2010年8月19日木曜日

米年次報告書 中国国防費12.8兆円

米年次報告書は、中国国防費12.8兆円とした。
 米国防総省は中国の軍事動向に関する年次報告書を議会に提出し、中国軍
は同国隣接地域を越えた行動範囲と能力を引き続き拡大していると指摘した。

報告書
 能力について、人道問題や海賊対策などプラス面の作用もあり、それ以外の
 面では「パワーが及ぶ範囲の拡大」につながる。
 「中国が遠方で軍事力を維持できる能力は、現在のところ限定的」。
 中国が開発している射程距離900マイル以上の長距離対艦弾道ミサイルは、
 米海軍の活動地域も射程内に入ると指摘。
 中国軍が「西太平洋で空母を含む艦船を攻撃できる能力」を獲得。
 海軍の軍事力は原子力潜水艦の追加で増強され、海南島海軍基地はほぼ完成。
 「重要シーレーンへの直接的なアクセス」が確保され、「潜水艦を密かに配備」。
 多弾頭(MIRV)型の新型可動式ICBMを開発中。

中国の多弾頭型ICBM DF-31A(射程距離 11,200km)は、2007年に実戦配備済と
推測されおり、可動式のICBMを開発中とのこと。

グローバル経済により、開戦とはならないが、軍事力を背景に、外交的圧力を
かけ、米国のように、借金を押付けてくる可能性がある。
反米政府は中国の核の傘に下にすり寄るんだろう。

中国 空母建造経費公表
中国 弾道弾迎撃成功
在日米軍に抑止力はあるのか


---『中国国防費12.8兆円』 米 年次報告書---
2010年8月17日 夕刊
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/world/news/CK2010081702000197.html

 【ワシントン=岩田仲弘】米国防総省は十六日、中国軍事動向に関する二〇一〇年度の年次報告書を公表した。中国軍が「台湾海峡での不測事態に加え、東シナ海や南シナ海の領有権問題に対処するため新たな作戦計画や軍事力を発展させている」と強調している。
 その上で、中国軍の活動範囲がインド洋や小笠原諸島とグアムを結ぶ西太平洋の「第二列島線」を越える可能性があるとして、強い警戒感を示した。
 台湾との経済・文化交流は「重要な進展」を遂げつつあるとしたものの、中国沿岸の弾道ミサイルや戦闘機などの軍備増強は「衰えていない」と強調。「中国軍は台湾独立を阻止する能力を高める一方で、紛争時に米国が行うあらゆる支援を抑え、遅らせ、あるいは阻もうとしている」と批判した。
 中国政府は二〇一〇年度の国防費を約七百八十六億ドル(約六兆七千億円)としているものの、〇九年度の実際の国防関連費は千五百億ドル(約十二兆八千億円)以上になったと推計。軍拡の透明化に「適度な改善」は見られるものの「依然不明確な部分が多く、誤解を生む可能性が増す」と一層の透明性向上を求めた。
 初の国産空母については、今年末までに建造に着手する可能性を明記。中国海軍は今後十年間で、複数の空母による艦隊創設を目指していると分析した。
 また、中国が米国の台湾に対する武器売却決定に反発して米中間の軍事交流を中断していることを、「相互理解を阻んでいる」と批判し、米側に交流再開の強い意向がある点を強調した。


---米国防総省:「中国海軍が展開拡大」 外交利用に懸念--年次報告書で指摘---
毎日新聞 2010年8月17日 東京夕刊
http://mainichi.jp/select/world/news/20100817dde001030021000c.html

 【ワシントン古本陽荘】米国防総省は16日、中国の軍事力と安全保障の動向に関する年次報告書を発表した。報告書は、中国海軍が西太平洋にまで展開できる装備や能力を開発していると指摘するとともに、意図を明確にしないままで遠方への展開能力向上や大陸間弾道ミサイル(ICBM)開発を進めていると批判。南シナ海の領有権問題などをめぐる外交で有利な立場を占めるために、中国の軍事力増強が使われる可能性への懸念を示した。
 報告書は米議会向けに毎年作成され、一般にも公表されている。
 中国軍の軍事力増強については、「東アジアの軍事均衡を変化させる主要な要因」と前年と同様の表現で懸念を表明。そのうえで、遠方への展開能力向上は、「軍事力を背景とする強要によって外交的優位性を確保し、中国に有利な形で紛争を解決する」ためである可能性に言及した。
 さらに、海軍の展開能力は東シナ海や南シナ海にとどまらず、「インド洋や(小笠原諸島やグアムを結ぶ)第2列島線より東側の西太平洋にまで展開できる装備や能力を開発している」と明記し、米中の偶発的な衝突の可能性にも言及した。
 さらに、軍事力増強の目的が不透明であることや、ゲーツ国防長官の訪中取り消しなど米中軍事交流を中断したことを批判した。
 また、中国の国防費(09年度予算案ベースで約6兆9000億円)は公表されているより多く、09年度の実際の国防費は1500億ドル(約12兆8000億円)以上と推定した。
 一方、核搭載能力を持つ大陸間弾道ミサイルの開発にも強い懸念を表明。射程1万1200キロとした「東風31A」が米本土の大部分を射程に収めていることをあえて明記した。さらに、複数の核弾頭を搭載できる多弾頭(MIRV)型の新型可動式ICBMを開発していることに触れた。


---米国防総省報告書、中国軍の拡大を指摘---
2010.08.17 Web posted at: 12:39 JST Updated - CNN
http://www.cnn.co.jp/world/AIC201008170008.html

 ワシントン(CNN) 米国防総省は中国の軍事動向に関する年次報告書を議会に提出し、中国軍は同国隣接地域を越えた行動範囲と能力を引き続き拡大していると指摘した。
 報告書では中国のこうした能力について、人道問題や海賊対策などプラス面の作用もあるが、それ以外の面では「パワーが及ぶ範囲の拡大」につながると分析している。
 中国が自国の領土から離れた場所での軍事作戦能力維持に力を入れていることは、米軍にとって懸念事項だとしながらも、「中国が遠方で軍事力を維持できる能力は、現在のところ限定的」だとした。
 米国から台湾への軍備品売却は引き続き中国との緊張関係をもたらし、両国の軍事関係の停止につながることもあったと述べている。
 中国は世界有数の弾道ミサイルと巡航ミサイル計画を持ち、ミサイル防衛技術開発を進めているという。さらに懸念されることとして、中国が開発している射程距離900マイル以上の長距離対艦弾道ミサイルは、米海軍の活動地域も射程内に入ると指摘。これにより中国軍が「西太平洋で空母を含む艦船を攻撃できる能力」を獲得することになるとした。
 中国は年内にも初の国産空母建造に着手することが可能で、空母のパイロット養成を開始したとされる。ロシア製の空母改造にも着手済みだとしている。
 海軍の軍事力は原子力潜水艦の追加で増強され、海南島海軍基地はほぼ完成。これで「重要シーレーンへの直接的なアクセス」が確保され、「潜水艦を密かに配備」できるようになると警戒感を示した。


---Eying the Pentagon, Gates considers three changes---
Walter Pincus
Washignton Post Staff Writer
Tuesday, August 17, 2010
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/08/16/AR2010081605078.html

If you need further guidance about how far Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates is preparing to go in his effort to change the Pentagon culture and to cap spending, take a look at three new targets he identified last week that have all been "third rail" issues for his predecessors.

Last Thursday, before San Francisco's Marines' Memorial Association, Gates raised questions about the Marine Corps' future and said he had ordered the new commandant, Gen. James Amos, and Navy Secretary Ray Mabus to define "the unique mission of the Marines going forward."

He said it after noting that the Corps had become "too heavy," having functioned in Iraq and Afghanistan "as a so-called second land army." The issue, he said, was going back to the Marines' unique capability for amphibious operations, having assault ships that can provide platforms to project forces across water and into countries.

Even so, while noting the ships are useful for humanitarian efforts, Gates questioned how many are needed when wartime enemies can have accurate and long-range anti-ship missiles that would require disembarking up to 60 miles offshore.

This isn't the first time the Marine Corps mission will be questioned and studied. Gates pointed out that in the inter-service rivalries after World War II, Congress, influenced by Marine Corps veterans, passed legislation that put into federal law the Marines' mission. "The only service to do so," he added. It might have to happen again.

In discussing with reporters other steps he is taking, Gates recently mentioned that two other "third rail" issues, personnel policies and health care, are on his agenda.

He said last week that some of the steps were recommended by the Defense Business Board (DBB), an advisory committee of former defense officials and business experts that he had asked to propose trims for the Pentagon's overhead.

It's worth studying the board's "initial observations" about personnel issues and health care as presented last month by the task force chairman, Arnold Punaro. He is a former senior vice president of defense contractor Science Applications International Corporation, staff director of the Senate Armed Services Committee, and retired Marine Reserve major general who once served as director of the Marine Reserve.

Gates has said, as he did recently in an interview in Foreign Policy magazine, that when it comes to changing military retirement, "I may be bold, but I'm not crazy." But the DBB took it on directly.

Punaro called the system a "pre-volunteer force retirement system" based on when most servicemen were low-paid draftees. The task force, he said, found the program "encourages our military to leave at 20 years when they are most productive and experienced, and then pays them and their families and their survivors for another 40 years."

Too long have those promoting military pay and benefits focused on paychecks and ignored "the long-term, fully burdened costs of the most expensive personnel," he said, adding "a substantial amount of the personnel costs are focused on those who no longer serve on active duty."

The average cost of a full-time service member has grown from $60,000 a year in 2001 to $206,000 today, with non-cash and deferred military compensation approaching 50 percent of that figure.

The DBB's argument, however, is that these additional benefits go to a small number who join the military because only about 17 percent who join stay for 20 years. About 80 percent of those who served in the Korea and Vietnam wars and during the Cold War, or were in Iraq or Afghanistan, "never earn a nickel in military retirement because they don't stay in for 20 years," Punaro said. "It is an unsustainable trend," he added.

Changing that has proven difficult. In 1986, recognizing military retirement was "the largest unfunded liability of the federal government," Congress limited the existing 20-year retirement program to those then in service. But 20 years later, in 2006, when the lower approach was to go into effect, Congress changed it again. "Any projected savings were lost," Punaro said, adding, "Congress also added 'Tricare for life,' which is the most expensive new health-care benefit in our country."

Two years ago, the DBB warned: "The Department cannot continue to let its overall spending on Defense healthcare grow at the same pace it has over the past seven years." In that time it rose 144 percent, from $17.4 billion to $42.5 billion, with retirees accounting for almost 65 percent of the expenditures.

Last week, Gates said health care next year will cost more than $50 billion and about $65 billion by 2015. He called it "unsustainable," adding: "I think it's safe to say that, as far as I'm concerned, in this effort there are no sacred cows, and health care cannot be excepted from that."


---Pentagon Cites Concerns in China Military Growth---
By THOM SHANKER
Published: August 16, 2010
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/17/world/asia/17military.html

WASHINGTON - China has increased spending on a military that is becoming larger and more effective even as Beijing has rebuffed exchanges with the Defense Department that could improve stability, according to a Pentagon study released Monday.

Senior Pentagon officials acknowledged that much of the Chinese military modernization program may reflect the rational ambition of a rising global power, albeit one that may be a worrisome rival to American interests in the Pacific region.

But across the American government - from the White House to the Pentagon to Congress - officials express concern that China’s lack of openness about the growth, capabilities and intentions of its military injects instability to a vital region of the globe.

China’s overall spending on national defense for 2009 was estimated at $150 billion, an increase of 7.5 percent but only about one-fifth of what the Pentagon spent to operate and carry out the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, according to the study, required each year by Congress.

China’s arsenal of missiles arrayed across a strait from Taiwan, an American ally considered a wayward province by Beijing, did not substantially grow in numbers but is being upgraded to be more capable, according to the review.

Of the many potential points of conflict, Taiwan remains the most notable, as China froze military-to-military relations with the Defense Department earlier this year after an announcement that the United States was selling more than $6 billion in weapons to Taiwan.

Administration officials say that while ties between Washington and Beijing in the areas of diplomacy and economics are improving, the military-to-military relationship is prickly and a reason for concern.

Another cause of worry, according to the study, is China’s emphasis on weapons that could deny the ability of American warships to operate in international waters off the coast; those weapons include precision, long-range missiles and a growing fleet of submarines and warships.

The Pentagon study said that China had an active program to develop and build several aircraft carriers, and could start construction by the end of this year. China also appears intent on expanding its arsenal of nuclear-powered submarines, with one missile-launching submarine and several hunter-killer submarines already at sea, all nuclear-powered for greater range. These nuclear-powered submarines are in addition to larger and growing numbers of diesel-powered hunter-killer submarines in the Chinese Navy, according to the study.

Administration and military officials also criticized China’s actions beyond its territorial waters, particularly in the South China Sea. Pentagon officials say China’s military appears intent on extending claims for maritime jurisdiction beyond the range accepted by international law.

Senior Defense Department officials who released the study declined to be drawn into a discussion of politics, but Representative Ike Skelton of Missouri, the Democrat who is chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, expressed a view shared by the Pentagon.

In a statement released Monday, Mr. Skelton said he was concerned by “ambiguities regarding China’s military modernization, including its missile buildup across from Taiwan, its maritime activities in the South China Sea, and the steady increase of its power-projection capabilities, which do not obviously support China’s stated national security objectives.”

While “China has taken some steps toward increasing transparency and openness regarding its defense strategy and expenditures in recent years,” Mr. Skelton said, “such steps are modest. China’s most recent military budget continues a trend of sustained annual increases, and China’s strategic intentions remain opaque.”

The Pentagon review comes as China surpassed Japan in the second quarter of the year to become the world’s No. 2 economy, after the United States.

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