2010年8月25日水曜日

米 鶏卵サルモネラ菌汚染の疑い

米国で鶏卵サルモネラ菌汚染の疑いが発生した。
 サルモネラ菌汚染の疑いがあるとして全米で回収された卵の数が5億個を
突破した。
 サルモネラ菌感染の増加を受け、CDCとFDAは原因を調査し、アイオワ州
のライト・カウンティー・エッグが生産した卵が発生源である可能性が
高いと結論付けた。
ライト・カウンティー・エッグの自主回収の対象はあくまで殻付き卵に
限られるとあらためて表明した。

Wright County Egg and Hillandale Farms
所有者 Jack DeCoster
労働委員会との対立
・労働条件
・環境違反、
・労働者へのいやがらせ
・不法入国者の雇用

米国人が好きと言われるアイスクリーム(一般的にラクトアイス)には、
鶏卵が使われているし、一部の和食風店には、TKG(卵かけご飯)がでている。
TKGは食べなくても良いが、アイスクリームは欠かせないと思う。
5億個も回収となれば、在庫分がはけたら、国内では取合いとなり、
鶏卵の価格が急騰するため、鶏卵を安価な国から輸入するのだろうか。

鶏卵工場伝説は「美味しんぼ」や「地獄におちる」恫喝女で話題になり、
その都度反論していた記憶がある。
でも、米国の報道は、「美味しんぼ」そのものだと思う。

鶏卵生産におけるサルモネラ汚染防止について
米国での鶏卵によるサルモネラ食中毒に関する報道

---米国でサルモネラ菌感染疑いの卵回収、5億個を突破---
2010.08.21 Web posted at: 13:44 JST Updated - CNN
http://www.cnn.co.jp/usa/AIC201008210005.html

(CNN) サルモネラ菌汚染の疑いがあるとして全米で回収された卵の数が5億個を突破した。
 米疾病管理予防センター(CDC)によると、消費者がサルモネラ菌に感染してからセンターに情報が届くまでに2~3週間の時差があるため、サルモネラ菌の感染者数は今後さらに増加する見込みだという。
 米食品医薬品局(FDA)は7月9日に大規模な卵生産業者向けの新たな安全規定を発表したが、この時点ではすでにサルモネラ菌汚染が発生していたことになる。同局は以前からの規定が順守されていれば汚染拡大を防げたはずだとしている。
 新規定では卵の衛生管理や冷蔵保存、運搬、サルモネラ菌汚染最小化・防止措置の明文化と実施などが定められている。「予防策を講じれば、卵からのサルモネラ菌感染は約6割減らせる」と同局は指摘する。
 卵に十分火を通せば中のサルモネラ菌は死ぬが、食材を用意した人が台所用具を適切に洗っていない場合、それらに付着した菌が生卵に接触し、二次汚染の引き起こす恐れがある。
 サルモネラ菌は一般に、汚染された家禽、鶏肉、卵、水から感染し、人間の腸管に影響を及ぼす。感染すると通常12時間~72時間以内に下痢、発熱、腹部のけいれんなどの症状が現れる。これらの症状は4日~7日間続くが、健康な人なら特に治療を受けなくても自然に治る。しかし、免疫力の弱い高齢者や幼児などは、より深刻な病気にかかる恐れもあるという。
 サルモネラ菌感染の増加を受け、CDCとFDAは原因を調査し、アイオワ州ゴールトの卵生産会社ライト・カウンティー・エッグが生産した卵が発生源である可能性が高いと結論付けた。同社は現在汚染の経緯を調査中だという。また同社は先週から卵の自主回収を開始したが、サルモネラ菌の発生を受け、18日に回収規模を3億8000万個に拡大した。
 しかし、米鶏卵生産者協同組合が運営する鶏卵安全センターの食品安全プログラム担当ディレクター、クリスタ・エバリー氏は、ライト・カウンティー・エッグの自主回収の対象はあくまで殻付き卵に限られるとあらためて表明した。エバリー氏は、卵白や乾燥卵黄などの卵製品は低温殺菌や熱処理が行われるので食べても安全だと考えられており、鶏卵安全センターも殻付き卵以外の製品がバクテリアに汚染されているとは考えていないと付け加えた。


---米の卵回収、新たに1.7億個 サルモネラ菌汚染の恐れ---
2010年8月21日10時32分
http://www.asahi.com/international/update/0821/TKY201008210084.html

 【ワシントン=勝田敏彦】米食品医薬品局(FDA)は20日、アイオワ州の養鶏業者がサルモネラ菌汚染のおそれがある殻つき生卵の自主回収を始める、と発表した。米メディアによると、回収対象の卵は1億7千万個。この業者は、やはりサルモネラ菌汚染のおそれがある卵3億8千万個を自主回収中の同州内の業者とは別だ。
 サルモネラ菌感染は、子どもや高齢者、免疫が弱っている人に重症の食中毒を引き起こすことがある。米疾病対策センター(CDC)は生卵の冷蔵や、十分加熱して調理することを呼びかけている。一方、養鶏業者の団体は「回収対象の卵は全米に出荷された卵の1%未満」として、消費者の不安打ち消しに躍起だ。


---Farms recalling eggs share suppliers, other ties---
By MARY CLARE JALONICK (AP) - 20100823
http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5hOgpXZfEFJ7kkmSW5TIXjlsuUxPQD9HOU9EO0

WASHINGTON - Two Iowa farms that recalled more than a half-billion eggs linked to as many as 1,300 cases of salmonella poisoning share suppliers of chickens and feed as well as ties to an Iowa business routinely cited for violating state and federal law, an egg industry spokeswoman said.

Food and Drug Administration investigators have yet to determine the cause of the salmonella outbreaks at Wright County Egg and Hillandale Farms. The FDA investigation could take months, and sources of contamination are often difficult to find.

The number of illnesses, which can be life-threatening, especially to those with weakened immune systems, is expected to increase. The most common symptoms are diarrhea, abdominal cramps and fever eight to 72 hours of eating a contaminated product.

Jewanna Porter, a spokeswoman for the egg industry, said Saturday the company Quality Egg supplies young chickens and feed to both Wright County Egg and Hillandale Farms. The two share other suppliers, she said, but she did not name them.

The egg industry has consolidated over recent years, placing fewer, larger businesses in control over much of the nation's egg supply to consumers.

The salmonella outbreak has raised questions about federal inspections of egg farms. The FDA oversees inspections of shell eggs, while the Agriculture Department is in charge of inspecting other egg products.

William D. Marler, a Seattle attorney for a person who filed suit alleging illness from tainted eggs in a salad at a restaurant in Kenosha, Wis., said Sunday his firm has been retained by two dozen families and was representing a woman who was hospitalized in California.

"The history of ignoring the law makes the sickening of 1,300 and the forced recall of 550 million eggs shockingly understandable," Marler said in an e-mail to The Associated Press. "You have to wonder where the USDA and FDA inspectors were."

Businessman Austin "Jack" DeCoster owns Wright County Egg and Quality Egg. Wright County Egg recalled 380 million eggs Aug. 13 after it was linked to more than 1,000 cases of salmonella poisoning. A week later, Hillandale Farms recalled 170 million eggs.

DeCoster is no stranger to controversy in his food and farm operations:

_In 1994, the state of Iowa assessed at least four separate penalties against DeCoster Farms for environmental violations, many of them involving hog waste.

_In 1997, DeCoster Egg Farms agreed to pay $2 million in fines to settle citations brought in 1996 for health and safety violations at DeCoster's farm in Turner, Maine. The nation's labor secretary at the time, Robert Reich, said conditions were "as dangerous and oppressive as any sweatshop." Reich's successor, Alexis Herman, called the state of the farms "simply atrocious," citing unguarded machinery, electrical hazards, exposure to harmful bacteria and other unsanitary conditions.

_In 2000, Iowa designated DeCoster a "habitual violator" of environmental regulations for problems that included hog manure runoff into waterways. The label made him subject to increased penalties and prohibited him from building new farms.

_In 2002, the federal Equal Employment Opportunity Commission announced a more than $1.5 million settlement of an employment discrimination lawsuit against DeCoster Farms on behalf of Mexican women who reported they were subjected to sexual harassment, including rape, abuse and retaliation by some supervisory workers at DeCoster's Wright County plants.

_In 2007, 51 workers were arrested during an immigration raid at six DeCoster egg farms. His farms had been the subject of at least three previous raids.

_In June 2010, Maine Contract Farming, the successor company to DeCoster Egg Farms, agreed in state court to pay $25,000 in penalties and to make a one-time payment of $100,000 to the Maine Department of Agriculture over animal cruelty allegations that were spurred by a hidden-camera investigation by an animal welfare organization.

In a statement issued Sunday, Wright County Egg spokeswoman Hinda Mitchell said: "When issues have been raised about our farms, our management team has addressed them swiftly and effectively, working with recognized outside experts to identify and establish corrective measures for our operations. We are approaching our work with FDA in the same forthright manner."

Wright County Egg also faces a lawsuit from food distributor Dutch Farms alleging that the company used unauthorized cartons to package and sell eggs under its brand without its knowledge.

The CDC said last week that investigations by 10 states since April have identified 26 cases where more than one person became ill. Preliminary information showed that Wright was the supplier in at least 15 of those cases.


---米、卵3億8千万個自主回収 サルモネラ汚染で---
2010/08/20 09:36
http://www.47news.jp/CN/201008/CN2010082001000175.html

 【ワシントン共同】米中西部アイオワ州で生産された卵がサルモネラ菌に汚染され、少なくとも数百人の食中毒を引き起こした疑いが強まり、同州の卵生産会社は19日までに、全米に出荷した約3億8千万個の自主回収を始めた。米食品医薬品局(FDA)などは、食中毒の被害がさらに拡大する恐れが強いと警告している。
 3億8千万個は米国の卵消費量2日分に相当し、FDA当局者によると、近年では最大規模の回収。
 FDAによると、問題の卵はアイオワ州北部の5カ所の農場で生産された。カリフォルニア、コロラド、ミネソタの各州で食中毒を発症した計270人は、この卵が原因とみられている。米国内では5月から7月までに、平年よりも1300件多い約2千件の食中毒が報告されたという。
 米政府当局は同社の農場などでサルモネラ菌の有無を調査しているが、汚染源は確認されていない。


---サルモネラ菌汚染、卵3億8千万個回収…米 Twitterでつぶやく---
2010年8月20日 読売新聞
http://www.yomidr.yomiuri.co.jp/page.jsp?id=29708

 【ワシントン=山田哲朗】米疾病対策センター(CDC)は18日、米中西部アイオワ州の卵生産会社が、サルモネラ菌に汚染された恐れがある鶏卵計3億8000万個を自主回収すると発表した。
 米国では5月からサルモネラ菌による食中毒が急増し、CDCが患者が発生したレストランなど26か所を追跡したところ、15か所の出荷元が同社だったと判明した。殻が汚染されていたとみられる。同社は8月13日、まず2億2800万個の自主回収を発表、18日には対象を拡大した。近年では最大規模の回収となる。
 卵は13のブランド名で全米に出荷されている。7月末までに約2000人の患者が確認され、今後も患者が増える可能性がある。
 サルモネラ菌は感染すると激しい下痢や高熱を発症し、幼児や高齢者では重症化する恐れがある。
 厚生労働省輸入食品安全対策室によると、回収対象となった卵は日本に輸入されていない。


---REgg Recall Expanded After Salmonella Outbreak---
By WILLIAM NEUMAN
Published: August 18, 2010
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/19/business/19eggs.html?_r=1

An Iowa company on Wednesday broadened a nationwide recall of its eggs to 380 million after some of its facilities were linked to an outbreak of salmonella that has sickened hundreds of people across the country.

The outbreak, which federal officials said was the largest of its type related to eggs in years, began in May, just weeks before new government safety rules went into effect that were intended to greatly reduce the risk of salmonella in eggs.

The company behind the recall, Wright County Egg, of Galt, Iowa, is owned by Jack DeCoster, who has had run-ins with regulators over poor or unsafe working conditions, environmental violations, the harassment of workers and the hiring of illegal immigrants.

The salmonella outbreak began in May, when several states began seeing an increase in the number of cases of a common type of bacterial illness known as Salmonella Enteritidis, said Dr. Christopher R. Braden, acting director of food-borne diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. The numbers continued to grow, and in June and July, a database used to track disease nationwide found that the number of cases had risen from a historical average of about 50 a week to about 200.

Public health officials in California, Minnesota and Colorado determined that many of the people who had gotten sick had eaten food containing eggs. Further investigation traced many tainted eggs to Wright County Egg.

The company announced on Friday that it was recalling 228 million eggs that it had sold since mid-May. On Wednesday, it added another 152 million eggs to the recall. Many of the affected eggs have long since been cooked and eaten, but millions could still be stored in refrigerators.

The company said the recalled eggs came from five plants and were distributed across the country under the brand names Lucerne, Albertson, Mountain Dairy, Ralph’s, Boomsma’s, Sunshine, Hillandale, Trafficanda, Farm Fresh, Shoreland, Lund, Dutch Farms, Kemps, James Farms, Glenview and Pacific Coast. (Dutch Farms said Wright County packaged eggs under its brand without permission.)

The recalled eggs are packed in varying sizes of cartons, including six-egg, dozen-egg and 18-egg cartons, and loose eggs for institutional use and repackaging, the Food and Drug Administration said. The cartons have date codes stamped at one end, ranging from 136 to 229 and plant numbers 1026, 1413, 1720, 1942 or 1946. The F.D.A. said the plant number is preceded by the letter P, followed by the date code, and showed an example on its Web site.

Consumers were told to return the eggs to stores.

Dr. Braden said that it was not yet possible to say how many people had fallen ill in the outbreak although it certainly numbered in the hundreds. Typically in salmonella outbreaks, only about one in 30 cases is reported to authorities, he said, so thousands of people may have been affected. He said there were no reports of deaths.

Salmonella can cause diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pains. In rare cases, it can cause more serious illness, including arterial infections.

The pathogen is transferred to eggs by infected hens and it can be found inside eggs that appear normal. The bacteria is destroyed by heat but people can become sick if they eat raw or incompletely cooked eggs. Federal regulators have grappled with the problem of salmonella in eggs since it first emerged in the 1980s. But proposals to improve regulations were largely unsuccessful until a year ago, when the Food and Drug Administration announced a new set of rules, which became effective on July 9.

The rules initially apply to egg producers with 50,000 or more laying hens, a category that federal officials said included Wright County Egg. The rules require producers to establish measures to control rodents that can pass salmonella to hens and to prevent contamination by workers or equipment. They also establish testing requirements for poultry houses and eggs.

In a news release on July 9, the F.D.A. said that the rules would prevent as many as 79,000 illnesses and 30 deaths a year related to the consumption of tainted eggs.

Dr. Braden said that investigators looking into the outbreak found cases in which restaurants had used raw eggs in a salad dressing or mixed raw eggs into soup. A case in California in May was traced to a catered event where people had eaten profiteroles containing a custard made with eggs, according to officials in that state.

Hinda Mitchell, a spokeswoman for Wright County Egg, said that the company had put the required federal measures in place by the July deadline. She said that before that date, the company had participated in a voluntary industry program that included steps similar to some of the new federal requirements.

Mr. DeCoster is well known to federal regulators.

In 1997, one of his companies agreed to pay a $2 million fine by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for violations in the workplace and worker housing. Officials said workers were forced to handle manure and dead chickens with their bare hands and to live in trailers infested with rats. The labor secretary in the Clinton administration, Robert B. Reich, called Mr. DeCoster’s operation “an agricultural sweatshop.”

Mr. DeCoster’s facilities have also been periodically raided by immigration officials. In 2003, Mr. DeCoster pleaded guilty to charges of knowingly hiring immigrants who were in the country illegally and he paid more than $2 million as part of a federal settlement.

Mr. DeCoster was also charged by Iowa authorities in the 1990s with violations of environmental rules governing hog manure runoff.

Ms. Mitchell said that Mr. DeCoster was not available for an interview.

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