2011年2月19日土曜日

Coke Pepsi 発がん性物質混入報告

CokeとPepsiに発がん性物質混入が報告された。
 CSPIは、着色料としてコーラ飲料やソースなど幅広い食品に使われる
特定のカラメル色素が、がんの原因になるとして、FDAに禁止を求める
請願書を提出した。

CSPIの主張
・コーラ類の人口着色料は、高圧力と温度の下、アンモニアと亜硝酸塩を
 化合させた砂糖によって作られる。
・人口着色料は、2-メチルイミダゾールや4-メチルイミダゾールが形成
 される。
・NTP(America’s National Toxicology Program)は、4-メチルイミダゾール
 は、発がん性があることを証明。
・カリフォルニア大学は、コーラの5ブランドより、4-メチルイミダゾール
 を発見。
・コーラの着色料は、カラメルIVまたは、アンモニア亜硫酸塩プロセス
 キャラメル

コカコーラ
・研究は、我々が使うキャラメルがガンを引き起こさないことを示す。
・2-メチルイミダゾールは含まない。
・4-メチルイミダゾールは含む。

Cokeのレシピが公開されたが、中身は、コリアンダー、キャラメル、
ネロリ油とシナモンとのこと。
コカコーラ社のメディア戦略との説もある。

FDAは調査を始めたようだ。
カラメルによる着色は、中ザラ糖、コーヒーシュガーや三温糖等でも
使われており、コーラ類と同様のカラメルを使っているのだろうか。


Coca Cola's secret recipe 'found' Al Jazeera


---米消費者団体:コーラ着色料はがんの原因 禁止求める---
毎日新聞 2011年2月17日 18時41分
http://mainichi.jp/select/world/america/news/20110218k0000m030017000c.html

 米消費者団体、公益科学センター(CSPI)は16日、着色料としてコーラ飲料やソースなど幅広い食品に使われる特定のカラメル色素が、がんの原因になるとして、米食品医薬品局(FDA)に禁止を求める請願書を提出した。
 請願書によると、米政府による動物実験で、アンモニウム化合物を加えて製造されるカラメル色素に発がん性があると報告されている。
 CSPIは、コーラ飲料などに含まれる糖分の方が肥満などにつながる「より大きな健康リスク」と指摘。カラメル色素が「何千人もの米国民のがんを引き起こしている可能性がある」と訴えている。(共同)


---Cancer fear over cola colourings: Call to ban ingredient used in Coke and Pepsi
By Sean Poulter
Last updated at 9:57 AM on 17th February 2011
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-1357787/Coca-cola-Pepsi-ingredient-cancer-risk-Call-ban-colouring-agent.html?ito=feeds-newsxml

An ingredient used in Coca-Cola and Pepsi is a cancer risk and should be banned, an influential lobby group has claimed.

The concerns relate to an artificial brown colouring agent that the researchers say could be causing thousands of cancers.

‘The caramel colouring used in Coca-Cola, Pepsi, and other foods is contaminated with two cancer-causing chemicals and should be banned,’ said the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), a health lobby group based in Washington, DC.

‘In contrast to the caramel one might make at home by melting sugar in a saucepan, the artificial brown colouring in colas and some other products is made by reacting sugars with ammonia and sulphites under high pressure and temperatures.

‘Chemical reactions result in the formation of two substances known as 2-MI and 4-MI which in government-conducted studies caused lung, liver, or thyroid cancer or leukaemia in laboratory mice or rats.’

America’s National Toxicology Program says that there is ‘clear evidence’ that both 2-MI and 4-MI are animal carcinogens, and therefore likely to pose a risk to humans.

Researchers at the University of California, Davis, found significant levels of 4-MI in five brands of cola.

The executive director of the CSPI, Michael F Jacobson, has petitioned America’s food regulator, the Food & Drug Administration, to take action.He said: ‘Carcinogenic colourings have no place in the food supply, especially considering that their only function is a cosmetic one.’

Mr Jacobson said the name ‘caramel colouring’ does not accurately describe the additives, explaining: ‘It’s a concentrated dark brown mixture of chemicals that simply does not occur in nature.’

He added that while regular caramel could not be described as healthy, ‘at least it is not tainted with carcinogens’.

U.S. regulations distinguish between four types of caramel colouring, two of which are produced with ammonia and two without it. The CSPI wants the two made with ammonia to be banned and has received backing from five prominent cancer experts, including several who have worked at the National Toxicology Program.

The type used in colas and other dark soft drinks is known as Caramel IV, or ammonia sulphite process caramel. Caramel III, which is produced with ammonia but not sulphites, is sometimes used in beer, soy sauce, and other foods.

The CSPI admitted that any risk associated with consumption of the chemicals would be extremely small. It said the ten teaspoons of sugar found in a can of regular cola would be more of a health problem.

However, it argued the levels of 4-MI in the tested colas still may be causing thousands of cancers in the U.S. population alone.

Earlier this week, it was claimed that Coca-Cola’s secret recipe had been leaked. It was even suggested it might be possible to recreate the taste and look on the kitchen table.

The leak claims were denied by the company, where a spokesman said: ‘Many third parties have tried to crack our secret formula. Try as they might, they’ve been unsuccessful because there is only one “Real Thing”.’

Coca-Cola and Pepsi did not respond to a request for a response to the CSPI claims.

This morning Coca-Cola rejected the CSPI’s concerns.

A spokesman said: ‘Our beverages are completely safe. CSPI’s statement irresponsibly insinuates that the caramel used in our beverages is unsafe and
maliciously raises cancer concerns among consumers.

'This does a disservice to the very public for which CSPI purports to serve.

‘Studies show that the caramel we use does not cause cancer.’

The company said its drinks do not contain 2-MEI. It said they do contain 4-MEI in trace amounts.

It said: ‘These extrapolations by CSPI to human health and cancer are totally unfounded.’


---Do the Chemicals That Turn Soda Brown Also Cause Cancer?---
By Bryan Walsh Thursday, February 17, 2011
http://healthland.time.com/2011/02/17/do-the-chemicals-that-turn-soda-brown-also-cause-cancer/

Soda is not good for you. The high-calorie, sugary drinks have been linked to obesity and a host of other health problems. Soda can be particularly dangerous to children, who can consume lots of calories quickly through colas and other pop without feeling full. And then there's the dental toll - it doesn't take a peer-reviewed study to tell you that drinking lots of sweetened soda isn't great for your teeth.

But soda isn't just water, corn syrup and carbonation - a can of Coke or Pepsi also contains chemical additives for coloring and flavoring. And according to one public health group, those additives could increase your chance of getting cancer.

That's the message from the Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), a Washington-based consumer watchdog group. CSPI has petitioned the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to ban the "caramel coloring" that is used in Coke, Pepsi and other sodas, on the grounds that the chemicals are carcinogenic.

CSPI says the artificial brown coloring - which doesn't have much to do with actual caramel, despite the name - is made by reacting corn sugar with ammonia and sulfites under high pressures and at high temperatures. (Just like Mom used to do it!) Those reactions produce the chemicals 2-methylimidazole and 4-methylimidazole - chemicals that government studies have found to cause lung, liver or thyroid cancer in lab rats or mice. "It's a small but significant risk, and it's the kind of thing that government agencies should deal with," says Michael Jacobson, the executive director of CSPI.

Is Jacobson right? A 2007 study by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found "clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of 4-methylimidazole (4-MEI) in male and
female B6C3F1 mice based on increased incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar neoplasms," otherwise known as lung tumors. The state of California has also concluded that 4-MEI is a carcinogen, and is in the process of crafting regulations that may require food and drinks containing significant levels of the chemical to bear cancer warnings.

According to California's regulators, a level of more than 16 micrograms per day would pose a significant risk - meaning it could result in at least one excess case of cancer per 100,000 exposed people. Given that there are roughly 130 micrograms of 4-MI per 12-ounce can of soda - and given that the average American drinks 14 ounces of soda a day, with young men drinking far more - that would mean that most of us would be at some risk.

As a result, CSPI has been petitioning the FDA to change the name or ban the use of the chemicals in soda and other foods, or at least force manufacturers to put warning labels on their packaging. "We think industry can solve this problem," says Jacobson. "They don't want to put warning labels on their products."

The soda industry, however, is fighting back. In a statement the American Beverage Association - an industry group that includes soda makers - denied that 4-MEI posed any danger to human health:

4-MEI is not a threat to human health. There is no evidence that 4-MEI causes cancer in humans. No health regulatory agency around the globe, including the Food and Drug Administration, has said that 4-MEI is a human carcinogen. This petition is nothing more than another attempt to scare consumers by an advocacy group long-dedicated to attacking the food and beverage industry.

In California a number of industry groups - including the American Beverage Association - have filed a lawsuit against state regulators to block efforts to list 4-MEI as a carcinogen:

The state agency's decision does not reflect sound science and failed to follow its own regulations. Also, it did not take into account all the data available on the subject in this process.

For its part, the FDA says that it is reviewing CSPI's petition and examining the data on 2-MEI and 4-MEI. Douglas Karas, a spokesman for the FDA, told me in an email:

FDA is currently assessing potential consumer exposure to 4-MEI and 2-MEI from consumption of the ingredient caramel to determine if any appreciable risk exists from exposure to these impurities. FDA's assessment will dictate what, if any, regulatory action needs to be taken. This assessment will be used to help respond to any petition FDA receives regarding 4-MEI and 2-MEI in caramel.

But Karas also noted that the NTP studies were conducted with rodents, and that the exposure levels far exceeded what human beings are likely to be exposed to in the course of their soda-drinking diet. (I'm still waiting to hear back from the folks at NTP.)

It's also true that neither 2-MEI nor 4-MEI are on the NTP's list of "known carcinogens," despite the conclusion in that 2007 report that there was "clear evidence" 4-MEI was connected to cancers in animals. Fred Guengerich, a biochemist at Vanderbilt University, told ABC News that he was sanguine about potential risk posed by 2-MEI and 4-MEI:

Basically my advice would be just to relax ... I did some simple
math. ... If you look at the study in terms of what the
mice got, in terms of causing any effect, a human
being would have to drink more than 1,000 sodas a
day.

Jacobson himself admits that even if 2-MEI and 4-MEI slightly increase the chance of cancers, the far greater risk posed by soda is for obesity - which is itself connected to some cancers. "The contaminants pose a small risk compared to all that sugar," Jacobson says. Cancer or not, that's a good reason to avoid becoming a popaholic.


---A claim to Coke's original recipe, from AJC archives, causes stir---
11:20 a.m. Wednesday, February 16, 2011
By Katie Leslie
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution
http://www.ajc.com/news/a-claim-to-cokes-839780.html?cxtype=rss_news

Move over, WikiLeaks. A nationally syndicated public radio show claims to have released one of America's most closely guarded secrets -- an original recipe for Coca-Cola -- and it's causing an international frenzy.

"This American Life" found the list of ingredients deep within the archives of The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, in a 1979 column by Charles Salter. The radio segment aired on various public radio stations over the weekend.

By Tuesday, story had gone viral on the Internet and on Twitter; the radio show's website buckled for the first time ever under the weight of unprecedented traffic; the story had appeared in languages ranging from Portuguese to Arabic; and reporters and executives for "This American Life" and the Atlanta Journal-Constitution were getting media requests from around the world.

"I think other people are having the same reaction to this when I had when I first saw this article in the AJC. This supposedly secret recipe has been hiding in plain sight for 30 years,"This American Life" host Ira Glass said Tuesday. "I think we all know Coca-Cola. We all have heard about the incredible secrecy. But no no, it’s not a secret. It’s been sitting out there for years."

Indeed, the Coca-Cola Company has for decades cultivated a mystique surrounding its trademark formula, even calling it by the cloak-and-dagger name "Merchandise 7x." The actual recipe is claimed to be kept under lock and key in a bank vault accessible by only two Coca-Cola employees.

Beverage industry analyst John Sicher wasn't surprised by the buzz surrounding the story. He says anyone can replicate Coca-Cola, but not its brand.

"Today, anybody with access to a sophisticated chemistry laboratory could analyze the formula of Coke, but no one can call a product called Coke other than the Coca-Cola Company," said Sicher, editor and publisher of "Beverage Digest." "The so-called 'secret formula' is a wonderful story of lore and mystery, but in reality, the value today is the brand, not the formula."

The urban myth-busting website Snopes.com classifies much of the lore as no more than clever marketing. Coca-Cola has used tales of Cold War-worthy secrecy measures, Snopes.com says, "to enhance consumer perception of Coca-Cola’s specialness ... the belief that anything so closely guarded must be special indeed."

Glass stumbled upon the recipe while reviewing Salter's "Georgia Rambler" columns. The ingredients include coca -- of course -- as well as coriander, caramel, neroli oil and cinnamon. (The list also includes alcohol, a component that Coca-Cola says has long been absent from the mix.)

Salter, who is related to a "This American Life" producer, retired in 1998 but remains in Atlanta. He said he got the recipe from former fishing buddy, pharmacist Everett Beal, in 1979. Beal had found the recipe years earlier, written in a more than century-old hand-written ledger, Salter said.

"Everett said very casually, ‘Charles, I think I have something that might interest you," he said. "As a columnist, I could hear the bells ringing. I thought holy mackerel, this is going to be a good column whether it’s the right formula or not."

Salter took the recipe, which he photographed from Beal's ledger, to Coca-Cola's public relations team. The company laughed off the possibility that he had struck gold.

"He said ‘I can just about assure you this is not what you think it is,' " Salter said. "He said a very, very small number of people know the formula. It’s locked in the vault."

Coca-Cola's public relations strategy hasn't changed much in the 32 years since.

Spokeswoman Kerry Tressler denies that "This American Life" cracked the code. Coca-Cola's archivist, Phil Mooney, participated in the broadcast and tasted a batch brewed according to the recipe. He said it didn't quite replicate the soda.

" ‘This American Life,' along with many other third parties, have tried over time to crack our secret formula," Tressler said. "At the end of the day, there is only one ‘real thing.' "

Salter said Beal, who died last year, believed to the end that he had an original recipe and was even working on a book about his findings. But neither man received the kind of attention generated by the radio story.

"It does show the changing times of the instant transmission of news," he said. "As a retired newspaper man, I can tell you I am gratified that something I wrote in 1979 has still attracted attention and interest."

Glass, for his part, said he believes Salter and Beal did indeed find an original recipe. Glass's team consulted historian Mark Pendergrast, author of "For God, Country and Coca-Cola," and compared the recipe to another believed to have been used by the creator of the Coca-Cola syrup, John Pemberton.

"I believe that Pemberton himself made this recipe, either as his first version of Coca-Cola or as one of the versions early on in trying to make this stuff," Glass said.

In any case, he said that in the course of doing his research, he rediscovered his love for Coke. Before this story, Glass said, he hadn't consumed one in at least two decades.

Now, he said, he's become addicted to the beverage. "I feel like Coke has had its revenge on me, because I’ve become a customer."

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