2010年9月8日水曜日

米鶏卵サルモネラ汚染 原因は飼料か

米鶏卵のサルモネラ菌汚染の原因は飼料かもしれないと言う。
 米国で5億5千万個に上る殻つき生卵の自主回収につながったサルモネラ
菌汚染は、鶏に与える飼料に菌が混入していたことが原因である可能性が
高いことがFDAの調査でわかった。

原因と思われる内容
・飼料を製造していた一方の業者の施設で見つかったサルモネラ菌の
 遺伝子の型が、食中毒を起こした人から検出された菌の型と一致した。
・納屋にねずみ類の通り穴や隙間が大量にあり、視察の際にもねずみを
 見つけた。
・飼料置き場にねずみ類の通り穴を見つけた。
・作業者が建物から移動する際、防護服を着替えなかったり、道具を消毒
 しなかった。
・鶏卵を洗浄する水から、サルモネラ菌が見つかった。

鶏卵工場は、かなり不衛生で、今まで発生しなかったのが不思議なようだ。

米国の近年のサルモネラ菌汚染
2006年 ほうれん草
2007年 ホットドッグチリ(ピーナッツバター)
2008年 トマト
2009年 ピーナッツバター
2010年 鶏卵

米国の一部では、野菜を洗わず、そのまま食べるため、放射能で殺菌する
と言う報道があったが、相変わらず、サルモネラ菌汚染は減らない。
米国で、流通している食材で安全に食べられるものはあるのか。

FDA レタス等へ放射線殺菌認可
米国 無知でバーガー食べたら死亡
米サルモネラ汚染禍
米 鶏卵サルモネラ菌汚染の疑い


---卵のサルモネラ菌汚染、飼料が原因か 米当局調査---
2010年8月28日0時21分
http://www.asahi.com/international/update/0827/TKY201008270499.html

 【ワシントン=勝田敏彦】米国で5億5千万個に上る殻つき生卵の自主回収につながったサルモネラ菌汚染は、鶏に与える飼料に菌が混入していたことが原因である可能性が高いことが米食品医薬品局(FDA)の調査でわかった。米メディアが26日、一斉に伝えた。
 回収対象の卵はアイオワ州の二つの養鶏業者が生産した。報道によると、飼料を製造していた一方の業者の施設で見つかったサルモネラ菌の遺伝子の型が、食中毒を起こした人から検出された菌の型と一致した。この飼料はもう一方の業者に売られていた。
 今回のサルモネラ菌汚染では、約1500人が食中毒を起こしている。


---Food is safer despite latest egg outbreak---
By Carole Hawkins
Staff Writer
Saturday, Sept. 4, 2010
http://chronicle.augusta.com/news/metro/2010-09-04/food-safer-despite-latest-egg-outbreak?v=1283645216

Distribution compounds problem

Salmonella contaminated eggs have sickened 1,470 people in 17 states, including Georgia, over the past four months. It's a story that seems familiar.

In 2009, grocery foods laced with salmonella-infected peanut butter sent hundreds of people across 43 states to hospitals.

In 2008, it was a 41-state e. coli outbreak from contaminated tomatoes. In 2007 contaminated hot dog chili produced at Augusta's Castleberry's Food Co. plant, pot pies and peanut butter caused three separate multistate outbreaks. In 2006, it was e. coli tainted spinach.

In the wake of the 2010 egg-salmonella crisis, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Monday repeated calls for passage of a bill that would, among other things, give the agency new powers to inspect and enforce disease-prevention plans at food-production facilities.

Statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, though, show our food is safer than ever. Food-borne-disease outbreaks fell by 8 percent in 2007, the most recent year reported, and the number of outbreak-related illnesses was 15 percent lower when compared to the preceding five years.

The problem, said Robert Tauxe, the deputy director of the CDC's Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, is not larger amounts of unsafe food or more sick people.

Instead, the way food-borne disease outbreaks happen has changed. So regulators are seeking new tools to prevent them.

"When I started here 27 years ago, outbreaks were localized events," Tauxe said. "You'd see 30 people who got sick at a wedding reception or catered event or 50 people who got ill from a local restaurant or church supper."

Historically, the county health department would enforce the needed safety rules through restaurant and retail inspections. That's still happening, but now large outbreaks covering many states are also happening. In these cases contamination is occurring higher up in the food-production chain.

"It used to be the eggs we were eating in Georgia were mostly from Georgia. But now food is not so local. We produce eggs, meat and poultry on giant farms and ranches, and they get shipped out over the whole country," Tauxe said. "When it's done well, you have a lot of safe food. But when there's a problem, it's a much bigger problem."

Besides being bigger, these outbreaks are also tougher to detect. When a local emergency room gets 50 patients with salmonella infections, it's obvious they're related, said Tauxe. But when 50 people across several states get sick, it's harder to make the connection.

In the 1990s the CDC created a nationwide database for health agencies to upload the DNA fingerprints of food-borne infections. The system, called PulseNet, enables CDC scientists to more quickly identify a multistate outbreak, allowing it to be contained sooner.

It's how the egg-salmonella outbreak was discovered, but the system still does nothing to prevent the outbreaks from occurring in the first place.

Michael Taylor, the FDA's deputy commissioner for food, said at a press briefing Monday that new regulations would reduce that risk.

A new egg-safety rule that requires egg producers to follow specific safety standards and allows the FDA to inspect for compliance took effect in July, he said. Over the next 15 months, the FDA will inspect all egg-production facilities that have 50,000 laying hens, which accounts for 80 percent of egg production.

"It's also important that legislation pending in Congress be passed that will strengthen our ability to enforce FDA requirements," Taylor said.

The legislation would give the FDA better access to company records and authority to recall products, he said. Companies now conduct recalls voluntarily.

Tauxe said consumers and food retailers should also become more active players in food safety.

"It's important that consumers handle food safely and purchase safe foods, such as pasteurized products," he said.

"It's also important that food companies make sure their processes are safe. Most food we eat goes through grocery and restaurant chains -- these chains need to be sure they are buying safe food and handling it safely."


---Egg Farms Violated Safety Rules---
By WILLIAM NEUMAN
Published: August 30, 2010
http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/31/business/31eggs.html?src=me

Barns infested with flies, maggots and scurrying rodents, and overflowing manure pits were among the widespread food safety problems that federal inspectors found at a group of Iowa egg farms at the heart of a nationwide recall and salmonella outbreak.

Inspection reports released by the Food and Drug Administration on Monday described - often in nose-pinching detail - possible ways that salmonella could have been spread undetected through the vast complexes of two companies.

The inspections, conducted over the last three weeks, were the first to check compliance by large egg-producing companies with new federal egg safety rules that were written well before the current outbreak, but went into effect only last month.

“Clearly the observations here reflect significant deviations from what’s expected,” said Michael R. Taylor, deputy commissioner for food for the F.D.A.

Mr. Taylor said that in response to the outbreak and recall, F.D.A. inspectors would visit all of the 600 major egg-producing facilities in the country over the next 15 months. Those farms, with 50,000 or more hens each, represent about 80 percent of nationwide egg production.

The recall, which began Aug. 13, involves more than half a billion eggs from the Iowa operations of two leading egg producers, Wright County Egg and Hillandale Farms. About 1,500 reported cases of Salmonella enteritidis have been linked to tainted eggs since the spring - the largest known outbreak associated with that strain of salmonella.

The F.D.A. inspection reports portray areas of filth and poor sanitation at both operations, including many instances of rodents, wild birds or hens escaped from cages - all of which can carry salmonella - appearing to have had free run of the facilities.

It was difficult to gauge from the report how extensive the problems were. Both companies operate vast facilities housing seven million hens. Wright County Egg says inspectors visited 73 barns on its five egg farms.

Both companies said that they had acted quickly to correct problems and were continuing to cooperate with regulators. The reports cited numerous instances in which both companies had failed to follow through on basic measures meant to keep chickens from becoming infected with salmonella, which can cause them to lay eggs containing the bacteria.

“That is not good management, bottom line,” said Kenneth E. Anderson, a professor of poultry science at North Carolina State University. “I am surprised that an operation was being operated in that manner in this day and age.”

Inspection visits to Wright County Egg found barns with abundant rodent holes and gaps in doors, siding and foundations where rodents could enter. Inspectors spotted mice scampering about 11 laying houses.

Inspectors said that many of the barns lacked separate entrances, so that workers had to walk through one barn to get into another - conditions that could allow workers to track bacteria between barns. In addition, workers were seen moving from barn to barn without changing protective clothing or cleaning tools.

The report on Wright County Egg also described pits beneath laying houses where chicken manure was piled four to eight feet high. It also described hens that had escaped from laying cages tracking through the manure.

Officials last week said that they were taking a close look at a feed mill operated by Wright County Egg, after tests found salmonella in bone meal, a feed ingredient, and in feed given to young birds, known as pullets. The young birds were raised to become laying hens at both Wright County Egg and Hillandale.

The inspection report helped fill in the picture of the feed mill as a potential source of contamination, saying that birds were seen roosting and flying about the facility. (Officials said both wild birds and escaped hens were found at the mill.)

Nesting material was seen in parts of the mill, including the ingredient storage area and an area where trucks were loaded. The report also said that there were numerous holes in bins or other structures open to the outdoors. That included the bin containing meat and bone meal that provided the feed ingredient sample in which salmonella was found.

Officials said last week that they had found traces of salmonella similar to the strain associated with the outbreak in a total of six test samples taken from Wright County Egg facilities. That included the two feed tests and four tests taken from walkways or other areas.

On Monday, officials said for the first time that they had also found salmonella at a Hillandale facility. The bacteria was found in water that had been used to wash eggs.

The inspection report on Hillandale showed many problems similar to those found at Wright County Egg, including hens tracking through manure piles and signs of rodent infestation.

F.D.A. officials said they were not permitted to discuss possible enforcement actions. But, according to Mr. Taylor, the law allows for civil actions like injunctions as well as criminal prosecution.

“We are in the process of analyzing this evidence and considering what enforcement actions would be appropriate,” Mr. Taylor said.

Officials said their investigation was continuing and they were not yet able to say how the salmonella had gotten into the laying operations.

Wright County Egg is owned by Jack DeCoster, who has a long history of environmental, labor and immigration violations at egg operations in Maine, Iowa and elsewhere. The inspection report identified Mr. DeCoster’s son, Peter DeCoster, as the chief operating officer of the Iowa operation.

Both companies have stopped selling shell eggs to consumers from their Iowa facilities and instead are sending all their eggs to breaking plants where they are pasteurized, which kills the bacteria. The eggs would then most likely be sold in liquid form, possibly to food manufacturers.

Symptoms of salmonella include diarrhea, vomiting and stomach cramps. The bacteria is killed by pasteurization or by thoroughly cooking the eggs.

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