2010年10月22日金曜日

国連制裁決議無視で孤立する中国

複数の中国企業が国連制裁決議を無視したようだ。
 複数の中国企業が、今年6月に採択された国連安全保障理事会の対イラン
制裁決議に違反し、イランの核・ミサイル開発を支援していると伝えた。
 米政府の対イラン・北朝鮮制裁担当調整官が訪中した際、制裁に違反する
企業のリストを示して支援停止を求めたという。
複数の中国企業は規制対象の技術や物資を提供しているほか、中国の銀行が
取引に関与している模様だという。

米国、EU、日本、韓国、豪と加はイランのエネルギーセクターへの投資を
制限するために法律を可決し、行動を起こしている。
露も行動を起こした。

中国がすでにイラク石油・天然ガス分野における最大の投資国。

AIGは、イラン向けの輸出や現地での組み立てを行う中国の二輪車メーカー
カ帆実業集団のIPOで、株式13.5%を保有しているため、「数千万ドル」を
手にする公算が大きい。
カ帆実業集団はイランに二輪車を輸出するほか、同社の製品を組み立てる
ライセンス契約を現地の工場と結んでいるという。

中国は、新中派の民主党だから、切羽詰るまで抑制しないだろうし、
米国も声を上げても行動には移さないようだから、大目に見ている感がある。

INPEX撤退後に、中国企業が請負っていると言う報道もある。
もしかして、米中政府は、イランをだしにして、日本企業や欧州企業を
追い出しをしたのかもしれない。


中国企業が核兵器開発に協力 米政府が規制求める(10/10/19) テレビ朝日


---複数の中国企業、イランの核開発支援…米紙---
2010年10月19日13時51分 読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/news/20101019-OYT1T00529.htm

 【ワシントン=本間圭一】18日付の米紙ワシントン・ポストは、米政府高官の話として、複数の中国企業が、今年6月に採択された国連安全保障理事会の対イラン制裁決議に違反し、イランの核・ミサイル開発を支援していると伝えた。
 米政府のロバート・アインホーン対イラン・北朝鮮制裁担当調整官が9月に訪中した際、制裁に違反する企業のリストを示して支援停止を求めたという。日欧の企業がイランから撤退する中、中国企業によるイランとの不正取引疑惑が表面化した形だ。
 同紙によると、複数の中国企業は規制対象の技術や物資を提供しているほか、中国の銀行が取引に関与している模様だという。
 クローリー米国務次官補(広報担当)は18日の記者会見で、報道内容を事実上認めた上で、中国が米側に対し、指摘された企業の調査を行うと約束したことを明らかにした。


---イラン大統領、核協議再開に同意 強硬姿勢を強調---
2010.10.18 Mon posted at: 10:14 JST
http://www.cnn.co.jp/world/30000571.html

 (CNN) イランのアフマディネジャド大統領は、国連安全保障理事会常任理事国にドイツを加えた6カ国との間で核開発問題をめぐる協議を再開することに同意する一方、平和的な核開発の権利は譲れないとの強硬姿勢を貫いている。
 国営プレスTVによると、大統領は17日、同国北西部アルデビルでの集会で、6カ国側に対し「イランとの対話はそちらにとって最良の道だ。ほかの選択肢はすべて閉ざされている」などと語った。
 また国営イラン学生通信(ISNA)によると、6カ国側に「協議の目的は友好か敵対か。論理と法に従うのか、あるいは決議を出して脅すつもりか」と問いかけ、イスラエルの核能力に対しても圧力をかけるべきだと迫った。
 協議は2009年10月を最後に中断している。欧州連合(EU)が11月中旬に協議を再開する案を出し、イランのモッタキ外相は16日、11月15日の開催が提案されたと述べていた。
 国連はイラン核問題をめぐり、同国に4件の制裁を科してきた。米国とEUもそれぞれ独自の制裁措置を取っている。一方、アフマディネジャド大統領はプレスTVに「制裁や脅しでイランを弱体化させようとしたのだろうが、イラン国民はそれを跳ね返し、団結力と強さを示してきた」と主張した。
 ファルス通信によると、イランと6カ国側との貿易総額は過去半年間で93億ドルと、12%増を記録。その大半を中国が占めた。対米貿易では輸入が激減したものの、輸出は倍増し、7700万ドルに達したという。


---US fears Chinese companies are breaking Iran sanctions---
18 October 2010 Last updated at 20:59 GMT
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-11567740

The United States has asked the Chinese government to do more to stop Chinese companies helping Iran with its nuclear programme and missile technology.

A senior US official told the BBC that Washington had provided Beijing with a list of firms it believed had been operating in violation of UN sanctions.

Beijing promised it was committed to implementing the sanctions and that it would investigate, the official added.

The US believes Iran is seeking to build a nuclear bomb. Iran denies this.

In June, the UN Security Council imposed a fourth round of sanctions on Iran over its refusal to halt uranium enrichment activities.

The technology used to enrich uranium for use as fuel for nuclear power can also be used to enrich the uranium to the higher level needed to produce a nuclear explosion. Tehran says its intentions are peaceful.
Centrifuges

On Sunday, the Washington Post reported that the US intelligence believed several Chinese companies and banks were involved in providing restricted technology to Iran, mostly for its missile programme.

A second official, also speaking anonymously, told the Post that Chinese companies had been discovered selling Iran high-quality carbon fibre, which could help make better centrifuges needed to enrich uranium.
Continue reading the main story
“Start Quote

We did provide some information to China on specific concerns ... the Chinese assured us they will investigate”

End Quote PJ Crowley US state department spokesman

In 2008, Iran allegedly obtained 108 pressure gauges, which are critical to the functioning of a centrifuge, from one Chinese company.

On Monday, a senior US official told the BBC that the concerns were raised during a visit to Beijing last month by state department official Robert Einhorn, who oversees the enforcement of sanctions against Iran and North Korea.

The official said the Chinese government had promised it was committed to implementing UN resolutions against Iran, and that Washington expected it to take the appropriate steps to stop any violations.

"We did provide some information to China on specific concerns about individual Chinese companies and the Chinese assured us that they will investigate," state department spokesman PJ Crowley later told reporters.

The BBC's Kim Ghattas in Washington says it is believed that Chinese officials did not authorise the activity of the companies.

When sanctions were passed this summer at the UN, the US and the EU were concerned that Chinese companies would fill the vacuum left by Western companies pulling out of Iran, our correspondent adds.

On Sunday, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said it was ready to resume negotiations with the West on its nuclear programme.


---Chinese firms bypass sanctions on Iran, U.S. says---
By John Pomfret
Monday, October 18, 2010

The Obama administration has concluded that Chinese firms are helping Iran to improve its missile technology and develop nuclear weapons, and has asked China to stop such activity, a senior U.S. official said.

During a visit to Beijing last month, a delegation led by Robert J. Einhorn, the State Department's special adviser for nonproliferation and arms control, handed a "significant list" of companies and banks to their Chinese counterparts, according to the senior U.S. official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss a sensitive issue in U.S.-Chinese relations. The official said the Obama administration thinks that the companies are violating U.N. sanctions, but that China did not authorize their activities.

The Obama administration faces a balancing act in pressing Beijing to stop the deals and limit Chinese investments in Iran's energy industry. U.S. officials say they need to preserve their ability to work with China on issues ranging from the value of its currency to the stability of North Korea. But the administration also wants to make progress in efforts to dissuade Iran from building a nuclear weapon and to convince other powerful states that China is not receiving lenient treatment because of its energy needs.

"My government will investigate the issues raised by the U.S. side," said Wang Baodong, a spokesman for the Chinese Embassy.

Einhorn's trip is part of a worldwide effort by the Obama administration to persuade countries to push Iran to enter into negotiations over its nuclear program, which the Islamic Republic says is peaceful. The Obama administration has cobbled together a growing network of countries and companies that have announced measures to cut investments in Iran.

China's involvement in Iran's energy sector and the role that some of its companies are believed to be playing in Tehran's military modernization could disrupt U.S.-Chinese relations. In a recent meetings on Capitol Hill, China's outgoing deputy chief of mission, Xie Feng, was told that "if he ever wanted to see Congress united, Democrats and Republicans, it would be on the issue of China's interaction with Iran," one participant said, speaking on condition of anonymity to disclose a private discussion.

After the U.N. Security Council authorized enhanced sanctions against Iran in June, the United States, the European Union, Japan, South Korea, Australia and Canada passed laws to further restrict investment in Iran's energy sector. The U.S. law authorized the president to sanction any company found to be selling gasoline to Iran or that had invested $20 million or more in Iran's energy sector. INPEX, the Japanese energy giant, announced last week that it was pulling out of Iran.

China thus becomes the last major economy with significant investments in Iran's energy industry. Russia does not have major investments there and recently canceled the sale of an advanced antiaircraft missile to Iran, refunding the $900 million sticker price.

"China now is the only country with a major oil and gas industry that's prepared to deal with Iran," the U.S. official said. "Everyone else has pulled out. They stand alone."

Each nation, particularly permanent members of the Security Council such as China, is responsible for abiding by the U.N. sanctions.

If one country does not, others can point out those failures, which is what Einhorn did. Other nations can also ban their companies from doing business with the wayward firms. The U.S. government did that at least 62 times with Chinese companies during President George W. Bush's first term, generally regarding missile-technology deals with Iran.

The U.S. official speaking anonymously said U.S. intelligence thinks that Chinese companies and banks have been involved in providing restricted technology and materials to Iran's military programs. He said that these deals occurred both before and after the enhanced U.N. sanctions were approved in June.

The U.S. official said that most of the deals concerned Iran's missile program. However, a senior official from a Western intelligence agency said Chinese firms were also discovered selling high-quality carbon fiber to Iran to help it build better centrifuges, which are used in enriching uranium. The official said he had no information to corroborate that reporting.

The official declined to say how many companies were on the list or to name the companies. He added that some of the company names were provided to the Chinese as case studies of how sanctions were being violated and that others were cited as examples of "ongoing concerns."

Other officials and analysts said the number of firms involved in not following sanctions was less important than the quality of the technology Iran was obtaining. In 2008, for example, Iran obtained 108 pressure gauges, which are critical to the functioning of a centrifuge, from one Chinese company.

A year earlier, a small company in the Chinese port city of Dalian provided Iran with a range of sensitive materials, including graphite, tungsten copper, tungsten powder, high- strength aluminum alloys and high-strength maraging steel, again for its nuclear program. That firm allegedly received payment from Iran via U.S. banks.

The U.S. official credited China with working hard to establish the bureaucratic structures and laws to control the export of sensitive technologies, but he said China so far has not devoted resources to crack down on violators.

"China has come a long way in putting in place an export-control system," he said. "But it's one thing to have a system that looks good on the books and it's another thing to have a system that they enforce conscientiously. . . . Where China's system is deficient is on the enforcement side."

China is generally believed to have supplied Pakistan with a blueprint for a nuclear weapon in the 1970s. But Bonnie S. Glaser of the Center for Strategic and International Studies said most experts agree that since the late 1990s, China has taken the issue more seriously. Some have argued that President Bill Clinton's administration persuaded China to embrace the issue because it was important to the United States. Others have said China itself understood that selling missile and nuclear weapons-technology, especially to neighbors such as North Korea, was a bad idea.

Both the Clinton and George W. Bush administrations determined that China's government was no longer intentionally proliferating. That conclusion allowed Bush to open the door for U.S. nuclear-energy technology to be sold to China in contracts that are expected to be worth billions.

During the trip to China, the U.S. delegation also pushed oil companies, specifically the China National Petroleum Corp. and the China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation, to stop or limit their investments in Iran. Both firms have been in negotiations to invest billions in Iran's energy sector although, according to Erica Downs of the Brookings Institution, it is unclear how much they have spent there.

The delegation informed the Chinese of the ramifications that the new U.S. law - the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act of 2010 - might have for Chinese firms and banks that continued to conduct business in Iran.

"Any Chinese enterprise that has . . . a big stake in good business relations with the United States would have to be mindful of U.S. laws," the U.S. official said.

Still, the official said, the U.S. delegation emphasized that China did not have to cut back on purchases of energy from Iran, from which China obtains around 8 percent of its oil. Nor does China need to end its "energy cooperation with Iran on a permanent basis," he said.

"What we want is some near-term pragmatic restraint," he said.

This approach, according to Downs, could spell trouble with European and Asian firms and their governments.

"What the Japanese and European companies are most concerned about is that they've left projects that are real prizes in Iran," she said. "Their biggest concern is stepping away under pressure and having the Chinese go in."

"We believe normal trade and economic cooperation with Iran that don't violate U.N. resolutions should not be hurt or disturbed," said Wang, the embassy spokesman.


---U.S. deal with European oil firms hobbles Iran Air---
By Thomas Erdbrink
Sunday, October 17, 2010
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/16/AR2010101602968.html

TEHRAN - A recent agreement between four of Europe's largest oil companies and the United States aimed at further isolating Iran is already having an impact, with Iran Air, the Islamic republic's national carrier, unable to refuel its planes in most of Europe.

The fueling problem follows a new push by the Obama administration to move beyond the strict letter of sanctions it imposed to a broader attempt to discourage international businesses from dealing with Iran.

It also illustrates a shift away from an earlier U.S. policy of reaching out to the Iranian people and trying to target mostly state organizations central to Iran's nuclear program. Officials now admit that the increased pressure is hurting ordinary Iranians but say they should blame their leaders for the Islamic republic's increasing isolation.

Under the agreeement, announced in Washington on Sept. 30, Total of France, Statoil of Norway, Eni of Italy, and Royal Dutch Shell of Britain and the Netherlands pledged to end their investments in Iran and avoid new activity in the country's energy sector. In turn, U.S. officials said, the companies would be protected from possible U.S. penalties for doing business with Iran.

In recent weeks, several major oil firms, including British Petroleum, Royal Dutch Shell and Q8, have abruptlycanceled jet fuel delivery contracts with Iran Air. The move by some big oil companies that were not part of the September agreement appears to indicate a ripple effect across the industry, as administration officials had hoped.

"The goal here is . . . to end companies from doing business within Iran," Deputy Secretary of State James B. Steinberg said when he announced the deal. He added that he hoped others would "see that this is what responsible companies are doing and that they should follow in those footsteps."

As a result of the canceled jet fuel contracts, all Iran Air planes departing from destinations such as Amsterdam, London and Stockholm are now forced to make lengthy fuel stops either at an airport in Germany or one in Austria, where Total of France and OMV of Austria are still providing the 66-year-old airline with jet fuel until their contracts run out, possibly as soon as next month. At that point,Iran Air could be forced to cancel or severely reduce flights.

During such a stop in the Austrian capital last Sunday, several passengers complained about the unannounced stop. "What do we have to do with our government?" an Iranian man asked loudly, after discovering to his surprise that the plane had landed on the Vienna tarmac. "We are becoming prisoners because of these disagreements between Iran and America.''

Iran Air's refueling problems come as the U.S. attempts to pressure the Islamic republic to abandon its nuclear program by targeting those who do business with Iran in the fields of finance, insurance, and transportation.

Earlier moves to isolate Iran focussed on Iranian state organizations suspected of producing a nuclear weapon such as the Revolutionary Guard Corps or the Iranian Atomic Energy Organization. But the latest sanctions, which included restrictions on the sale of refined oil products to Iran, as well as the growing pressure on businesses to steer clear of Iran, are now affecting the private sector and ordinary civilians. For example, it is becoming increasingly difficult to import items from luxury cars to raw materials.

Last week, Japan's top oil explorer, Inpex Corp., said it had pulled out of Iran's Azadegan oil field project, citing concerns that the U.S. sanctions could make it more difficult for the company to raise money from U.S. banks.

Iran Air, a state airline, is the main lifeline for Iranians with the outside world. Nearly 500,000 passengers a year fly between Tehran and 11 European capitals and beyond, a top Iran Air official said.

"We will continue to fly to Europe, if needed even with half occupancy to save fuel which we can bring from Tehran," said Mohammad Jalali, an Amsterdam-based district manager for Iran Air. "But we are losing time, money and passengers," he said.

President Obama told Persian language BBC Farsi channel in September that he was "concerned" for the Iranian people, but that they have to blame their leaders for the increasing isolation their country faces.

State Department spokesman P.J. Crowley said Friday that the administration was "directing our efforts at entities that we think support the government and its policies," but acknowledged that "there are ripple effects and that there are impacts that go beyond that."

"We want to see the Iranian people have the same opportunities to travel, to engage, as others in the region and around the world have," Crowley said. "And the only thing that's impeding Iran from having that kind of relationship with the United States and the rest of the world is the government and policies of Iran."

Under sanctions passed by Congress in July, jet fuel sales of as much as $5 million a year are permitted. Sanctions by the European Union specifically single out the civilian operations of Iran Air as being allowed, and do not call for restrictions against the airline. Jalali of Iran Air Amsterdam - an average station for the airline in Europe - said it purchased far below the $5 million limit.

After its delivery contract with Q8 was suddenly terminated by the Kuwaiti company, Iran Air approached all other possible sellers without success. "None of the oil companies are telling us why they have broken their contracts. We have agreements to operate from European countries; we are entitled to our fuel," Jalali said in an interview last week.

Representatives for major oil firms say jet fuel sales to Iran Air are good business but too dangerous to pursue given the treat of sanctions by the United States. "All big oil companies are in daily contact with the U.S. State Department regarding Iran," said a representative of a major oil firm on the condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the subject. "Be sure that the Obama administration is fully aware of the situation Iran Air is in."

Austrian oil company OMV, which is still delivering jet fuel to Iran Air planes in Vienna, said in its contract with Iran Air is "in line with all regulations by the E.U. and the United Nations." A person authorized to speak for the company said that commitments would be honored "for the time being." A representative of Total of France, which is supplying Iran Air in Cologne, Germany, said it was not able to respond to questions currently. Total is one of the companies that agreed with the United States to end all investments in Iran.

Iran Air is planning to take its case to the international court of justice in The Hague. "Traveling is a human right, airline conventions are broken and neither the European Union, U.S. or United Nations sanctions are calling for these restrictions against us," Jalali said. "This is a low-level war between Iran and the U.S., but I don't want our passengers to be in the middle."


---米AIG:イランに絡む中国バイクメーカーIPOで利益も-SCMP---
更新日時: 2010/10/15 13:19 JST
http://www.bloomberg.co.jp/apps/news?pid=90920008&sid=a.6P_vhS5G4c

 10月15日(ブルームバーグ):米アメリカン・インターナショナル・グループ(AIG)は、イラン向けの輸出や現地での組み立てを行う中国の二輪車メーカーの新規株式公開(IPO)で「数千万ドル」を手にする公算が大きい。香港の英字紙、サウスチャイナ・モーニング・ポスト(オンライン版)が15日報じた。
 同紙がAIGの広報担当バイスプレジデント、マーク・ハー氏(ニューヨーク在勤)の話を引用して伝えたところによれば、同社は傘下のある部門を通じて重慶市に拠点を置くカ帆実業集団の株式の13.5%を保有している。同社はイランに二輪車を輸出するほか、同社の製品を組み立てるライセンス契約を現地の工場と結んでいるという。
 同紙によれば、ハー氏はカ帆実業への投資について、米国の法律に違反するものではないと説明。米財務省報道官の1人は匿名でこの件に関して、イラン制裁法には抵触しないようだと語ったという。中国証券監督管理委員会(証監会)が15日にカ帆実業のIPO申請に関する予備審査を行うと同紙は伝えている。


---中国:イラン最大の投資国となる---
2010/10/05 17:36
http://www.chinapress.jp/cat37/23142/

 2010年10月5日、イギリスメディアが、中国がすでにイラク石油・天然ガス分野における最大の投資国となっていることを指摘している。
 2009年、中国はイラクと5億7700万ドルの契約を締結、240億バレルの石油採掘権を獲得した。これは同期にアメリカが達成した契約の2倍に相当する。
 中国はすでにイラク石油埋蔵量の5分の1近い採掘権を得ており、イラク石油市場において1人勝ちの状態であるという。

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