toyotas and Lexuses surged out of control were mistakenly flooring the accelerator when they intended to jam on the brakes.

But the findings-part of a broad, ongoing federal investigation into Toyota's recalls-don't exonerate the car maker from two known issues blamed for sudden acceleration in its vehicles: "sticky" accelerator pedals that don't return to idle and floor mats that can trap accelerators to the floor.

The findings by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration involve a sample of the reports in which a driver of a Toyota vehicle said the brakes were depressed but failed to stop the car from accelerating and ultimately crashing.

A NHTSA spokeswoman declined to comment on the findings, which haven't been released by the agency.

The data recorders analyzed by NHTSA were selected by the agency, not Toyota, based on complaints the drivers had filed with the government. Toyota hasn't been involved in interpreting the data.

The initial findings are consistent with a 1989 government-sponsored study that blamed similar driver mistakes for a rash of sudden-acceleration reports involving Audi 5000 sedans.

The Toyota findings appear to support Toyota's position that sudden-acceleration reports involving its vehicles weren't caused by electronic glitches in computer-controlled throttle systems, as some safety advocates and plaintiffs' attorneys have alleged. More than 100 people have sued the car maker over crashes they claim were the result of faulty electronics.

It is unknown how many data recorders NHTSA has read so far. The agency's investigators have been reading the data only since Toyota provided the agency with 10 reading devices in March.

Since then, investigators have responded to accidents involving sudden acceleration when the driver claims to have been stepping on the brakes.

Because the data recorders can lose their information if disconnected from the car's battery or if the battery dies-as could happen after a crash-the agency is focusing only on recent accidents, said a person familiar with the situation.

NHTSA has received more than 3,000 complaints of sudden acceleration in Toyotas and Lexuses, including some dating to early last decade, according to a report the agency compiled in March. The incidents include 75 fatal crashes involving 93 deaths.

However, NHTSA has been able to verify that only one of those fatal crashes was caused by a problem with the vehicle, according to information the agency provided to the National Academy of Sciences. That accident last Aug. 28, which killed a California highway patrolman and three passengers in a Lexus, was traced to a floor mat that trapped the gas pedal in the depressed position.

Toyota has since recalled more than eight million cars globally to fix floor mats and sticky accelerators.

The NHTSA spokeswoman said the agency wouldn't comment on its Toyota probe until a broader study is completed in conjunction with NASA, which is expected to take months.

Daniel Smith, NHTSA's associate administrator for enforcement, told a panel of the National Academy of Sciences last month that the agency's sudden-acceleration probe had yet to find any car defects beyond those identified by the company: pedals entrapped by floor mats, and accelerator pedals that are slow to return to idle.

"In spite of our investigations, we have not actually been able yet to find a defect" in electronic throttle-control systems, Mr. Smith told the scientific panel, which is looking into potential causes of sudden acceleration.

"We're bound and determined that if it exists, we're going to find it," he added. "But as yet, we haven't found it."

Some Toyota officials say they are informally aware of the NHTSA data-recorder results. Toyota officials haven't been briefed on the findings, but they corroborate its own tests, said Mike Michels, the chief spokesman for Toyota Motor Sales.

Toyota says its own downloads of data recorders have found evidence of sticky pedals and pedal entrapment as well as driver error, which is characterized by no evidence of the brakes being depressed during impact.

Still, since the start of Toyota's troubles late last summer, the Japanese company hasn't blamed drivers for any of the sudden-acceleration incidents, though in many cases the company couldn't find another cause. Toyota President Akio Toyoda has said the company won't pin the blame on customers for its problems as part of its public-relations response.

An attorney who represents four drivers who sued Toyota in state courts over sudden acceleration said the NHTSA finding doesn't mean much for his litigation. "Toyota has always taken the position that the electronic data recorder system is not reliable," said Tab Turner, the Little Rock, Ark., lawyer.

A Toyota spokesman said the company considers the device "a prototype tool. It wasn't designed to tell us exactly what happened in an accident. It was designed to tell us whether our systems were operating properly."

One case studied by U.S. regulators involves Myrna Marseille of Kohler, Wis., who reported in March that her 2009 Toyota Camry accelerated out of control and crashed into a building.

Ms. Marseille said in an interview Tuesday that she was entering a parking space near a library when she heard the engine roar. "I looked down and my foot was still on the brake, so I did not have my foot on the gas pedal," she said.

Police in Sheboygan Falls, Wis., investigated and believe driver error was to blame, Chief Steven Riffel said Tuesday. He said surveillance video showed that the brake lights didn't illuminate until after the crash. But Mr. Riffel said that determination is preliminary and that his agency has turned over the investigation to NHTSA.

Based on the black box data, NHTSA investigators found that the brake was not engaged and the throttle was wide open, according to a person familiar with the matter.

Ms. Marseille sticks by her story. "It makes me very angry when someone tells me, 'She probably hit the gas pedal instead,' because I think it's a sexist comment, an ageist comment," she said.
-Josh Mitchell contributed


---トヨタの再発防止策は「合格点」、リコール問題の専門家評価報告---
2010.7.12 15:32
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/economy/business/100712/biz1007121534012-n1.htm

 トヨタ自動車は12日、日本科学技術連盟と外部専門家に依頼していた品質保証体制の改善に関する評価報告書を受け取ったと発表した。報告書は昨年以降の大量リコール問題を受けて同社が実施している再発防止策について、顧客の視点に立った取り組みが各部門で行われていることを確認したと評価。同社は報告書の各項目を検証し、今年10月に開催を予定している社内の第2回グローバル特別委員会で進捗(しんちょく)状況を点検していくとしている。
 報告書は海外の顧客情報や米国運輸省道路交通安全局に寄せられた苦情の収集・分析などの取り組みを評価。その一方で、今後の改善点としてディーラーの作業員など関係者への事故防止のための訓練の徹底などを求めた。

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