2012年7月31日火曜日

Murdoch resigns UK Newspapers

マードックが英新聞会社の3部門の取締役を辞任した。
 米メディア企業ニューズ・コープのルパート・マードック会長兼CEOは、
英新聞部門ニューズ・インターナショナルを含む同社の3部門で取締役を
辞任した。同社は出版部門と娯楽部門に会社を分割する準備を進めている。

Rupert Murdock
・取締役辞任
 News Corporation UK,India,US and Australia
  娯楽部門と、新聞・出版部門を分離。
  分割後も株式議決権の4割を保有。
 News Internationa Group LTD,
  タイムズやサンデー・タイムズ、大衆紙サンの発行元
 NewsCorp Investments
 Times Newspaper Holdings

クレア・エンダース
・全ては英国から遠ざかる動きの一環
・一族との関係を切り離す動きが進んでいる。結局ジェームズ氏、
 ルパート氏ともに不祥事に異なる形で深くかかわっている。
 だからこういう結果になっている

トム・モクリッジ
・会長として引き続き事業に深く関与する。

NotW盗聴の議会報告書
News International and Phone-hacking
・Rupert Murdoch CEOは、国際的な大企業の経営者として適任ではない。
・James Murdochに問題の責任がある。
・News InternationalとNews Corp.は、問題を「見て見ぬふり」した。
 幹部には最終的な責任がある。
・不正行為を暴き実行者を罰するのではなく、手遅れになるまで隠蔽
 しようというのが首尾一貫した彼らの動機だった。
・報告書は委員会の過半数の支持を得て承認。
 保守党メンバーは、同社を率いるのにふさわしくないとする箇所に
 同意しないとして、反対した。

News Corp.
・報告書を慎重に精査。
・Notwにおける不正を十分認識しており、プライバシーを侵害された
 すべての関係者に謝罪する

NotWの盗聴事件
・被害者総数2615人、うち702人は有名人、政治家、運動選手。
・盗まれた携帯電話二台から、情報を入手。
・公務員への贈収賄で、41人が逮捕。
 元現ジャーナリスト23人、警官4人、元現公務員9人等
・NIとTrinity Mirror、Express News papersより刑務所の看守へ55000
 ポンドを提供。
・Mirror and Star papersも提供。
・Trinity Mirrorは、別の刑務官へ14000ポンドを提供。

News Corp.の分割は、NotW盗聴事件が大きく影響し、株主と英議会に
よる圧力とのこと。
NotWの盗聴事件は、多くの新聞社と警察、政治家が関与。
英国は、NotW盗聴だけでなく、イングランド銀行総裁が黙認したとされる
LIBOR問題もある。
LIBOR賠償請求が発生した場合、金融機関に税金投入するのか。
英国は、金融もメディアも信用が落ちた。
ロンドンオリンピック開催している場合か。

マードック議会召喚へ
マードック 英議会で責任否定
英国 ケータイ盗聴スキャンダル
米メディア 報道の倫理
NotW 盗聴は周知の事実
NotW 盗聴公聴会
LIBOR 構造的欠陥


Rupert Murdoch Quits as Chair of UK Boards


---米ニューズのマードック会長、英新聞部門などの取締役辞任---
更新日時: 2012/07/23 08:30 JST
http://www.bloomberg.co.jp/news/123-M7KXXM6JIJVF01.html

 7月22日(ブルームバーグ):米メディア企業ニューズ・コープのルパート・マードック会長兼最高経営責任者(CEO)は、英新聞部門ニューズ・インターナショナルを含む同社の3部門で取締役を辞任した。同社は出版部門と娯楽部門に会社を分割する準備を進めている。
 英当局への届け出によると、マードック氏(81)はニューズコープ・インベストメンツとタイムズ・ニューズペーパーズ・ホールディングスの取締役も辞任した。ニューズ・インターナショナルは高級紙タイムズやサンデー・タイムズ、大衆紙サンの発行元。
 今年に入ってマードック氏の息子、ジェームズ氏がニューズの複数の新聞部門で取締役を辞任していた。マードック一族が経営への関与を後退させるのは、1年に及ぶ英新聞事業の不祥事を受けたものだ。この不祥事は他の同社事業の足かせにもなっていると見られている。
 メディア調査会社エンダース・アナリシスのメディア・アナリスト、クレア・エンダース氏は、「全ては英国から遠ざかる動きの一環だ」とし、「一族との関係を切り離す動きが進んでいる。結局ジェームズ氏、ルパート氏ともに不祥事に異なる形で深くかかわっている。だからこういう結果になっている」と述べた。
 一方、ニューズ・インターナショナルのトム・モクリッジCEOは電子メールで社員に宛てたメモで、マードック氏は「会長として引き続き事業に深く関与する」と説明した。このメールについて詳しい関係者1人が明らかにした。メモが非公開であることを理由に匿名で語った。


---「英中銀総裁は知っていた」 BIS、08年にLIBOR不正を示唆---
2012.7.21 05:00
http://www.sankeibiz.jp/compliance/news/120721/cpd1207210502005-n1.htm

 英銀バークレイズはロンドン銀行間取引金利(LIBOR)の不正操作を認めたが、この事実は米シティグループや国際決済銀行(BIS)などがLIBORの操作を当時示唆していながら、監督当局や中央銀行、政治家がいずれも見過ごしていたことを浮き彫りにしている。
 BISは2008年3月にLIBORの不正操作を示唆。その1カ月後、シティのアナリストらが同じ問題を指摘した。同年5月にはバークレイズのストラテジストの一人が銀行の申告金利は「うそだった」と告白していた。
 LIBORの不正操作をめぐっては、シティや英ロイヤル・バンク・オブ・スコットランド・グループ(RBS)、スイスのUBS、英ロイズ・バンキング・グループ、ドイツ銀行など少なくとも12行が当局の調査を受けている。03年からイングランド銀行(英中銀)の総裁を務めるキング氏は今週、LIBORに不正があったことを知ったのはごく最近だと釈明した。
 ロッチデール・セキュリティーズ(フロリダ州)のアナリスト、リチャード・ボーブ氏は、ニューヨーク連銀からの電子メールはキング総裁がLIBORの不正申告を認識していたに違いないことを示唆しているが、信用危機への対応に取り組む中で当局者にはこの不正を看過する動機が存在したと話す。
 同氏は18日の電話インタビューで、「キング総裁が気付いていなかったというなら、彼はニューヨーク連銀総裁からの問い合わせを無視していたということだ」と語った。
 バンク・オブ・モントリオールのグローバル通貨ストラテジスト、アンドルー・ブッシュ氏(シカゴ在勤)は17日の電話インタビューで、「キング総裁が認識していたかどうか、それをいつ知ったかというのは憶測にすぎないが、何が起きているのかを多くの関係者は気付いていたし、いくらか混乱していた」と語った。
 キング総裁は17日開かれた英議会の財務委員会で、08年当時のガイトナー・ニューヨーク連銀総裁から受け取った文書にLIBORの不正は指摘されていなかったと証言。電子メールに記されていたのは不正の疑惑ではなく、LIBORのルールに関する提案だったと述べた。(ブルームバーグ John Detrixhe)


---「マードック帝国」分割 米ニューズ、娯楽と新聞・出版部門---
2012.6.27 08:35
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/entertainments/news/120627/ent12062708360006-n1.htm

 【ニューヨーク=黒沢潤】「メディア王」ルパート・マードック氏率いる米ニューズ・コーポレーションは26日、自社を2つの上場企業に分割することを検討していると発表した。米メディアによると、全売上高の75%を占めるテレビや映画などの娯楽部門と、新聞・出版部門を切り離す見通しという。
 数年前から、収益で劣る新聞・出版部門の分離を模索する動きはあったが、傘下の英日曜紙ニューズ・オブ・ザ・ワールドが盗聴事件で廃刊したことを受け、株主から分社化要求が強まっていた。
 買収攻勢で拡大してきたニューズ・コーポレーションにとり、分割は大きな転換点となるが、分割後も株式議決権の4割を持つマードック氏一族の影響力は温存される見込みという。
 昨年6月までの1年間、売上高が235億ドルに上った同社の娯楽部門には、映画の20世紀フォックスや米FOXテレビなどがある。一方、売上高88億ドルの出版部門には、米紙ウォールストリート・ジャーナル、英紙タイムズ、書籍のハーパー・コリンズなどがある。
 分割発表を受け、ニューズ株は26日の米株式市場で前日比8%強上昇した。


---英大衆紙盗聴事件で元編集長を訴追、マードック氏の側近---
2012年 05月 16日 10:11 JST
http://jp.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idJPTYE84F00920120516

 [ロンドン 15日 ロイター] 英捜査当局は15日、盗聴事件で廃刊になった英大衆紙ニューズ・オブ・ザ・ワールド元編集長のレベッカ・ブルックス容疑者(43)を司法妨害の疑いで訴追した。同事件で容疑者が訴追されるのは初めて。
 ブルックス容疑者は部下らと共謀して、ロンドンの同紙オフィスにあった資料やコンピューターなどを移動し、警察の捜査から隠そうとしたとされている。有罪になれば、禁錮刑が科せられる可能性がある。
 また、ブルックス容疑者の夫と部下4人も同時に訴追された。
 ブルックス容疑者は、親会社の米ニューズ・コーポレーションを率いるルパート・マードック会長兼最高経営責任者(CEO)の側近で、キャメロン英首相とも親交が深く、今回の訴追は2人にとって打撃と言える。


---米ニューズ・マードック氏、トップに不適切=英議会---
2012年 05月 2日 02:37 JST
http://jp.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idJPTJE84000820120501

 [ロンドン 1日 ロイター] 英議会の委員会は1日、廃刊した英日曜大衆紙「ニューズ・オブ・ザ・ワールド」の盗聴事件をめぐる報告書を公表した。その中で、米メディア大手ニューズ・コーポレーションのルパート・マードック会長兼最高経営責任者(CEO)は、盗聴事件を招く企業体質を作り出した責任があるとし、同社を率いるにはふさわしくないと批判した。
 また、マードック氏と、同氏の次男でワールド紙の発行元だったニューズ・インターナショナルの会長を務めるジェームズ・マードック氏に問題の責任があるとの見解を示した。
 報告書は「ニューズ・インターナショナルおよび親会社のニューズ・コーポレーションは、問題を『見て見ぬふり』しており、ルパート・マードック氏やジェームズ・マードック氏ら幹部には最終的な責任がある」と指摘。「不正行為を暴き実行者を罰するのではなく、手遅れになるまで隠蔽(いんぺい)しようというのが首尾一貫した彼らの動機だった」とした。
 その上で「ルパート・マードック氏は国際的な大企業の経営者として適任ではない」と断じた。
 米紙ウォールストリート・ジャーナル(WSJ)や20世紀フォックスなど、ニューズ・コーポレーションの傘下企業のほとんどは、今回の盗聴事件による影響を受けていないが、議会報告書がニューズ株主にルパート・マードック氏の退任を要求するよう促す可能性がある。
 報告書は委員会の過半数の支持を得て承認されたが、キャメロン首相の保守党メンバーは、ルパート・マードック氏が同社を率いるのにふさわしくないとする箇所に同意しないとして、反対票を投じた。
 キャメロン首相に対しては、今週の地方選挙を控え、マードック氏との緊密な関係をめぐり強い批判が出ている。
 一方、ニューズは声明で、報告書を慎重に精査しているとし、「ニューズ・オブ・ザ・ワールド」における不正を十分認識しており、プライバシーを侵害されたすべての関係者に謝罪する」との見解を明らかにした。


---Murdoch allies await hacking charges update---
By Michael Holden
LONDON | Mon Jul 23, 2012 9:34pm BST
http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/07/23/uk-britain-hacking-idUKBRE86M0MU20120723

(Reuters) - Rupert Murdoch's former British newspaper boss and Prime Minister David Cameron's ex-media chief could find out on Tuesday whether they will be prosecuted in a phone-hacking inquiry that has shaken the British establishment.

Rebekah Brooks, who ran Murdoch's UK papers and was courted by successive British leaders, is the most high profile figure to be arrested during an investigation into allegations newspapers listened to the private messages of royals, celebrities and even a teenage murder victim.

The scandal has rocked Murdoch's News Corp, put the notoriously aggressive press under the spotlight and embarrassed senior politicians, including Cameron, over their often cosy ties with the Australian-born businessman.

Cameron's former communications chief Andy Coulson, who also edited Murdoch's now defunct News of the World, is among about a dozen of the paper's former staff awaiting an update on their cases from prosecutors at 1000 GMT on Tuesday.

Britain's Crown Prosecution Service will give details of any criminal charges in the hacking inquiry, although a final decision on every case may not be announced.

Brooks has already been charged with conspiracy to pervert the course of justice, accused of hindering the police investigation into phone hacking and corruption by staff at his British tabloids.

The detective leading the hacking inquiry said earlier a parallel investigation into corrupt payments by journalists would be extended beyond Murdoch's British newspaper business to other publishers.

Since January last year, police have been working with Murdoch's News International, part of News Corp, to uncover wrongdoing among its staff over allegations journalists illegally accessed mobile phone voicemail messages.

That inquiry has since been expanded to look at corrupt payments to public officials and allegations of computer hacking.

News International has been particularly hit by the repercussions. Murdoch abandoned a bid to acquire the whole of the lucrative pay-TV group BSkyB, which would have been the biggest deal in News Corp's history. He also closed down the 168-year-old News of the World Sunday tabloid.

On Saturday, News Corp announced Murdoch was stepping down from a string of boards overseeing his British papers, reigniting speculation they might be sold.

"We believe his resignation is linked to the planned spin-off of the company's newspaper and other publishing businesses," ratings agency S&P said on Monday, adding the move had had no impact on its rating of the company.

TABLOID SCRUTINY

Now rival tabloids could face the same scrutiny over payments. Deputy Assistant Commissioner Sue Akers said the focus of her investigation was being extended to examine allegations against reporters at Trinity Mirror which publishes the Daily and Sunday Mirror, and Express Newspapers, which publishes the Daily and Sunday Star titles.

"Our ongoing investigation has recently revealed that in some cases where we've identified a public official who's received payments from News International, we've also established they have received payments from other newspapers," she told a public inquiry ordered by Cameron into media ethics.

Akers said their probe had discovered that a prison officer at a high security jail had been paid 35,000 pounds ($54,300) by News International, Trinity Mirror and Express Newspapers between April 2010 and June 2011.

Stories relating to the payments had been identified in the Mirror and Star papers, the inquiry heard, while another prison officer had received 14,000 pounds from Trinity Mirror.

"The majority of these stories reveal very limited material of genuine public interest," Akers said.

About 160 officers are examining reports that journalists at the News of the World routinely hacked into the phones of hundreds of celebrities, politicians and victims of crime to generate front-page stories.

Akers said they had notified 2,615 people who might have had their phone hacked, of which 702 were likely to have been victims.

The three investigations have led to more than 60 arrests including dozens of current and former journalists, some of whom held senior positions at News International titles. ($1 = 0.6447 British pounds)


---Murdoch Inquiry Extends to Cellphone Theft---
By JOHN F. BURNS and RAVI SOMAIYA
Published: July 23, 2012
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/24/world/europe/murdoch-probe-extends-to-cellphone-theft.html

LONDON - The phone hacking investigation of Rupert Murdoch’s tabloid newspapers in Britain has broadened to include allegations that information was obtained from stolen cellphones, the senior police officer in charge of Scotland Yard’s inquiry told a judicial inquiry Monday.

 The officer, Deputy Assistant Commissioner Sue Akers of Scotland Yard, offered new details into two other areas of alleged wrongdoing: payoffs to public officials, including prison staff members, by newspapers seeking confidential information, and illegal access to “medical, banking and other personal records,” by computer hacking or other means.

Ms. Akers, who was given broad powers last year to investigate free of oversight by Scotland Yard’s top commanders, was detailing the progress of police inquiries before a panel led by Lord Justice Sir Brian Leveson, which has been conducting its own inquiry for nine months.

Her disclosures added a new dimension to what has been a broadening pattern of wrongdoing - moving from industrial-scale use of phone hacking to get information on public figures to payoffs and obstruction of justice - that has spread beyond the Murdoch-owned papers.

Ms. Akers said Mr. Murdoch’s papers had obtained information from two stolen cellphones. One disappeared in Manchester, in northern England, and the other in southwest London. She said one of the phones appeared to have “been examined with a view to breaking its security code,” to gain access to its contents - presumably other phone numbers and perhaps e-mails, text messages and calendars. The authorities are trying to establish whether the thefts were isolated incidents or “the tip of the iceberg,” she said.

It was not clear whether the phones might have been stolen at the behest of tabloid reporters, or were passed on to them by others who found or stole the phones.

Officers are examining 101 allegations of data interception, Ms. Akers said, in an inquiry that has yielded seven arrests.

Another inquiry, into bribes paid to public officials, has led to 41 people being arrested - including 23 current and former journalists, four police officers, nine current and former public officials and others described as conduits for the bribes, Ms. Akers said. One prison official is accused of having received nearly $55,000 from Mr. Murdoch’s newspapers and from the rival Trinity Mirror and Express newspaper groups from April 2010 to June 2011, for information that Ms. Akers did not describe.

She said the initial investigation into phone hacking led to the arrest of 15 current and former journalists, 11 of whom will return to police stations on Tuesday as part of their bail conditions. The police have notified 2,615 people that they may have been targets, and 702 - many of them celebrities, politicians and sports stars - “are likely to have been victims” of actual voice mail interceptions, she said.

Thus far, only a handful of those arrested have been charged.

They include Rebekah Brooks, the former chief executive of Mr. Murdoch’s British newspaper group, News International, and her husband, Charlie Brooks, a horse trainer. Once close friends of Prime Minister David Cameron, they will appear in court in September on charges of perverting the course of justice.


---Rupert Murdoch resigns as News International director---
22 July 2012 Last updated at 05:58 GMT
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-18940016

Rupert Murdoch has resigned from a string of directorships controlling his News Corporation's UK newspapers.

Mr Murdoch, 81, quit directorships at NI Group Ltd, NewsCorp Investments and Times Newspaper Holdings on Friday.

News Corp plans to split into two firms, separating its newspaper and book publishing interests from its now dominant TV and film enterprises.

Mr Murdoch is expected to chair both businesses but to be chief executive only of the TV and film side.

News International has sought to play down the significance of the resignations.
'Corporate house-cleaning'

A spokesman said: "Last week, Mr Murdoch stepped down from a number of boards, many of them small subsidiary boards, both in the UK and US.

"This is nothing more than a corporate house-cleaning exercise prior to the company split."

Media commentator Steve Hewlett told the BBC it was "no surprise" News Corporation was moving away from its newspaper investments because declining circulation in the industry and the phone-hacking scandal had made for "a nightmare".

He added: "For Rupert Murdoch to make this move, however, away from these titles, which he has invested 40 years of his life in, is plainly significant."

Labour MP Tom Watson, a long-time critic of the Murdoch empire, agreed that it was a significant move.

He said: "It was only a few months ago when he told the members of the Sun team that he'd lived and breathed the paper for the last 40 years and he wasn't going anywhere.

"Well, few of them believed that at the time and I think the resignation this week proves it. He's jettisoning those parts of the company that have become an embarrassment and he's leaving those people that stuck with him for many decades behind."

When News Corp announced on 28 June that it would divide itself into two separate businesses, it said that Mr Murdoch would chair both of them - although he would continue as chief executive of only the TV, film and entertainment one.
'Remains committed'

The split will see News Corp's film and television businesses - including 20th Century Fox and the Fox broadcasting network - grouped in one company.

The other company will hold all News Corp's publishing interests, such as the Wall Street Journal, the Times, the Sun, the Australian, the New York Post and publisher HarperCollins.

BBC business editor Robert Peston says Mr Murdoch also resigned from a number of News Corporation boards, in the US, Australia and India.

Mr Murdoch has resigned from about a dozen News Corporation boards in total, our correspondent says.

He says that in terms of structure, NewsCorp Investments sits just below News Corporation; NI Group Ltd sits below NewsCorp Investments and owns the UK newspaper interests, and Times News Holdings.

NI boss Tom Mockridge has sent an email to staff which says that Mr Murdoch remains committed to chairing the newspaper interests when they are demerged from News Corporation.

The announcement that News Corp was to split came following pressure from shareholders and UK politicians over the phone-hacking scandal.

Last year it emerged that journalists at News International publication the News of the World had been illicitly accessing the voicemails of prominent people to find stories.

Claims that NoW journalists had hacked the voicemail of murdered schoolgirl Milly Dowler led to the closure of the Sunday tabloid, and later an inquiry into press standards by Lord Justice Leveson.

The inquiry is due to hear closing submissions on Tuesday.

In May, News Corp's board gave their backing to Mr Murdoch after a UK parliamentary media committee report accused him of being "not a fit person" to run a major international business.

His son James resigned as chairman of UK broadcaster BSkyB in April in effort to distance that company from the phone-hacking scandal.

He also stood down as chairman of the newspaper publisher, News International, in March.

Our correspondent says some might argue that Mr Murdoch's resignations from the New Corp subsidiaries has a symbolic significance, given that his British newspapers - namely the Sun, Times, Sunday Times, and now defunct News of the World - had loomed so large in his long career.

"But I am not sure that his departure from these boards tell us anything much about how long he will remain chairman of their parent and therefore associated with them," he added.

2012年7月30日月曜日

そこまでホラ吹いて委員会

「そこまでホラ吹いて委員会」が面白かった。
読売テレビ系「そこまでホラ吹いて委員会」7月28日放送で、調査への
辛坊が足りないホラ吹治郎太の発言は正しくないと思う。
「飛行機というのは、ひとつの飛行機のパイロットの免許で全部の飛行機
に乗れるんです。基本的には、ところが、ヘリコプタだけは、一機毎に
ぜんぶの操縦免許が違う位難しい。(意図訳)」

大阪航空HPに記載されているが、日本の民間機操縦士技能証明書の分類は、
少なくとも3種類。さらに、機種、等級と分かれる。
パイロットの免許制度| 遊覧飛行の大阪航空:

自衛隊の場合でも、戦闘機の操縦課程があり、3種類に分類される。
戦闘機操縦者になるまで

FAAによる米国の民間機の場合、Aircraft category ratingsは、7種類。
SS61.5   Certificates and ratings issued under this part.

米海軍でも、操縦機種毎の課程(FRS:Fleet Replacement Squadron)が
決められており、課程を終了しないと別機による実戦操縦はできない。

百億単位の機体が操縦士のせいで、頻繁に事故を起こしていては、政府
や議員から、批判され、修理費や再整備、上層部更迭等の問題が発生し、
軍として行動ができないだろう。
少し調べればわかることだったと思う。
ヘリコプタの操縦免許に関しては、概ね合っているか。

オスプレイの追い風による墜落原因説は、報道の話。
オスプレイだけでなく、ヘリコプタは、着陸時に追い風だと、不安定に
なるため、操縦士は避け、対処方法もいくつかあるとのこと。
オスプレイ低空訓練の危険性は、ビルや山岳付近だと風が複雑に吹く
ため、他の回転翼機に比べて、一部の運用範囲が狭いオスプレイでは、
操縦士の腕が大きく影響と言うことだろう。
運用範囲が狭いのは構造的な問題、狭い運用範囲で操縦できないのは、
人的な問題と言うことか。

民主主義のコスト
境影響評価書はチラシの類
米軍 オスプレイの安全性未確認か
F22 嘉手納配備
ムラの展開


 オスプレイがプロペラ回す 米軍岩国基地、整備本格


MV-22 Osprey flight 1 of 2


MV-22 Osprey flight 2 of 2

駐中日本大使交代へ

駐中日本大使が交代するようだ。
 政府は、9月の通常国会閉会後に丹羽宇一郎駐中国大使を交代させる
方針を固めた。後任の調整を急いでいる。丹羽氏は6月、英紙のインタ
ビューで東京都による尖閣諸島(沖縄県石垣市)購入計画を批判した。
野田佳彦首相は尖閣諸島の国有化に意欲を示しているが、都の購入計画
を批判した丹羽氏の続投は政府方針に矛盾すると判断した。

外務省幹部
・日中国交正常化40周年がいい区切りだ。
 実際の交代は40年前に日中共同声明が署名された9月29日以後の見通し。

政府
・丹羽宇一郎の発言について、口頭注意以上の処分は行わない方針。
 尖閣国有化の手続きが進むと中国の反発が強まると予想され、丹羽
 宇一郎丹羽氏の続投は困難と判断。

小野寺五典
・大使の身分がこのままということになれば、日本政府として認めたと
 いうことになる。口頭注意というレベルではない。

人事異動で、丹羽宇一郎が交代となるようだ。
最近は、中国リスクと労働賃金高騰で、ブームが終焉に近いということ
だろう。

オバマの大統領選挙での論功行賞により、駐日米国大使となった弁護士
は、米国離れしている日本政府であっても、大使を更迭されていない。
やはり、御付の違いだろうか。
大統領から任命された大使と短命内閣から横やりで任命された老人。
母国への愛国心がかなり異なるようだ。

海外へ旅行または移住すれば、必然と愛国心が生まれると言われる。
最近は、国際試合が増え、国内にいながら、愛国心を持つ人が増えた。
伊藤忠の幹部だった大使をみれば、立場を変えても、身に付いた金儲け
主義を変えることはできなかったようだ。
外務省のチャイナスクールの講義を鵜呑みにし、加速し、踊らされたの
かもしれない。
どちらにしても、利益は生まれなかった。

そんなに愛着ある中国になぜ、丹羽宇一郎は、永住しないのかと思うが、
中国とって、金も情報ももたらさない丹羽宇一郎は、「役立たず」であ
ると理解しているのだろう。

自民党の一部議員は、民主党以上のことをしていたのに、批判できるのか。

反米の疾風
アマチュア外交を警戒する米国
経済制裁対策
反米支持増幅か
閣下の資質
駐上海韓国総領事館スキャンダル
トモダチ作戦終了
愛国親中 日本の国民感情はおかしい
選挙対策 尖閣諸島、米国


---丹羽大使9月交代 尖閣国有化に矛盾と判断---
2012.7.23 06:42
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/news/120723/plc12072306450006-n1.htm

 政府は22日、9月の通常国会閉会後に丹羽宇一郎駐中国大使を交代させる方針を固めた。後任の調整を急いでいる。丹羽氏は6月、英紙のインタビューで東京都による尖閣諸島(沖縄県石垣市)購入計画を批判した。野田佳彦首相は尖閣諸島の国有化に意欲を示しているが、都の購入計画を批判した丹羽氏の続投は政府方針に矛盾すると判断した。
 政府高官は産経新聞の取材に対し、「正式決定は通常国会の会期(9月8日)終了後になる」と述べた。外務省幹部は、「日中国交正常化40周年がいい区切りだ」と述べ、実際の交代は40年前に日中共同声明が署名された9月29日以後になるとの見通しを示した。
 丹羽氏は6月7日付の英紙フィナンシャル・タイムズのインタビューで、都の購入計画について「実行された場合、日中関係に極めて深刻な危機をもたらす」と発言した。
 政府は発言について「政府の立場とは異なる」として、丹羽氏に口頭注意したほか、今月15日には玄葉光一郎外相が丹羽氏を一時帰国させ、日本政府の考え方を中国側に正しく伝達するよう指示していた。
 政府はこれまで、丹羽氏の発言について、口頭注意以上の処分は行わない方針を示していた。
 だが、今後尖閣国有化の手続きが進むことに中国の反発が強まると予想される中で、丹羽氏の続投は困難だと判断した。
 ただ、岡田克也副総理が外相当時に「政権交代の象徴」として、丹羽氏起用を主導した経緯があることから、他の外務省幹部人事と同時に交代させることで、“更迭色”を薄める方向で検討している。
 丹羽氏の発言をめぐっては、自民党は「大使の身分がこのままということになれば、日本政府として認めたということになる。口頭注意というレベルではない」(小野寺五典外交部会長)などとして、更迭するよう強く求めていた。
 丹羽氏は伊藤忠商事の社長、会長を歴任した。平成22年6月に菅直人内閣が目玉人事として、民間出身の駐中国大使に起用した。


---中国メディア、丹羽大使の一時帰国は「抗議」 尖閣問題---
2012年7月16日20時25分
http://www.asahi.com/international/update/0716/TKY201207160272.html

 玄葉光一郎外相が丹羽宇一郎・駐中国大使を一時帰国させたことをめぐり、中国メディアは16日、「野田佳彦内閣が中国に強硬な姿勢を示し、民族主義的な勢力の機嫌を取る狙い」(新京報)などと、尖閣諸島(中国名・釣魚島)を巡る中国への「抗議」との見方を伝えた。
 同日、北京に帰任した丹羽大使は空港で記者団に「(玄葉外相と)よい話し合いができた」と述べるにとどめた。
 中国外務省は公式の反応を出していないが、同省関係者は「中国側の対日政策の詳細について報告を受けたかった」(玄葉外相)との日本側の説明に対し、「額面通り受けとめるわけにはいかない。真意は次の行動で見定める」と朝日新聞記者に話した。(北京=林望)


---対中外交の一貫性のなさ 丹羽氏処遇に悩む日本政府---
2012.7.16 01:18
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/news/120716/plc12071601190001-n1.htm

 政府は、東京都による尖閣諸島購入計画を批判した丹羽宇一郎駐中国大使を帰国させ、報告を求める異例の措置をとりながら更迭せずに帰任を許した。これでは中国への抗議の意味合いは薄く、むしろ政権の対中外交の一貫性のなさを浮き立たせただけに終わった。
 「報告と協議をします」
 15日午後、帰国した丹羽氏は成田ナンバーのタクシーで外務省に乗り付け、こう語ると足早にエレベーターに乗り込んだ。玄葉光一郎外相との面会後は硬い表情で「大臣に聞いてください」とだけ言い残し、外務省を後にした。
 一時帰国について玄葉氏は「昨今の日中情勢に鑑み、中国側の対日政策の詳細の報告を受けた」と説明したが、それならば公電で事足りる。丹羽氏に発言の真意をただすのが目的なのは明らか。あわよくば自発的な辞任を促したいとの思いも透けて見える。
 大使の帰国・召還には通常、相手国への抗議の意思を込める。平成22年11月1日にロシアのメドベージェフ大統領(当時)が北方領土・国後島を訪問した際、菅直人首相(同)が同月3日に河野雅治駐露大使を一時帰国させたのも抗議の意思表示だった。ただ、菅氏はむしろ駐露大使館の情報収集態勢を問題視し、翌年3月22日に河野氏をイタリア大使に転出させた。
 丹羽氏の一時帰国にも尖閣周辺に次々に監視船を繰り出す中国への抗議の意思を込めたようだが、すぐ帰任させては意味がない。
 しかも丹羽氏が中国に迎合するような発言をしたのは今回だけではない。尖閣国有化を模索する野田佳彦首相の方針と明らかに矛盾しており、「おとがめなし」の帰任は、「丹羽氏の発言を是とした」という誤ったメッセージを中国に送ることにもなりかねない。
 とはいえ、簡単に更迭できない事情もある。丹羽氏は岡田克也副総理が外相当時に「政治主導の象徴」として起用したからだ。更迭は「民主党外交の敗北」を認めるのに等しい。財界との関係も悪化しかねない。
 政府は夏の定期異動での「既定路線」として丹羽氏を穏便に交代させる構えだが、それでも「更迭」と受け止められるのは確実。かといって留任させれば尖閣問題はさらにこじれかねない。安易な「政治主導」のツケはあまりに大きい。
(杉本康士)


---玄葉外相、丹羽駐中国大使更迭を否定 「日本の考え方正しく伝達を」---
2012.7.15 22:47
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/news/120715/plc12071522480006-n1.htm

 玄葉光一郎外相は15日、東京都による尖閣諸島(沖縄県石垣市)購入計画を批判した丹羽宇一郎駐中国大使を一時帰国させ、事情を聴いた。玄葉氏は記者団に「丹羽氏に日本の考え方を正しく伝達するよう指示した」と語ったが、進退に関しては「(話を)していない」と述べ、更迭を重ねて否定した。丹羽氏は16日に北京に帰任する。
 外相が大使を一時帰国させて報告を求めるのは極めて異例。中国の漁業監視船が11、12両日に相次いで尖閣周辺の領海に侵入したことに抗議する意味合いもあるとみられる。
 丹羽氏は15日午後に帰国し、外務省で玄葉氏、佐々江賢一郎事務次官と約1時間面会した。外務省幹部によると、都の尖閣購入計画をめぐる発言について報告を受けた上で今後の対応を協議したという。
 丹羽氏は伊藤忠商事社長、会長を歴任。平成22年6月に菅直人内閣が駐中国大使起用を決めた。6月7日付の英紙で都の尖閣購入計画を「日中関係に極めて深刻な危機をもたらす」と批判し、外務省は「政府の立場とは異なる」と口頭注意にした。


---丹羽中国大使の交代論浮上…尖閣発言を問題視---
2012年7月14日08時47分  読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/politics/news/20120714-OYT1T00024.htm

 財界から起用された丹羽宇一郎中国大使の交代論が、政府内で浮上している。
 東京都による尖閣諸島購入計画についての不適切な発言が問題視されているためだが、更迭色を打ち消すため、夏の定期異動での交代を模索している。
 伊藤忠商事相談役だった丹羽氏は2010年6月、民主党政権の「脱官僚依存」の目玉として任命された。当時、外相だった岡田副総理が主導して決めた。
 丹羽氏は今年6月、英紙フィナンシャル・タイムズの取材に対し、都の尖閣諸島購入計画について「実行されれば日中関係が極めて重大な危機に陥る」と懸念を表明した。日本の領土である尖閣諸島を日中間の外交問題とみなす発言で、藤村官房長官が「個人的見解で、政府の立場を表明したものでは全くない」と打ち消す騒ぎとなった。政府は丹羽氏を続投させたが、石原慎太郎都知事が更迭を求めたほか、野党からも丹羽氏に強い批判が出た。

2012年7月29日日曜日

ムラの展開

原子力ムラと教育ムラ、防衛ムラ等のムラが展開している。

マスメディアと政治家が関与している国内問題は、TPP、消費税、原発、
教育、オスプレイ配備等、多くの国民とは異なる方針を示すことが多い。
昔で言うところの体制派と革命派の対立のようだ。
問題により、体制派に属したり、革命派に属したりする。

体制派が主流だった自民党にも革命派はいるし、革命派だったはずの
民主党は体制派が主流になった。

「報道の自由」の自由の定義は、不明だが、これらの問題に対して、
報道は同じ方向を向いている。自由は本当にあったのだろうか。
メディアムラが目立つようになったのかもしれない。

首相官邸前反原発デモでは、イデオロギーの宣伝になると最初は報道し
なかったが、突然、報道を始めた。(外務省による黒船来襲説あり)。
デモ参加者は、幟もなく、子連れの家族や高齢者が集まったと言うが、
過激派が集まり、先頭に立っているとも言う。

体制派の原発推進に賛同しても、尖閣諸島国有化に反対、逆に、脱原発
に賛成し、尖閣諸島国有化賛成と言うメディアもある。

そもそも、メディアなのに、検閲する体制派につくのかとも思う。
結局、メディアである前に、会社であって、資金は大切。
その上、保身のための情報源の確保も大切のようだ。

電力会社料金比率でも報道されたように、スポンサ(大口顧客)は、お得様
であって、ハードコピーにしろ、ソフトコピーにしろ、購読者(小口顧客)
は、一見さんも含め、ただの客と言うことか。

2011年の世界報道自由度ランキングを見れば、日本は、米英仏等よりも
上だが、独蘭加等よりも下。
Press Freedom Index 2011/2012

原子力ムラに始まり、教育ムラ、防衛ムラの目立ちようになり、次は、
メディアムラが目立つようになった。
「透明性を高める必要がある」との言葉が思い浮かぶ。

暴力装置に国士と呼ばれた元NHK経営委
大津市 市行政による中学生殺人隠蔽疑惑
選挙対策 尖閣諸島、米国
米軍 オスプレイの安全性未確認か
F22 嘉手納配備


官邸前の原発抗議活動 雨の中16回目


大津中2自殺事件で露呈・・・教育委員会の実態


野田総理は消費税、原発再稼働、オスプレイで三重苦(12/07/24)


トラブル続くF22を嘉手納に再配備へ 米国防総省(12/07/25)


---オスプレイ:「配備ありき」全国規模の反発招く---
毎日新聞 2012年07月23日 23時46分
http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20120724k0000m010127000c.html

 垂直離着陸輸送機MV22オスプレイ12機の米軍岩国基地(山口県岩国市)への陸揚げが23日強行され、日本政府は飛行ルートなど運用面の改善で地元の理解を得ようと懸命だ。しかし、米軍普天間飛行場(沖縄県宜野湾市)で10月初旬から本格運用する方針を変えない「配備ありき」の姿勢が全国規模の反発を招き、山口県の二井関成知事が在日米軍再編に伴う空中給油機や空母艦載機の岩国受け入れ拒否を示唆するなど、政府と地元の亀裂は深まる一方だ。
 「できるだけ海上を飛んで普天間飛行場に離着陸する飛行ルートについて新しい枠組みができるよう日米間で話し合っている」
 森本敏防衛相は23日、フジテレビの番組で、住宅地をできるだけ避ける飛行ルートを米側に求める方針を示したが、市街地に囲まれた普天間飛行場への配備にはどうしても危険がつきまとう。政府は運用開始後の安全管理についても、日米地位協定に基づく在日米軍との協議機関「日米合同委員会」の議題としたい考えで、藤村修官房長官は記者会見で「米側に日米合同委員会の開催を要求している」と説明した。


---“日教組のドン”輿石氏、トンデモ発言!いじめの責任追及を妨害か---
2012.07.20
http://www.zakzak.co.jp/society/politics/news/20120720/plt1207201536002-n1.htm

 民主党の輿石東幹事長が、大津市の男子中学生自殺問題で、責任追及を妨害するような発言をした。輿石氏は元小学校教師で、日本教職員組合(日教組)の支持を受けて連続3回当選しており、「日教組のドン」とも呼ばれている。
 問題発言は、19日の記者会見であった。輿石氏は自殺問題について「非常に残念なことだ」といいながら、「学校が悪い、先生が悪い、教育委員会が悪い、親が悪い、と言っている場合じゃない。みんなできちんとやっていかなければならない」と語ったのだ。
 日本教育再生機構理事長で、高崎経済大学の八木秀次教授は「信じられない発言だ。尊い人命が失われており、再発防止のためにも、どこに問題や責任があるのかを徹底的に追及すべきだ。輿石氏の発言は、仲間内の学校や教員委員会をかばい、激しい人権教育を行っていた日教組の問題を隠蔽するつもりではないのか」と批判している。


---次回デモではターゲットに? 官邸前デモ報道を国会記者会が妨害---
2012年7月20日 21:00
http://www.tax-hoken.com/news_adndyuYVWK.html

屋上の使用を求めて仮処分申請
 国会記者会が無料で賃借する国会記者会館は、首相官邸と国会議事堂の間に位置する。6日、官邸前デモを取材しようとしたビデオジャーナリストが会館屋上の使用を求めたところ、記者会に拒否されたため、屋上の使用許可を求めて仮処分申請をおこなった。

「居候」が同業者を閉め出し
 屋上を使用させるよう東京地裁に仮処分を申請したのは、NPO法人「Our Planet TV」と同法人代表理事の白石草さん。
 白石さんらは6日、盛り上がりを見せる官邸前デモを撮影するため、好位置にある国会記者会館の屋上を撮影場所として提供するよう国会記者会に求めたが、同会事務局に拒否された。
 国会記者会館は国有地に建つ。建設費は国が負担しており、衆議院事務局が所有する。大手新聞社やテレビ局などで構成する記者会は無料で「居候」しているだけだが、慣例として管理を任されている。
 白石さんらは12日、国会記者会に対して屋上の使用を求めるようFAXで要請。13日には弁護士を同伴して同会館を訪れたが、記者会の佐賀事務局長は「幹事社である共同通信、朝日新聞、西日本新聞、テレビ東京にはかったが、「認められない」との返答だった」として拒否した。
 国会記者会館には13日、「本日は会員社以外の立ち入りを禁じます」とする立て看板が立てられ、警察官が警備にあたった。
 こういった状況を受けて白石さんらは17日、屋上の使用を認めるよう東京地裁に仮処分申請をおこなった。

官邸前デモは取材させない
 首相官邸前で毎週おこなわれている原発反対デモについて、大手メディアは当初、徹底して「報道しない姿勢」を貫いてきた。規模が大きくなり、さすがに無視できなくなってからは報じるようになったが、そのあつかいは極端に小さい。
 その大手メディアが、撮影や取材に絶好のロケーションにある国会記者会館を占拠し、報道しようとする他のメディアを閉め出す理由として「混乱を避けるため」としかコメントしていない。
 超一等地にある国会記者会館の「家賃」は年間8億円と推計される。占拠する大手メディアはいっさい家賃を支払っていないため、負担しているのは一般の国民だ。 「国民の知る権利」に応えてもらうための負担だが、「居候」は報道という職責を果たさないばかりか、他のメディアを妨害するばかりである。
 官邸前デモでは、国民が権力の不当を糾弾すべく、声を上げている。次回のデモでは、国会記者会をも対象とすべきかもしれない。


---海外主要メディアの日本関連報道(7月13日~7月19日)---
平成24年7月19日
http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/press/sekai/2012/0719.html

大震災・原発事故
17日付ニューヨーク・タイムズ紙(米)「東京で過去最大の反原発デモ」ヒロコ・タブチ記者):
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/17/world/asia/thousands-gather-in-tokyo-to-protest-nuclear-restart.html?ref=hirokotabuchi

 福島原発事故以来最大規模の反原発集会が,16日に代々木公園で開かれた。音楽家の坂本龍一氏は,「福島原発事故後に沈黙を守るのは非人道的だ」と群衆に訴えた。世論調査は,日本の原子力の将来に関する国民の意見が依然として分かれていることを示している。反原発運動は,特に東京で勢いを得ており,現在では毎週数万人が総理官邸前に集まり反原発のスローガンを叫んでいる。反原発集会の主催者らは,一般的に体制順応的な日本の社会において,親しみやすいイメージを打ち出すために力を尽くしている。こうした認識は,60~70年代に発生した米国との安全保障条約に反対する大規模デモにおいて暴徒たちが鉄パイプや火炎瓶で武装し,警察と衝突した際の記憶に基づいている。反原発運動の意外な指導者の一人は,「もんじゅ君」と呼ばれる着ぐるみのキャラクターで,政府のエネルギー政策を分かりやすく批判し,ツイッターなどのソーシャルネットワークサイトでも多数のフォロワーを持つ。最近の世論調査は,脱原発派とエネルギー不足を懸念する原発推進派が依然として分裂していることを示している。また,大半の国民は原発に対する検査の強化を望んでいる。野田総理は,当初は反原発デモに対して「大きな音だ」と発言して怒りを買ったが,先週は,原発に対する賛否両論を十分承知していると述べた。

17日付フィナンシャル・タイムズ紙(英)「福島事故で勢いを増す原発反対デモ」ミュア・ディッキ東京支局長):
 福島第一原発の事故から1年以上が経ち,原発反対者たちが大きな勢いをつけ始めている。東京でのデモは珍しくないが,大抵は政策の限られた問題や労働に関するもので,数千人以上になるのは珍しい。ジャーナリストの鎌田慧氏は,「これまで日本国民はただひたすら我慢する国民だったが,ついにそれが変わりつつある」と語った。先週金曜日には首相官邸前で全労連関連団体やソーシャルメディアの力を使って結成された新しい活動団体が反対デモを行なった。彼らは,野田総理が大飯原発2基の再稼動を決めたことに憤慨し,結束している。
16日付フィナンシャル・タイムズ紙(英)(「私が日本の閉鎖的原子力村にいたころ」グレゴリー・クラーク元多摩大学学長寄稿):
 福島原発事故の原因の中に日本文化固有の要因が有るか否かにつき熱い議論がなされている。3年間原子力安全委員会の委員であった経験に基づき私は,過信,閉鎖的社会の心理,非常時用計画を策定することへの文化的な嫌悪,エリート大学出身者が官僚のトップを占めていること等を指摘したい。日本文化の良いところのみを残して,それ以外は捨て去るのが良い。

14~15日付ル・モンド紙(仏)(「原発とアジサイ」フィリップ・ポンス記者):
 日本ではデモの習慣は失われていたが,1ヶ月前から毎週金曜日の夕方,総理官邸の前で原発反対の抗議デモが行われている。デモの参加者は回を重ねる毎に増えている。しかし,国内の主要新聞の扱いは非常に小さく,NHKはこれを完全に無視している。参加者数は,主催者側の発表では10万人から15万人だが,警視庁はこの十分の一の数としている。今日日本で繰り広げられているデモは1960年の日米安保条約調印反対デモや,数十年前から続いている沖縄の米軍基地反対デモ以来最大規模だが,これは「アジサイ革命」につながるだろうか。反原発運動の組織はばらばらで,参加者は運動家というより個人としてデモに参加している。60年代及び70年代,原発に反対していたのは農業従事者や漁民で,自分たちの生活様式を守るためであった。その後,チェルノブイリ原発事故で主婦が反原発を訴えるようになり,その後環境保護派が反原発の先鋒を担ぐようになった。生活の不安定な人々の数が最近急増した日本では,福島原発事故後,これらの人々が新たに抗議活動に加わるようになった。生活の不安定な若者は,自分たちをマージナルな存在に追いやっている社会経済システムに対する欲求不満のはけ口として,時間的な余裕もあることから反原発運動に加わる。


---ツイッターで拡大 脱原発デモ 警備に四苦八苦---
2012.7.14 09:33
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/life/news/120714/trd12071409350001-n1.htm

 毎週金曜日に東京・永田町の首相官邸前で脱原発を訴えている抗議活動が13日も行われ、多くの一般参加者が集まった。インターネットの短文投稿サイト「ツイッター」の呼びかけで、予想ができない規模に拡大している抗議活動。今回も大きな混乱なく終わったが、中には過激派の活動家も交じっているとみられ、トラブルや事故防止で警備に当たった警視庁は、神経をとがらせている。

■参加者数にズレ
 13日の抗議活動では、参加者らが首相官邸前や周囲の歩道に長い列をつくり、プラカードなどを掲げ、「原発ノー」と声を上げた。
 主催者側から道路使用許可申請や集会・デモ申請はなく、警視庁の警察官らは、歩道に設定した抗議エリアに参加者を誘導。最寄りの地下鉄駅周辺では出入り口を限定するなどした結果、ほぼ事前に計画した警備の範囲内で終わった。
 ただ、抗議活動は正確な参加者数の把握が難しくなるほどに規模が大きくなっており、交通事故やトラブル防止の必要性が高まっているのは事実。
 一方で、特定の団体の組織的デモとは異なるため、規模の予想は難しく、警察幹部は「どの程度の警備が適正なのか考えさせられる。過剰な警備になって、抗議活動の妨げになっていると誤解されてもいけない」と話す。
 今回の参加者数は、警察関係者が参加者の列の幅や長さなどから1万人程度と推計したが、警視庁からの公式発表はなし。先週も警察関係者が2万人超と推計したのに対し、主催者側は約15万人と異なる数字を示した。

■過激派が混入
 さらに、警察当局が警戒するのが暴力的な行動をとってきた過激派。公安関係者によると、これまでにも中核派や革マルの活動家が数十人から200人レベルで、参加者に交じっていたのが確認されている。抗議活動には子供連れや高齢者の姿もあり、警察幹部は「警戒が必要」と話した。

2012年7月28日土曜日

F22 嘉手納配備

F22が嘉手納に配備されるようだ。
 米国防総省は、操縦士が低酸素症に似た症状を訴えたため、運用地域を
限定していた空軍の最新鋭ステルス戦闘機F22について、長距離飛行を伴う
運用を再開すると発表した。
近日中に米国内の基地から数機を米軍嘉手納基地へ派遣する。

George Little
・原因は操縦席の酸素供給システムの不備など。
・システムに改良を加えることで、酸素供給量を増やした。
・防止策は完了していない。
・飛行中は高度やルートに一定の制限を設ける。
・今秋までに対策を終えた後、制限を完全撤廃し、全面運用に踏み切る
 見通し。

F22のパイロットは、耐Gスーツの上に、圧力ベスト(?)を着用。
圧力ベストの位置により、圧力弁が不具合を起こし、酸素の供給を少なく
する場合がある。酸素供給路のチャコールフィルタを除去、弁を交換し、
供給量を増やしたが、圧力ベスト非着用時も問題が発生したため、根本的
な不具合が解消されたわけではないとのこと。
ロッキード・マーティンによる予備酸素システム(Automatic Backup
 Oxygen Supply)をF22に搭載することで解消するようだ。
予備酸素システム搭載の契約は、1900万ドル。
随意契約で、競争入札ではないと議員らは言うが、F22の全ての情報を
公開するわけではないので、新規に参入するのは技術的に難しいだろう。

オスプレイ到着で反対運動中の日本に、完全に問題が解消されていない
F22を飛行制限をつけながら配備することについて、米空軍参謀長は、
"the move makes sense"と言う。

F22が配備された時期は、北朝鮮や中国、東南アジアで不穏な動きが報告
された場合が多い。北朝鮮のミサイル試射(テポドン、光明星3号)があった。
何かあるのだろうか。
オスプレイ上陸やF22配備で、尖閣諸島や南沙諸島の領海侵犯が減ったと
の報道も見当たらない。
中国の嫌がらせに、台湾は、米空母配備で対応したが、オスプレイやF22
では、中国を牽制できないようだ。やっぱり、空母が必要か。

報告では、F22の航行に直接影響はないが、操縦士に危険が及ぶ。
オスプレイは、難操縦機。
機体の構造に問題が無くても、事故はなくならない。
そのうち、UAVのみで部隊が構成され配備が進めば、米兵の痛みはないから、
米軍は、墜落しても知らん顔するのだろうか。

ステルス機 嘉手納到着
F-35B First Flight
テポドン分析
光明星3号空中分解
米軍 オスプレイの安全性未確認か


NBC-Norfolk discusses F-22 oxygen-deficiency update from Rep. Kinzinger & Sen. Warner


トラブル続くF22を嘉手納に再配備へ 米国防総省(12/07/25)


---F22長距離飛行再開へ 操縦士、「低酸素症」続発 近日中に嘉手納派遣---
2012.7.25 08:09
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/politics/news/120725/plc12072508180007-n1.htm

 米国防総省は24日、操縦士が低酸素症に似た症状を訴えたため、運用地域を限定していた空軍の最新鋭ステルス戦闘機F22について、長距離飛行を伴う運用を再開すると発表した。近日中に米国内の基地から数機を米軍嘉手納基地(沖縄県嘉手納町など)へ派遣する。
 同省のリトル報道官によると、原因は操縦席の酸素供給システムの不備など。システムに改良を加えることで、酸素供給量を増やしたという。
 ただ防止策は完了していないとして、嘉手納へ向けての飛行中は高度やルートに一定の制限を設ける。今秋までに対策を終えた後、制限を完全撤廃し、全面運用に踏み切る見通しだ。
 F22は高度なステルス性と運動能力を兼備。しかし2008年以降、操縦士に低酸素症に似た症状が続発し問題化していた。(共同)


---米軍パイロット、圧力ベストの憂鬱---
2012.6.29 05:00
http://www.sankeibiz.jp/compliance/news/120629/cpd1206290505002-n1.htm

 米空軍では1年ほど前から、ロッキード・マーチンが製造する戦闘機「F22ラプター」で飛行するパイロットがめまいや方向感覚の混乱を訴えるという事例が発生している。その謎を解く新たな鍵が浮上した。圧力ベストの潜在的欠陥である。

◆呼吸困難招く欠陥か
 米空軍の航空戦闘軍団(ACC)は13日、軍が同問題を調査中であるとし、通常飛行時にこのベストを装着しないようパイロットに指示していることを明らかにした。圧力ベストは「耐Gスーツ」の一部で、高速飛行中にパイロットが意識を失うことを防ぐために使用される。しかし、ACCの声明によると「特定の状況下でパイロットの呼吸をより困難にする」場合があるという。
 これに先立って空軍から説明を受けたワーナー上院議員(バージニア州、民主)によると、海軍の潜水部門が調査に協力して圧力ベストを試験した結果、「欠陥率が極めて高い」ことが分かったという。
 空軍はF22のパイロットに発生する体調不良の原因を究明するため、ホース、マスク、耐Gスーツなどの一般的な装備から、機体のステルス性能を上げるための塗装や粘着剤といったトップシークレットに至るまで、あらゆる面から調査を進めている。現在のところ症状の解消法は見つかっていない。
 現在までにおよそ24人のパイロットと6人の地上整備員で、酸素欠乏に関連する症状が報告されている。F22の運航は安全上の懸念を理由に昨年4カ月にわたり中断したが、再開後に11件の事故が報告されている。
 ワーナー上院議員とキンジンガー下院議員(イリノイ州、共和)が14日に公開した空軍資料によると、昨年前半にF22のパイロットを対象に実施した調査において、パイロットの多くが同機の酸素システムに「安心感を持てなかった」と回答した。4カ月の運航中断はこの結果を踏まえたものだ。
 パネッタ国防長官は5月、飛行継続時間の制限や予備酸素システムの早期導入を含む新たな安全対策を打ち出した。
 2005年にF22の実戦配備完了が宣言されるまで、同機の酸素システムに関する問題は一度も検出されなかった。同機を開発中だった01~05年に国防総省で重要兵器の評価を担当していたトーマス・クリスティー氏は「空軍は徹底的に試験をしたはずだ。その中で、なぜ今われわれが経験しているような深刻な問題が表面化しなかったのか。すぐには見当がつかない」と述べた。
 国防総省は188機のF22の購入に670億ドル(約5兆3300億円)を費やしたが、戦闘では一度も使われていない。そして現在、イラクとアフガニスタンでの10年に及ぶ戦争を経て国防予算の削減が進められているにもかかわらず、F22については更新費用117億ドルを支出する計画だ。
 上院軍事委員会の筆頭理事を務めるマケイン上院議員(アリゾナ州、共和)は同機について「今までで最も高価なさびついたハンガークイーン(格納庫の女王)」と批判している。

◆軍が因果関係を示唆
 空軍は13日の声明で、F22のパイロットの装具が呼吸を妨げる可能性について調査していることを明らかにした。ACC報道官のエドワード・ショルティス中佐は声明で「試験の結果、上半身の圧力ガーメントが特定の状況下でパイロットの呼吸をより困難にすることが判明した。搭乗員が使用する各階層の飛行装置についても、呼吸の問題との関連を調査している」と述べた。
 最新情報を知る政府関係者によると、軍が特に注目しているのは、アラスカ州のエルメンドルフ・リチャードソン統合基地やバージニア州のラングレー・ユースティス統合基地で圧力ベストと組み合わせて着用されているフライトスーツだ。
 調査が非公開であることを理由に匿名で語ったこの関係者によると、調査官らは装具の組み合わせによってパイロットの胸部の動きが制限される場合があり、深く息を吸い込むことができなくなる可能性があるとみている。
 キンジンガー下院議員は記者団との14日の電話会議で「現時点では、圧力スーツが関係しているという説が有力だ。ただし、説にすぎないということは覚えておくべきだ」と述べた。
 自身の選挙区にラングレーを含むワーナー上院議員は「スーツの試験の継続を求める。われわれは、解決するまでこの件に関わり続ける」と述べた。
 ACCのショルティス中佐は「上半身の圧力ガーメントが生理学的な症状の唯一の原因ではない。主な原因を特定し、それらがどのように影響し合って予期せぬ現象を引き起こしたのかを究明するためには、まだ調査すべき要素が残っている」と述べた。
 空軍によると、この圧力ベストの製造元はニューヨーク州バファローを拠点とする非公開企業のソーイング・テクノロジー。同社の共同所有者のリサ・ドンハウザー氏によると、圧力ベストはF15とF16向けに製造したもので、製品の問題点について空軍から問い合わせを受けたことはないという。
 同氏は14日、電子メールの声明で「私の知るかぎり、20年以上にわたって何千着もの圧力ベストが何の不具合もなく使用されてきた。目下の問題に圧力ベストが関係しているとは考えられない」と述べた。(ブルームバーグ David Lerman、Tony Capaccio)


---DOD identifies F-22 issues, moves to lift flight restrictions---
 By Jennifer Hlad
Stars and Stripes
Published: July 24, 2012
http://www.stripes.com/news/dod-identifies-f-22-issues-moves-to-lift-flight-restrictions-1.183876

WASHINGTON - Air Force leaders believe a faulty valve in a flight vest caused several previously unexplained incidents of hypoxia-like symptoms in F-22 Raptor pilots, and Defense Secretary Leon Panetta has approved a plan to gradually remove the restrictions he placed on the planes in May, Pentagon spokesman George Little said Tuesday.

“The Air Force is confident the root cause of the issue is the supply of oxygen delivered to pilots, not the quality of oxygen delivered to pilots,” Little said.

A valve in the vest the pilots wear at high altitude was causing the vest to inflate or deflate at inappropriate times, Little said. The vests, which are required above 44,000 feet to protect pilots in case of an accidental rapid decompression of the cockpit, have been suspended from F-22 flights since June. The valves will all be replaced and the Air Force will brief Panetta on the modifications before the planes return to normal duty, he said.

The Air Force will also increase the volume of air the pilots get by removing a charcoal filter that had been installed to determine whether the air supply was contaminated.

The Air Force grounded the F-22s last May after at least 14 incidents in which pilots experienced symptoms suggesting a lack of oxygen - including headaches, nausea, fatigue and difficulty concentrating. In March, an Air Force advisory panel could not discern the cause of the problem but felt strongly that the oxygen system was safe.

Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. Norton Schwartz said the unprecedented airborne capabilities of the F-22, including its extreme maneuverability at high altitude, caught the Air Force off guard.

“There were aspects of this that, physiologically for the aviator, weren’t well understood,” he said, later adding, “We missed some things, bottom line.”

On May 15, Panetta ordered the Air Force to keep all F-22 close to potential landing strips so they would be able to land quickly if problems arose.

The Air Force is still working on some safety improvements for the supersonic fighter, including a cockpit-mounted oxygen sensor and an improved pilot oxygen sensor, but other changes, such as a better-designed handle to activate the emergency oxygen system, have already been completed.

Schwartz said Tuesday that the precautionary steps, including altitude limits and requirements that F-22s stay remain closer to bases, have “minimized, perhaps not eliminated the risks, until the modifications are in place.”

The process to remove flight restrictions will begin immediately, Little said. A squadron of the supersonic fighters will deploy to Kadena Air Base in Japan “at any moment,” though the planes will be under altitude restrictions and will stay close to land during the trip, Little said.

While some questioned the timing of the deployment - in the midst of Japanese protests over the arrival of MV-22 Ospreys there - Schwartz said the move makes sense.

“There’s an operational requirement, and the birds are ready to go,” he said.


---Oxygen Problems on F-22 Elude the Air Force’s Fixes---
By ELISABETH BUMILLER
Published: July 2, 2012
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/03/us/politics/for-f-22-oxygen-problems-elude-air-forces-fixes.html?pagewanted=all

JOINT BASE LANGLEY-EUSTIS, Va. - Capt. Jeff Haney was at 51,000 feet on a night flight above Alaska in November 2010 when the oxygen system in his F-22 Raptor fighter jet shut down, restricting his ability to breathe as he plummeted faster than the speed of sound into the tundra below. His plane burned a crater into the ice, froze 40 feet beneath the surface and was not fully recovered until the spring thaw.

 Captain Haney’s death unnerved the elite community of F-22 pilots, as did a series of episodes over the next 18 months in which an alarming number of them experienced symptoms of hypoxia, or oxygen deprivation. The Air Force grounded the Raptor, the jewel of its fleet, but could not find anything wrong, so it put the jet back in the air - only to have the episodes increase. In May, two seasoned pilots took the extraordinary step of telling CBS News’s “60 Minutes” that they refused to fly the plane.

Last month, a breakthrough seemed to come at last. Investigators believed that a malfunctioning pressure vest was restricting pilots’ breathing and that narrow oxygen hoses were leaking and not delivering enough air. Pilots began flying without the vest, and, buoyed by three months without an episode, Air Force officials told the news media that they might be close to a solution.

But last week, as Air Force officials escorted a reporter and a photographer to the Langley flight line to watch F-22s roaring on and off the runway for an ostensible good-news story, it happened again. A pilot pulled his emergency oxygen handle sometime after landing because of what the Air Force characterized as “discomfort” from intermittent air flow into the pilot’s mask during flight. The Air Force is investigating but so far has said little.

Senator Mark Warner, for one, is outraged by the episode. “I’ve been pressing them about the explanation for this, and we still don’t have an answer,” he said in an interview on Friday. “We don’t even have the full details yet.”

Mr. Warner, a Virginia Democrat who has taken up the cause of the two pilots who spoke to “60 Minutes” because they are constituents who fly out of Langley, said he was equally frustrated that the Air Force was only now coming to the conclusion that there might be a problem with the jet’s oxygen flow.

“Wouldn’t this have been the first question to be asked?” he said.

The F-22, which at $400 million is the world’s most expensive fighter jet, was conceived during the cold war when the Air Force wanted a plane to counter improvements in Russian MIGs. But the Soviet Union disappeared long before Lockheed Martin built the first assembly-line version of the F-22 in 1997. By then critics had branded it a relic.

It was not until 2009 that Congress, pushed by President Obama and the defense secretary at the time, Robert M. Gates, agreed to limit the number of planes it would pay for to 187, the number now in service.

Although the stealthy jet is a technological wonder that can fly higher, faster and with more maneuvers than any other, it has never been used in combat. (A squadron of F-22s is deployed to a base in the Persian Gulf as a deterrent to Iran.) The plane sat out the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan and the conflict in Libya because it was not needed.

“Last I checked, the Taliban air force was pretty small,” said Richard L. Aboulafia, an aviation analyst at the Teal Group in Fairfax, Va. But Mr. Aboulafia, who compares the F-22 to a Maserati and the newer and relatively less expensive F-35 Joint Strike Fighter to a BMW sedan, said he supported the F-22 as a hedge against future developments in Chinese aircraft.

The Air Force says that since the plane was put into operation in 2005, pilots have experienced 21 unexplained episodes of hypoxialike symptoms. At least three episodes occurred before Captain Haney’s death. (His crash is not included in the 21 episodes because the Air Force counts it as one of 15 additional “explained” hypoxialike events - anything from a loose air hose to a total failure of the life-support system.)

It was not until 10 unexplained episodes had occurred that the Air Force took the drastic step in May 2011 of grounding the entire F-22 fleet. Investigators combed through the planes, focusing on whether there were contaminants in the oxygen system that might be making pilots disoriented. They found nothing conclusive. But as a precaution - and for further testing - the Air Force gave pilots devices to monitor their oxygen levels during flight and installed charcoal filters in the air system to block potential poisons.

The plane resumed flying in September, but within six months there were 11 more unexplained episodes, and some pilots were coughing up black sputum. Ground crews that worked in the cockpit were also affected. Air Force doctors determined that at the very least the charcoal filter was restricting airflow. It was removed in late April, shortly before the “60 Minutes” episode was shown.

Within days of the broadcast, Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta ordered the Air Force to keep all F-22 flights within safe proximity of landing strips - or about 30 minutes of flight time from an air base - and to speed up the installation of an automatic backup oxygen system.

By that time the focus of the Air Force had shifted to the quantity, rather than the quality, of the oxygen in the jet. Working with NASA and an elite Navy diving unit, investigators determined in recent weeks that pilot vests meant to inflate as a safeguard against sudden decompression at high altitudes were staying inflated throughout the flights. The result was more pressure on pilots who were already breathing heavily from powerful G-forces in training for aerial combat.

“This is a lot like a corset, except that it’s around my chest,” said Maj. Gen. Charles Lyon, an Air Force pilot who is leading a new investigation into the jet’s problems. In addition, General Lyon said his inquiry had discovered that F-22 pilots were gulping air in physically demanding situations, like practice dogfights, at higher rates than the plane’s oxygen system could produce.

By mid-June, the Air Force ordered pilots to fly without the vest but to stay below 44,000 feet to avoid dangers from any high-altitude decompression. The Air Force at the same time began moves to redesign the garment, widen the jet’s air hoses and fix any leaks. “Everything is on a positive trend line,” General Lyon said.

The general spoke four days before the most recent episode at Langley, which occurred last Tuesday, when the pilot was, as ordered, not wearing a vest. Lt. Col. Tadd Sholtis, an Air Force spokesman, said it was too soon to say what other factors might have caused the episode, although so far it appeared to be a “mechanical problem” with the life-support system.

This article has been revised to reflect the following correction:

Correction: July 5, 2012

An article on Tuesday about oxygen problems with the Air Force F-22 Raptor, an advanced fighter, erroneously attributed a distinction to the plane. It is the world’s most expensive fighter jet, not the most expensive jet aircraft. (The B-2 bomber is more expensive.)

This article has been revised to reflect the following correction:

Correction: July 6, 2012

An article on Tuesday about technical problems in the Air Force’s F-22 Raptor aircraft described incorrectly an early model of the plane that was produced in 1997. It was a developmental model - not the first prototype of the aircraft, which flew in 1990.


---Daily Press: Sen. Warner has more questions about F-22---
Jul 10 2012
By Hugh Lessig
http://www.warner.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/newsclips?ContentRecord_id=ffdf836f-bcf8-4ef0-9505-6353daf633be

A new round of troubling incidents involving the F-22 Raptor, including one at Langley Air Force Base, is trying the patience of Sen. Mark R. Warner, who on Tuesday joined with another lawmaker to demand more answers.

Warner and Rep. Adam Kinzinger, R-Ill. sent a letter to Secretary of the Air Force Michael Donley requesting more data on two possible problems with the stealthy fighter: its onboard oxygen-generating system and a high-pressure vest that pilots have been told not to wear.

For months now, some Raptor pilots have reported feeling dizzy or disoriented in the cockpit, which is a symptom of oxygen deprivation or hypoxia. An Air Force investigative panel first focused on the high-tech oxygen system. Last month, it pointed to the high-pressure vest as a possible culprit. The vest was found to be unreliable in some cases, and it could have restricted pilots' airflow.

However, two incidents have occurred since pilots have been ordered to stop wearing the vest. One was last month at Langley, when a pilot on the runway reported restricted air flow in the cockpit. Air Combat Command said it is under investigation, but it could be a mechanical problem, not a defect in the system.

Then on July 6 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor Hickam in Hawaii, an F-22 pilot declared an in-flight emergency after feeling hypoxic. The Air Force informed Warner and Kinzinger of that event. The two lawmakers cited a third incident at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida where a Raptor hit the runway without its landing gear.

"I have concerns about the Air Force's ability to get to the bottom of this," said Warner, referring to the litany of problems as "a never-ending saga."

Kinzinger, himself a former fighter pilot, said he had been encouraged when Air Force investigators focused on the high-pressure vest, giving the impression they were making real progress. But then he heard about the Langley incident, where the pilot was not wearing a vest.

"I was quite bummed, to be honest with you," he said. "It appears there is more to be found - more to do."

The three-page letter requests information on the total number of hypoxia and hypoxia-related events, both explained and unexplained.

Regarding the vests, they want to know when the Air Force began examining them as a possible cause. Problems with the Raptor go back to 2011, when the Air Force ordered the fleet to temporarily stand down.

"Did USAF look at this specific equipment during the 2011 grounding and safety stand-down? If not, why not, and if so, what were the results?" the letter states.

The two lawmakers have also been told that F-22 pilots may need more oxygen than the on-board system can supply when the aircraft is at full operations. They want to know if the investigative panel is testing this possible design deficiency.

Finally, they note that Lockheed Martin, which makes the Raptor, was recently awarded a $19 million contract to install an automatic backup oxygen supply on the aircraft.

Warner and Kinzinger want to know if the Air Force solicited competitive bids.

"Did they try to get some new eyes on this?" Warner asked.

2012年7月27日金曜日

MARUTI SUZUKI暴動

MARUTI SUZUKIで暴動があった。
 スズキの印子会社、マルチ・スズキのマネサール工場(印北部ハリヤナ州)
で起きた暴動で、マルチ・スズキは、同工場を当面閉鎖することを明らか
にした。同社のバルガバ会長がニューデリーの本社で記者会見し、
「原因が究明され、社員と工場の安全が確保できるまで再開できない」と
述べた。操業停止が長期化すれば、スズキの業績への影響も懸念される。

スズキ
・印は連結経常利益の約3割を稼ぐ生産拠点。
・マルチ・スズキ マネサール工場の生産能力は55万台。
 マルチ・スズキの約4割を占めている。

暴動
・印人幹部1人(人事部長)が焼死
・96人が負傷して入院。
・生産設備も一部が被害
・組合幹部ら99人が捜査当局に逮捕。

会社側
・従業員の一人が、作業現場で監督役の管理職に暴行。
 労組は管理部門との交渉を試みたが話し合いは決裂。
 従業員が管理職らの帰宅を妨害。
 放火後、職場を略奪、設備を破壊し、管理職らを攻撃した。
・生産設備に損害はなかった。

労組
・監督者が自分よりカーストの低い従業員を罵り((Dalit)、差別的発言
 をした。
 会社は、監督者に対し措置を講じず、同従業員を停職処分にした。
・交渉中に、会社の警備員らによって労働者(労組幹部とは別?)が
 攻撃された。

印では、80%以上をヒンドゥー教徒が占めており、風習(?)が継続し、
色々な面で格差が続いているようだ。安価な労働力を必要とした大企業
が進出し、契約社員の労働者として、経済的な豊かさを得られるように
なったが、不安定等の労働条件に不満があり、ストライキが頻発。
最近でも、マルチ・スズキ周辺のRico、Honda、Hero等の工場でも、
ストライキがあったようだ。
少し前には、解雇された従業員らによって、別の会社の常務が撲殺され
たとのこと。

新興国の経営のリスクと言われるが、労働力が安価なのは、社会主義や
共産主義国家が多い。印も社会構造は、社会主義の変形かもしれない。
中国の共産主義の規制と安価だった労働賃金が高価になり、他国に展開が
始まっている。印系の企業が、タイに労働力を求めたが、タイでもストラ
イキが発生していた。

先進国では、行き過ぎた資本主義により、経営者や労働者の間に格差が
生まれたため、社会主義に期待したことがあったが、競争しなければ、
結局、寝て暮らすだけとなるようだ。
物理的な幸福だけでは、心がすさみ、精神的な幸福だけでは、満足に
食事ができなかったり、高度医療も受けられないことになる。
両立が求められる。

豪 白人優越主義再び
代理母は売春婦か


Inside Story - Indian strikes: Livelihoods or politics?


Millions of workers strike across India


印のスズキ子会社で暴動 日本人含む90人超が死傷(12/07/19)


Angry workers set Indian car factory alight


The Manesar standoff and its impact


---スズキ:インドの子会社、当面は閉鎖 暴動事件で会長会見---
毎日新聞 2012年07月21日 21時37分(最終更新 07月22日 00時34分)
http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20120722k0000m020056000c.html

 【ニューデリー杉尾直哉】スズキのインド子会社、マルチ・スズキのマネサール工場(インド北部ハリヤナ州)で起きた暴動で、マルチ・スズキは21日、同工場を当面閉鎖することを明らかにした。同社のバルガバ会長がニューデリーの本社で記者会見し、「原因が究明され、社員と工場の安全が確保できるまで再開できない」と述べた。操業停止が長期化すれば、スズキの業績への影響も懸念される。
 インドは、スズキにとって連結経常利益の約3割を稼ぐ重要な生産拠点。マルチ・スズキは同国の自動車最大手で、マネサール工場の生産能力は年約60万台と同社の能力の約4割を占めている。
 18日の暴動ではインド人幹部1人が焼死し、96人が負傷して入院。生産設備も一部が被害を受けた。また、組合幹部ら約100人が捜査当局に逮捕された。会見に同席した中西真三社長は「これは労働問題ではなく、犯罪だ」と批判した。同工場では昨年、組合設置などを巡る問題からストで断続的に生産が停止していたが、中西社長は「すべての課題は協議で解決済みだった」と述べた。


---印警察「労組全員責任問う」 スズキ子会社暴動、殺人罪も---
2012.7.21 05:00
http://www.sankeibiz.jp/business/news/120721/bsa1207210502004-n1.htm

 インド治安当局はスズキのインド子会社で同国乗用車生産最大手マルチ・スズキ・インディアのマネサール工場(ハリヤナ州)で1人が死亡、管理職ら70人以上が負傷した暴動をめぐり労働組合員3000人全員の責任を問う考えを示した。労組側は、暴動は管理職の一人がカースト(階級)を理由に従業員を侮辱したことが原因だとして会社側に責任があると主張している。
 現地警察当局のマヘスワール・ダヤル氏は20日までにインタビューに応じ、暴動に参加した全従業員を殺人罪か殺人未遂罪に問う方針だと明言した。
 同州警察のランジ・シン・ダラル長官によると、警察は99人の従業員を逮捕し、生産停止となっているマネサール工場敷地内の安全を確保するため警察官1200人を動員。「管理職と労働者の間での小競り合いはいたるところで起きるが、この種の暴力は容認できない」と述べた。
 ニューデリー近郊の同工場の年間生産台数は55万台で、マルチ・スズキの生産能力全体の約4割を占める。
 ブリクス・セキュリティーズのアナリスト、ウメシュ・カーネ氏(ムンバイ在勤)は「マネサール工場の生産再開まで8~10日かかるかもしれない。生産停止でマルチのディーゼル車生産の過半数が打撃を受けかねないことが懸念材料だ」との見方を示した。
 今回の暴動をめぐっては会社と労組が互いに非難しあっている。マルチ・スズキは、従業員の一人が18日、作業現場で監督役の管理職に暴行を働いたことがきっかけだと発表。その後、労組は管理部門との交渉を試みたが話し合いは決裂し、従業員が管理職らを攻撃したという。
 一方、労組代表の声明によると、監督者が自分よりカーストの低い従業員を罵(ののし)り、差別的発言をしたことが原因と主張。同社は監督者に対し措置を講じず、同従業員を停職処分にしたと批判した。
 同工場では昨年も33日間にわたるストライキが起き、同社の利益は減少した。マネサールとグルガオンには工場が多く、二輪車大手、ヒーロー・モトコープやホンダの二輪車生産・販売子会社ホンダモーターサイクルアンドスクーターインディアの生産拠点もある。過去数年、これらの工場では雇用条件改善を求めるストが相次いでいる。(ブルームバーグ Karthikeyan Sundaram)


---スズキ印子会社の従業員暴動 生産の「生命線」業績悪化懸念---
2012.7.20 05:00
http://www.sankeibiz.jp/business/news/120720/bsa1207200500000-n1.htm

 スズキのインド子会社、マルチ・スズキで18日に発生した従業員による暴動は、正社員との待遇格差の是正を求める短期契約社員たちの不満が背景にあるとの見方が強まっている。同社はインド市場で50%近いシェアを持つが、マネサール工場では昨年にも労働争議が発生し、昨年度は生産計画を8万5000台下回った。今年1月にはマネサール第2工場が稼働、反転攻勢をかけようとした矢先で、先行き不透明感が強まっている。
 現地の関係者の話を総合すると、スズキは約3000人の社員のうち半数以上が短期の契約社員という。契約社員の給与はハリヤナ州の最低賃金を上回るものの、福利厚生では正規社員には及ばない。
 インフレ進行で食料品や燃料費は高騰し、契約社員の生活は「働けど苦しくなる状態」(現地エコノミスト)。共産党系の労組による外国資本の大企業を標的とした労組立ち上げの動きがあり、スズキ側も警戒を強めていたとの情報もある。
 スズキのインドでの昨年度の生産台数は113万4000台で、日本国内(102万台、昨年度)を抜き、世界生産280万台の4割を占める「生命線」。争議が長期化すれば、業績悪化を招くのは避けられない。
 スズキは今後、西部グジャラート州に新工場を建設する方針だ。州政府の影響力が強く、外国資本の誘致に積極的なことから労働争議が抑えられるとの期待が高いからだ。
 インドの自動車産業では、韓国の現代自動車などでも、組合設立の要求をめぐる労使対立が表面化。また、中国では賃上げや待遇改善を求めるストやデモが頻発しており、新興国市場での経営のリスクが改めて浮かび上がった形だ。


---Rioting Maruti Workers Face Murder Charges After Manager Death---
Karthikeyan Sundaram and Siddharth Philip, 2012 Bloomberg News
Updated 08:16 p.m., Thursday, July 19, 2012
http://www.sfgate.com/business/bloomberg/article/Rioting-Maruti-Workers-Face-Murder-Charges-After-3720270.php

July 20 (Bloomberg) -- Indian authorities threatened to charge all 3,000 Maruti Suzuki India Ltd. union workers at a plant after a riot that the labor union says began when a supervisor insulted an employee because of his caste.

Authorities will press charges of murder and attempted murder against all rioting workers at Maruti’s Manesar plant because they engaged in a mob attack that led to a person’s death, Maheswar Dayal, deputy commissioner of police, said in an interview yesterday. The police have arrested 99 workers and deployed 1,200 officers to secure the area, Director General of Police Ranjiv Singh Dalal said.

Indian police occupied the suspended factory, which accounts for about 40 percent of Maruti’s total capacity, as they begin investigating the company’s most violent labor clash. Maruti and Suzuki Motor Corp. shares tumbled as the violence revived concerns about recurring labor disputes at the Indian carmaker, which suffered through a 33-day labor strike last year that drove down profit.

“I think it may take 8-to-10 days to resume operations at Manesar,” said Umesh Karne, an analyst with BRICS Securities Ltd. in Mumbai. “The concern is that with this shutdown, the majority of Maruti’s diesel car production may be hit as the Swift and DZire’s diesel models are made at Manesar.”

A person was burnt to death and at least 70 managers at the factory were injured, K.K. Sindhu, police commissioner for the Gurgaon district, said in a phone interview. Maruti identified the deceased as Awanish Kumar Dev, a human resources general manager.

Suzuki, which owns a majority stake in the Indian carmaker, said production facilities weren’t damaged by this week’s riot.

‘Crazy Scene’

“This is a crazy scene of violence,” Dalal said. “There are skirmishes between workers and management everywhere, but this kind of violence will not be tolerated.”

At the factory, located about 50 kilometers (31 miles) southwest of New Delhi, trucks rolled in yesterday carrying police, who formed a security cordon around the plant. Two dozen private guards manned the gates of the closed factory, which only had police inside.

Maruti shares tumbled 8.9 percent, its biggest drop in almost two years, to 1,117.30 rupees in Mumbai. Suzuki fell to its lowest close since February 2009 in Tokyo, dropping 3.8 percent to 1,451 yen.

Both Maruti and the union blamed each other for the incident.

Caste Insult

According to Maruti, the dispute began July 18 after a worker beat up a supervisor on the shop floor. The workers’ union then prevented management from taking disciplinary action, blocking managers from leaving the factory after work, Maruti Suzuki said. Workers attacked managers after talks to resolve the dispute failed, with workers setting property on fire, ransacking offices and damaging facilities, according to the statement.

Two Japanese executives were hospitalized, though neither is in critical condition, said Ei Mochizuki, a Tokyo-based spokesman at Suzuki. Damages were restricted to offices, not production facilities, Mochizuki said.

The workers’ union said it was keen to have a dialogue with the company to resolve the matter and that workers were attacked by bouncers working for Maruti while discussions were ongoing with guild leaders.

Pointing Fingers

The incident started after a supervisor abused a worker and made derogatory remarks about his lower caste, known as Dalit, Maruti Suzuki Workers’ Union President Ram Meher Singh said in an e-mailed statement. The company suspended the worker instead of taking action against the supervisor, Singh said.

Maruti spokesman Puneet Dhawan couldn’t be reached by telephone and didn’t respond to an e-mail seeking comment on the labor union’s statement.

Production at the factory, which makes Maruti Suzuki’s Swift compact cars, had to be halted, the company said. Output at the larger Gurgaon plant continued normally, it said.

The company’s factory in Manesar, built in 2007, has a capacity to produce 550,000 cars annually, about 40 percent of Maruti’s total capacity of 1.45 million cars, according to the company’s website. Manesar is 25 kilometers south of Gurgaon.

The company is building a third unit at Manesar that is due to be completed in 2013, with a capacity to produce 250,000 additional units.

Industrial Hub

In October, a labor strike in Manesar halted output of Swift compact cars. Workers also staged strikes at parts maker Suzuki Powertrain India Ltd., causing production to be halted at Maruti’s factory in Gurgaon, also near the capital. The strike ended after an agreement was reached between management, workers and the state government. The strike cost the company more than 40,000 units of production, Maruti said.

The Manesar-Gurgaon region is an industrial hub that is home to factories of Hero MotoCorp Ltd., Honda Motorcycle & Scooter India Pvt., and auto parts suppliers Sona Koyo Steering Systems, and Rico Auto Industries Ltd.

In the past few years, there have been strikes at factories belonging to Rico, Honda and Hero as workers stopped work to demand higher pay and permanent employee status for contract employees. In 2008, the managing director of Graziano Trasmissioni India Ltd. was beaten to death after a group of dismissed employees turned violent, police said.

--With assistance from Yuki Hagiwara and Anna Mukai in Tokyo and Karthikeyan Sundaram in New Delhi. Editors: Young-Sam Cho, Chua Kong Ho

2012年7月26日木曜日

ブルガリア イスラエル人標的テロか

ブルガリアでイスラエル人標的のテロがあったようだ。
 ブルガリア東部の黒海に面したブルガスの空港で、イスラエル人
観光客らを乗せたバスが爆発し、6人が死亡、32人が負傷した。この事件
を受け、イスラエルのネタニヤフ首相は、イランによる犯行だと非難する
とともに、報復も示唆した。

爆弾テロ
・イスラエルからのチャーター便に搭乗していた観光客が、空港の駐車場
 でバスに乗り込んだ直後に発生。爆発の影響でバスの窓ガラスは吹き飛
 び、辺り一面は黒煙に包まれた。
・死亡者7名、負傷者およそ30名、うち2人は、重傷で集中治療中。

ムラデノフ
・バスに仕掛けられた爆弾が爆発した。

Benjamin Netanyahu
・この数カ月間だけでも、タイやインド、グルジア、ケニア、キプロス等
 でイスラエル人がイランの攻撃を受けた。これは全世界に広がっている
 イラン支援によるヒズボラのテロ攻撃だ
・イスラエルは、イランのテロに対して強力に対応していく

イラン政府(テヘラン)
・テロ関与を否定

実行犯は、白人男性で薄い目の色で、偽のミシガン州運転免許証を所持、
DNA検査をしても身元が不明。
共犯の容疑者は、24才男性、スウェーデンパスポートを所持し、レバノン
で降機。キプロスで拘留中。ヒズボラとの関係があるとのこと。

イスラエル対イランの報復がまた発生した。
双方が外国で報復しているが、起こされた方はとても迷惑。
いわゆるデススパイラルにより、報復は拡大する。
東欧で計画されたテロには、ロンドンへの計画もあるとのこと。

対イラン包括制裁
イスラエル 対イラン工作
対イラン情報戦
対シリア対策
イスラエル対策
イラン 対空爆準備
対イラン協議
Stuxnet,Duga,Flameは官製か


Iran accused in Bulgaria bus blast killing Israelis


Deadly Bulgarian bus blast an 'Iranian terror attack


---イスラエル、ブルガリアのバス爆発は「イランによるテロ」---
2012.07.19 Thu posted at: 09:49 JST
http://www.cnn.co.jp/world/30007387.html

 (CNN) ブルガリアの空港で18日、イスラエル人観光客を乗せたバスが爆発し、同国内務省によると少なくとも7人が死亡、約30人が負傷した。イスラエルは同日、イランが絡んだテロとの見方を示した。
 ブルガリア内務省によると、黒海に面したブルガス空港の駐車場で、イスラエルのテルアビブから到着した観光客らを乗せたバスが爆発した。同国外務省の情報では、死者は6人、負傷者は32人で、うち3人が集中治療を受けている。当局は、バスに爆弾が仕掛けられていた可能性もあるとみて調べている。
 ブルガリアはイスラエル人にとって人気の観光地。バスは約47人を乗せて、約50キロ離れたリゾート地に向かう予定だった。
 イスラエルのバラク国防相は、「イランあるいはイスラム過激派」が絡んだテロとの見方を示し、レバノンのイスラム教シーア派武装組織ヒズボラか、パレスチナのイスラム組織ハマスによる犯行の可能性があると述べた。
 イスラエルのネタニヤフ首相は、タイ、インド、グルジアなどの各国でイスラエル人を狙ったテロが相次いでいると述べ、「すべての証拠がイランを指し示している」と主張。「これはイランによる世界連続テロだ。イスラエルは断固とした対応を取る」と言明した。
 一方、ブルガリア外務相は同日、テロリストによる犯行との見方を示しながらも、容疑者は特定できる段階ではないと指摘。19日にも国連安全保障理事会に対し、非難決議を求める意向を明らかにした。
 オバマ米大統領も声明を発表し、事件について「野蛮なテロ攻撃」と非難した。ただ、イランについては言及しなかった。


---ブルガリアのバス爆発で6人死亡、イスラエル首相「イランの犯行」---
2012年 07月 19日 09:22 JST
http://jp.reuters.com/article/topNews/idJPTYE86I00720120719

 [ブルガス(ブルガリア) 18日 ロイター] ブルガリア東部の黒海に面したブルガスの空港で18日、イスラエル人観光客らを乗せたバスが爆発し、6人が死亡、32人が負傷した。この事件を受け、イスラエルのネタニヤフ首相は、イランによる犯行だと非難するとともに、報復も示唆した。
 爆発は、イスラエルからのチャーター便に搭乗していた観光客が、空港の駐車場でバスに乗り込んだ直後に発生。爆発の影響でバスの窓ガラスは吹き飛び、辺り一面は黒煙に包まれた。
 ブルガリアのムラデノフ外相はロイターの電話取材に対し、「バスに仕掛けられた爆弾が爆発した」と説明。目撃者の1人は地元テレビ局に「非常に激しい爆発音が聞こえた。バスには子どもも含めた乗客で満員だった。現場は大混乱だった」と語った。
 また、バスに乗っていた乗客はイスラエルのラジオ局に「座席に座って数秒後にドーンという音がした。何とかバスにできた穴から逃げることができた」と現場から事件発生直後の様子を振り返った。
 イスラエルのネタニヤフ首相は、「この数カ月間だけでも、タイやインド、グルジア、ケニア、キプロスなどでイスラエル人がイランの攻撃を受けた。これは全世界に広がっているイランによるテロ攻撃だ」と批判。その上で「イスラエルは、イランのテロに対して強力に対応していく」と強調した。


---Bulgaria Describes Elaborate Bomb Plot Against Israelis---
Updated July 24, 2012, 1:05 p.m. ET
By GORDON FAIRCLOUGH
http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10000872396390443437504577546791365859410.html?mod=googlenews_wsj

The suicide bombing that killed five Israeli tourists in Bulgaria last week was the work of sophisticated plotters operating stealthily in the Eastern European country for nearly a month before the blast, Bulgaria's premier said Tuesday.

Prime Minister Boyko Borisov described the conspirators as "exceptionally experienced." He didn't say how many were involved. He also indicated that the bomber, who died in the attack and remains unidentified, may have arrived in Bulgaria by plane, possibly from elsewhere in Europe.

"We can't cross the line and point a finger at who did this" until there has been more progress in the investigation, Mr. Borisov told reporters in Sofia after a meeting with White House counterterrorism chief John Brennan.

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has said the Jewish state has "unquestionable" intelligence showing the bombing was carried out by Shiite militant group Hezbollah with Iranian backing. Iran, locked in a dispute with Israel and the West over its nuclear ambitions, has denied any involvement.

On Tuesday, Israel's Chief of the General Staff, Lt. Gen. Benny Gantz warned those behind the attack. "We will find a way to respond in an intimidating manner. This doesn't have to be done in a separate operation, but rather as part of our routine activity," Lt. Gen. Gantz told the Israeli Knesset's Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee.

In Sofia, Mr. Brennan reiterated the U.S. position so far, noting that Iran and Hezbollah have been implicated in other terrorist acts but declining to blame them for last Wednesday's attack in the Black Sea resort city of Burgas.

Bulgarian authorities have offered few details about the activities of the suspected plotters. Mr. Borisov on Tuesday said they had "leased vehicles" and "traveled in different cities so they were not seen together."

Mr. Borisov said that so far, fingerprints and DNA samples from the bomber had failed to turn up any matches. But, he said, "sooner or later it will pop up where he came from."

Bulgarian police say the bomber was carrying explosives that ripped through a bus outside the Burgas airport at about 5:30 p.m. last Wednesday, killing the newly arrived Israeli vacationers and a Bulgarian bus driver and injuring dozens of others.

The day after the attack, Bulgarian authorities released security-camera footage of the suspected bomber, which showed a man in plaid shorts and a T-shirt wearing a large backpack, which police said was packed with TNT. He was carrying a fake Michigan driver's license, authorities said.

Israel has said the Bulgaria blast is the latest in a series of attacks and attempted attacks by Hezbollah and Iran. Iranians have been arrested this year in Thailand and Kenya and charged in connection with alleged plots to strike at Israeli or Western targets. Analysts say Iran may be trying to retaliate for an assassination campaign targeting its nuclear scientists, which Tehran blames on Israel. Israel has declined to confirm or deny its involvement.

On Monday, a court in Cyprus ordered the continued detention of a 24-year-old man held on suspicion of helping plan attacks against Israelis there. State media in Cyprus have reported the man is of Lebanese descent and carried a Swedish passport. Israel has said the man has links to Hezbollah.


---Deadly bomb blast hits bus with Israelis in Bulgaria---
18 July 2012 Last updated at 20:32 GMT
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18892336

A bomb explosion has killed at least seven people on a bus carrying Israeli tourists in the eastern Bulgarian city of Burgas, Israeli officials say.

About 30 people were also injured when the bus exploded at Burgas airport, by the Black Sea.

Witnesses told Israeli TV that someone boarded the bus and a huge explosion immediately followed.

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu later accused Iran of being behind the explosion.

"All the signs lead to Iran," he said in a statement. "Israel will respond forcefully to Iranian terror."

The Israeli foreign ministry said: "There are six bodies on the scene - one critically wounded died at the hospital and two seriously injured are in intensive care. Thirty more people are being treated."

It said the bus was carrying tourists from a charter flight that arrived from Israel.

Wednesday's blast came on the 18th anniversary of a deadly attack on a Jewish community centre in Argentina. Israel blamed Iran for that attack - a claim denied by Tehran.

US President Barack Obama described the bombing as a "barbaric terrorist attack".
Eyewitness account

Israeli officials said passengers from a Tel Aviv-Burgas flight boarded the bus shortly after 17:00 local time (14:00 GMT).

"I was on the bus and we had just sat down when after a few seconds we heard a really loud explosion," Gal Malka told Israel's army radio.

"The whole bus went up in flames," she said, adding that the explosion took place near the front of the bus.

Bulgarian journalist Dobromir Dovkacharov, who arrived at the scene about 30 minutes after the blast, said: "I saw three buses completely burnt out - just the metal bars were left.

"There were crowds of people around, very distressed. One man said he saw decapitated heads. Others spoke of body parts flying through the air," Mr Dovkacharov said.

Burgas airport has now been closed and flights are being diverted to Varna.

Two Israeli planes with emergency services personnel and diplomats on board are due to arrive in Burgas shortly. The officials will be assisting the injured and help identify the bodies.

Bulgaria is a popular tourist destination for Israelis.

However, in January there were reports that Israel had asked Bulgaria to tighten security for Israeli tourists travelling by bus.

This followed a reported discovery of a suspicious package found on a bus with Israeli tourists travelling from Turkey to Bulgaria.

Israeli tourists have been targeted in attacks in a number of countries around the world.

2012年7月25日水曜日

遺体の闇市場

遺体の闇市場が報道された。
 高まる需要の中で死体組織の不正な入手も横行し始めており、米国の
国際調査報道ジャーナリスト連合(ICIJ)は世界11カ国で8カ月間取材し、
取引の不透明な実態に迫った。人体組織の取引を監視する法律がないた
め、出所のはっきりしない死体組織をめぐる感染症被害の危険性を指摘
する声もある。

人体組織ビジネス
・遺族の同意に基づく「献体」などにより遺体の組織が提供され、非営利
 団体の組織バンクなどを通じて医療現場に届くのが本来の形。
・規制の甘い旧ソ連・東欧が人体組織の「供給源」
 公的機関が言葉巧みに遺族から同意を取り付けて死体の組織を不正に
 確保するケースも表面化。
・病気のなかった死体は、1体8万~20万ドルで取引
 角膜移植は盲目の人に光を与え、腱と靱帯(じんたい)をリサイクル
 した製品は、アスリートの復活を可能にする。

ウクライナ
・2008年
 法医学施設から月に1千を超える人体組織が違法に盗まれ、第三者経由
 でこの工場に運ばれたとして刑事事件化。
・2012年2月24日
 地方法医学局からこの男性らの人体組織をクーラーボックスの中に詰め
 込んで白いミニバンで運びだそうとしているところを押収。
 運搬先は、米国で昨年1億6900万ドルを売り上げ、株式上場もしている
 医療企業の系列ドイツ工場。

FDA
・2002年
 組織移植後の感染を1352件把握し、40人は死亡。

・2011年
 米国に輸入されたウクライナ人の人体組織が、「ドイツ製」と記され
 ていることを把握し、輸入元の上場医療企業に是正を求めた。

Michael Mastromarino
・マンハッタンで歯科医を開業 49才
 ニュージャージーの組織再生会社の社長を兼任(?)。
・死亡証明書、臓器摘出承諾書等を偽造し、親族から遺体を略奪。
・略奪した遺体をRTI Donor Servicesや国外の会社等へ販売。
・バッファロー(NY)郊外の刑務所で、最高58年の服役中。

RTI Biologics
・本社はフロリダ。ヒト組織再生処理会社。
・MTFからヒト組織を購入。
・Michael Mastromarinoが偽造した書類を元に、死体を購入し処理。
・Michael Mastromarinoの偽造を承知した上で、死体を購入したか
 民事係争中。

RTIだけでなく、LifeCellや Lost Mountain Tissue Bank、Central
 Texas Blood and Tissueは、合計25,000のヒト由来組織製品を
リコール。うち2,000の製品は、豪州、韓国、トルコ、スイス等に販売。

死体(ヒト)由来組織の医療品の販売が行われているらしい。
クロイツフェルト・ヤコブ病やHIV、C型肝炎等の感染が記憶に新しいが、
多くの人体組織が、規制もないまま、使用され、感染が増加する可能性
もあるとのこと。
WHOが死体(ヒト)由来組織の医療品を追跡できる案を出しているが、腱や
骨等を組み込んでしまった場合、リコールによる交換や排除は、意味が
あるのだろうか。病気にかかったまだマシな臓器でも移植を望む患者も
いる。感染病によるところが大きい。

以前は、臓器売買が脅し文句だったが、今度は海外へ言って、死体その
ものを売買か。

何人殺せば気が済むんですか
初めての小児臓器提供
米国 臓器提供拒否宗教を批判か
石原一門 金がかかるんだったら殺してしまえ


Skin and Bone: the Shadowy Trade in Human Body Parts


---遺体から皮膚や骨…闇取引 調査報道NPOが取材---
2012年7月18日21時35分
http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0718/TKY201207180632.html

 死体から皮膚や骨、腱(けん)などの組織を集め、歯科インプラントや美容形成、スポーツ医療用製品の原材料として国際的に取引する動きが活発だ。高まる需要の中で死体組織の不正な入手も横行し始めており、米国の国際調査報道ジャーナリスト連合(ICIJ)は世界11カ国で8カ月間取材し、取引の不透明な実態に迫った。人体組織の取引を監視する法律がないため、出所のはっきりしない死体組織をめぐる感染症被害の危険性を指摘する声もある。
 人体組織そのものを売り買いすることは禁じられているが、遺族の同意に基づく「献体」などにより遺体の組織が提供され、非営利団体の組織バンクなどを通じて医療現場に届くのが本来の形だ。
 ところが、「人体組織ビジネス」は急成長を続け、規制の甘い旧ソ連・東欧が人体組織の「供給源」として狙われている。中には、公的機関が言葉巧みに遺族から同意を取り付けて死体の組織を不正に確保するケースも表面化した。
 「肋骨(ろっこつ)2本、アキレス腱2本、左右のひじと鼓膜、歯2本……。気味が悪すぎて最後まで読めなかった」。てんかん発作のため息子を35歳で亡くした母親は、ウクライナ警察に遺体から取り除かれた箇所のリストを見せられた。同警察は今年2月24日、地方法医学局からこの男性らの人体組織をクーラーボックスの中に詰め込んで白いミニバンで運びだそうとしているところを押収した。
 荷札に書かれた運搬先は、米国で昨年1億6900万ドル(約135億2千万円)を売り上げ、株式上場もしている医療企業の系列ドイツ工場。母親は、わずかな組織提供をするとしか聞かされていなかった。
 ウクライナ警察は2008年にも別の法医学施設から月に1千を超える人体組織が違法に盗まれ、第三者経由でこの工場に運ばれたとして刑事事件化した。しかし、主犯格のウクライナ人医師が判決前に死亡し、真相は闇の中だ。
 米食品医薬品局(FDA)は11年、この工場から米国に輸入されたウクライナ人の人体組織が、「ドイツ製」と記されていることを把握し、輸入元の上場医療企業に是正を求めた。
 人体組織の最大の市場である米国では、年間約200万の人体組織由来の製品が売られているとみられ、この10年で2倍となった。業界関係者によると、病気のなかった死体は、1体8万~20万ドルで取引されるという。角膜移植は盲目の人に光を与え、腱と靱帯(じんたい)をリサイクルした製品は、アスリートの復活を可能にする。
 皮膚は死体から手際よく長方形に切り取られる。大きければ約5580平方センチを得られる。細菌感染を防ぐために水分を取り除いてすりつぶし、精製されてがん患者の乳房再建術に使われる。ところが、多くの米国などの整形外科医らは、再建術に使う製品が死体の組織を使っていることを患者に打ち明けない。
 ICIJが情報公開請求によって入手した資料によると、FDAは02年以降、組織移植後の感染を1352件把握し、40人は死に至っている。米疾病対策センター(CDC)によると、人体組織を使う製品には、肝炎やHIVなど感染症のリスクが避けられない。血液については規制が厳しくなっているが、死体から作られる製品にはほとんど規制法がないという。CDCのマット・キーナート博士は「感染を見つけるシステムがない」として、監視体制の必要性を訴える。

 朝日新聞社は、米国の国際調査報道ジャーナリスト連合(ICIJ)と提携することを決め、初めて記事の提供を受けた。ICIJは、1989年に創設された米国の非営利調査報道機関「センター・フォー・パブリック・インテグリティー(CPI)」の国際報道部門にあたる。CPIはこれまで、米エネルギー大手ハリバートン社などイラク復興事業参入企業と米政権との癒着を明らかにするなど数々の実績を上げている。ICIJは、米ワシントン・ポスト紙やAP通信などとも提携。世界の主要メディアでは、CPIを含む調査報道NPOから記事提供を受ける動きが進む。記事は無償で、ICIJの取材によることを明記することが掲載条件。提供記事の主要部分を翻訳し、紹介する。


---WHO plans coding system to track trade in human tissue---
July 20, 2012
http://ajw.asahi.com/article/behind_news/social_affairs/AJ201207200006

The World Health Organization plans to create a coding system to track human tissue traded for transplants and ingredients in drugs to secure safety and prevent illegal collection, a source said.

A working group on medical transplantation will hold a meeting in France at the end of August to discuss how to introduce the system, the source, who is a member of the working group, told The Asahi Shimbun.

The working group plans to introduce the system after five years, covering 193 countries. In addition to human tissue, the group intends to use the codes for medical materials and other products derived from human tissue.

The WHO decided that a global coding system is necessary for human tissue in May 2010.

Global demand for human tissue has increased since then, leading to a sharp rise in international trade in human tissue.

But the practice of illegally collecting skin and bones from cadavers is also rampant. And health experts warn that trade in tissue collected from cadavers with unknown identities heightens the risk of the spread of infectious diseases.

The coding system would enable authorities to track trade in products derived from human tissue. If an infectious disease is caused by a particular product, products using the same donor’s tissue can be recovered soon.

The WHO will use a coding system for blood products as a reference. Thirty countries, including the United States and Britain, have adopted the barcode-based system, which was introduced in 1997.

The working group will hear the opinions of a senior official of a nonprofit organization that was established by the International Society of Hematology to administer the system.

In many countries, the responsibility for confirming the identities of tissue donors is left to drugmakers and tissue banks. When a problem occurs with a product, inquiries must be referred to them.

Japan’s Law on Organ Transplantation regulates the use of the heart, lungs and other organs. But there are no similar laws for human tissue or a ban on buying or selling it.

Under the circumstances, the health ministry cannot know if human tissue is imported.

If the WHO creates a coding system, the momentum could increase for the Japanese government to establish related legislation.

“The movements of organs and tissue have become international, and a single country’s administration cannot solve (problems associated with them),” said Naoshi Shinozaki, who heads the Cornea Center of Tokyo Dental College’s Ichikawa General Hospital. “If the WHO’s system is established, illegal tissue collection will be prevented and the safety (of body parts) will be secured.”

(This article was written by Ayako Tsukidate and Nobuya Sawa.)


---Abusing the 'Gift' of Tissue Donation---
By Kate Willson
July 19, 2012, 12:15 am
http://www.icij.org/tissue/abusing-gift-tissue-donation

This is the fourth installment of a four-part series.

Mandi Eisenbeis stood over her dad. It was a Thursday in May 2011 when she said her private good-byes at a funeral parlor in Lodi, Calif. George "Randy" Eisenbeis had died young, felled at age 57 by a methamphetamine overdose.

As she looked at him lying in the coffin, she noticed his hands were oozing blood.

Eisenbeis didn’t know what had happened until later, when she learned the funeral director had sent a scathing complaint to the California Transplant Donor Network, the nonprofit organ and tissue bank that had stripped out Randy Eisenbeis’ usable parts.

“To say this was simply a ‘hack job’ would be a compliment,” Lodi Funeral Home’s Michael Collins wrote in a letter accompanied by a series of graphic photos of the torn-apart corpse. “I guess we should consider ourselves lucky that you left his head and his hands for viewing, and yes, that is his severed foot in the photo to the bottom left of the embalming table.”

In March the family sued the California organ bank, accusing it of fraud, mutilation of a corpse, and infliction of emotional distress.

According to call logs made of the consent process, the bank told Mandi Eisenbeis at least four times during the recorded consent process that the body would be properly put back together. She and the family couldn’t give informed consent, the lawsuit charges, because those promises were lies designed to manipulate them into giving their okay.

The California Transplant Donor Network is accredited by the industry gold standard - the American Association of Tissue Banks. According to its policies, tissue banks are required to reassemble a body out of respect for donors, their families and the professionals who handle bodies on their way to burial or cremation. 

The tissue bank declined requests to comment for this story. In court filings the tissue bank has denied wrongdoing. In an earlier public statement the organization suggested that Randy Eisenbeis’ corpse had been in good condition when it sent it to the morgue for autopsy. “No matter how complex the reconstruction process may be, it is a standard to which we adhere consistently,” it said. “Unfortunately, we cannot speak to what may transpire once a donor’s body leaves our control.”

The medical examiner’s autopsy findings, however, reported that Randy Eisenbeis came to him naked and skinned, with his feet “separated from the ankles.”

What happened to Randy Eisenbeis may not be typical of how bodies are treated when they enter the tissue donation system. But as a worst-case scenario, his story provides a window onto a system that some say operates with inadequate regulatory scrutiny - and raises questions about how well the industry lives up to its own standards about the manner in which tissue banks obtain consent to take tissues from the recently departed.

Families often know little about what happens after they say, “Yes.” Ethics experts say many families in the U.S. and other countries assume that standard donor agreements apply only to hearts, lungs and internal organs. They don’t realize that in the brave new world of tissue harvesting, the dead’s bones, skin, tendons and heart valves can be cut out and used to create medical devices that can be sold for profit around the world.

Lack of information

Tissue from about 30,000 cadavers in the United States is cleaned and milled into medical devices each year and some is exported around the world. U.S. companies also obtain tissue from places including Slovakia, the Czech Republic and Latvia.

In many countries, the law allows tissue harvesting unless a donor opts out before death. In the United States, federal law requires that tissue harvesters get families’ approval. How they do that is up to states to decide - and many states have few requirements or guidelines. People are often unaware just what they are giving away when they agree to become a donor. And families often don’t know that when they okay donations to nonprofit organizations such as the California Transplant Donor Network, the tissue routinely goes to for-profit companies, feeding a billion-dollar industry that uses those tissues for everything from repairing a knee to plumping up a penis. 

Without uniform federal standards, it is mostly left up to tissue banks to decide how much information to share with donor families. Few states require that companies tell families their loved ones’ tissue can be sold overseas, sent to a for-profit company or used in cosmetic procedures such as wrinkle-fillers and nose jobs.

"At present the industry thrives because of public ignorance and indifference regarding the for-profit involvement," Robert Katz, a law professor from Indiana University wrote in 2006. "Most donors are either unaware of such involvement, or it does not trouble them enough to stop donating."

In a 2010 study by researchers Laura Siminoff and Heather Traino, 70 percent of donor families said they’d object to a loved one’s tissue going to a for-profit business. Yet fewer than one in five said they’d been told that the harvested tissues could go to a for-profit company.

U.S. Sen. Chuck Schumer, a New York Democrat, introduced legislation in 2007 that would have established mandatory requirements for what banks had to tell donor families, as well as try to limit the profits companies can make from the donation. But the bill died after heavy lobbying by the industry, Schumer said.

Industry representatives have declined to answer questions for this story.

A legal gray area

Chris Truitt, a former industry insider, is among the advocates who are working to reform the system and force companies and nonprofits involved in the process to do a better job of informing the grieving about what will happen to remains of family members who’ve died. Truitt is the author of a book, “The Dark Side of Tissue Donation,” which exposes what he sees as abuses and profiteering within the donation system.

He began working in the industry after living through a family tragedy.

His daughter, Alyssa, was born with a condition that causes fluid to build in the brain. When Alyssa died at age 2, the Truitts donated her organs and tissues. It soothed the pain to know their daughter’s death had helped others in need. He and his wife began promoting donation.

“I felt it was basically my calling in life,” Truitt said. “I ended up doing what I could to find a position working in the field.”

Truitt signed on with nonprofit tissue bank Allograft Resources of Wisconsin. “My job was to go out and do the procedures. To recover bones, skin, veins, heart valves,” he explained. “We’d take the long bones out, we’d take skin out, take the veins out, take the heart valves out.”

The tools were mostly those found in any operating room - scalpels, retractors, scissors, and clamps. Sometimes, though, Truitt and other recovery technicians also used metal wedges and mallets to break through the bone.

Still, they prided themselves on being “stewards of the gift.” Donors, he said, were treated with respect. Once, an elderly woman whose husband had died thanked Truitt for his work. “She said that at his age in life, he and she both felt that they were completely useless, they had nothing left to give. But by being able to donate, it kind of showed that they still meant something, they were still worth something, they were still able to help somebody.”

But the bank’s record keeping was abysmal, making it impossible to track the tissue from donor to hospital buyer. In 2000 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a warning letter - a serious and uncommon reproach. That’s when RTI Biologics - which had until then bought all the bank’s tissue - took over responsibility for its operations.

Once RTI got more involved in daily operations, Truitt said, training was upgraded. Experts came in to show him and his coworkers how to recover tissue in the most efficient manner. “I don’t think they made it any more professional,” he said. “I think they made it more industrial.”

The industrial part of processing and distributing tissue is so different from the soft nonprofit face that donor families are often shocked. “The for-profit trade in body parts is a legal gray area,” said Joshua Slocum, executive director of the Funeral Consumers Alliance. “This affects the confidence of the public and the whole donation process.”

Truitt has nothing against for-profit companies being involved in the industry. He just wants families to be fully informed when the dead’s remains are used to make commercial products. “What I’m saying is that I want that choice. I want to be able to know what that means. And I don’t think that’s what families are getting.”

That can be a challenge, given differences in disclosure laws among states as well as families’ vulnerability during the time of grieving.

Some families don’t want all the details, and it’s up to the organization seeking the tissue to judge how much to disclose, according to Christina Strong, a lawyer for organ and tissue banks and an expert on donation regulations.

Some families, Strong said, might say, “This is freaking abuse. Look, I’m giving OK. That’s it.” Others might say, “Yes, take it,” but they want an open casket funeral, which means that they need to be aware of the kinds of tissues to be taken and how that will affect the person’s appearance and clothing selection.

Most tissue donation center requests analyzed in the 2010 study didn’t tell families that they could decide not to donate.  And none told families they could change their minds after initially agreeing, according to the study published earlier this year in The Journal of Trauma, a medical journal.

Families often have even less information and fewer rights when it comes to harvesting tissue from the dead overseas. Express consent isn’t required, for example, when a company gets tissue from some former Soviet nations.

RTI’s trade-partner turned subsidiary, Tutogen Medical, has obtained tissue from the Czech Republic, Hungary and Latvia, where everyone is a donor unless they expressly opt out.  The company also obtains tissue from Ukraine, where government morgues can recover tissue from the dead if they gain family consent.

Four of Tutogen’s Ukrainian suppliers have been investigated for allegedly taking tissue against the wishes of donors or their families. The first case was dismissed when prosecutors couldn't prove the tissue hand been transplanted. The second was dismissed after the defendant died while a court deliberated his case. Two recent investigations are still pending.

The income that can be made from recovery to distribution is anywhere from $80,000 to $200,000, according to industry experts and court testimony. There is a cost involved in recovering, processing and distributing the tissue.

Overseas and in the U.S., some companies that profit from human tissue spend considerable resources cultivating sources of fresh bodies.

Phillip Guyett, who worked as a ground-level body wrangler in California, North Carolina and Las Vegas before he was sent to prison for falsifying death records, said the demand for tissue grows more intense every year. One tissue buyer, Guyett said, summed up the all-out competition for corpses this way: “Whoever has the most bone wins.”

A profit machine

When RTI took over the Wisconsin tissue bank where Chris Truitt worked, he said employees were pushed to compete hard with other tissue banks for access to bodies - courting hospitals, funeral homes and morgues. “We would convince them when they came across a death to call us in for the tissue, rather than some other tissue bank,” Truitt said. 

Once the tissue left the bank, it was sent to RTI, sterilized and milled into implants. “It is a medical device. It’s regulated as a medical device,” he said. “It’s no longer part of Uncle John. It’s product XYZ123.”

Skin from the Wisconsin bank was also sent to New Jersey-based LifeCell. Truitt says a representative of LifeCell initiated an award for the person who could recover the most tissue from a donor. He said the award was named the Golden Dermatome Award after the instrument designed to strip layers of skin off a donor’s back, thighs and arms.

LifeCell did not respond to questions about the award but said in a statement to ICIJ that the company "is committed to improving patients' lives."

“When they started giving out those rewards, it really sunk into me that instead of being stewards of the gift and treating each donor with the ultimate in respect, the company was actually looking at each donor as a profit machine, as nothing more than raw resources,” Truitt said. “And it was our job to take as much of those resources as we possibly could.”

He left the bank, disillusioned that any profits could be made from recycling human tissues from donors like his daughter. He even had his name removed from his state’s list of tissues donors, but remains an organ donor. He hasn’t given up hope.

“Saving lives, making lives better. That’s what it should be all about,” Truitt said. “I talk with a lot of recipients. I talk with a lot of donor families. And we all feel the same thing. It’s too important a thing, too incredible a thing to just stop. We have to fix it instead.”

Mandi Eisenbeis hopes that her family’s lawsuit, filed this spring in San Joaquin County (Calif.) Superior Court against the California Transplant Donor Network, will spur that kind of reform among recovery banks.

The case is still in its early stages; the family’s lawyers hope lawmakers will notice the case and call for changes in how they obtain consent and treat donor bodies.

Eisenbeis said the condition of her father in the coffin - and the photos she saw afterward that showed the full picture of the mutilation - roused her to take her complaints to the bank.

Three times, she said, she sent copies of the funeral director’s letter and pictures to the tissue bank. Three times the bank said it never received the mail. Then, she said, it stopped picking up the phone at all.

It was only after getting the silent treatment, she said, that her family decided to file the lawsuit.

“I don’t want anyone to go through what I felt the day I saw those pictures,” she said. “For me, I just wanted things to change, and when I saw those pictures I knew that I had to do everything I could to get someone to stand up and listen to me.”

This story was co-reported by National Public Radio (USA).


---Traceability Elusive In Global Trade Of Human Parts---
Posted: 07/19/2012 7:42 am
By Kate Willson and Mar Cabra
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/icij/body-parts-trade_b_1676670.html

This is the third installment in an International Consortium of Investigative Journalists series.

The Kentucky man died in an off-road vehicle accident last year. His liver and kidneys helped save three dying patients in his home state. Musculoskeletal grafts taken from his heart, skin and bones were used in medical products used to improve the lives of 15 people around the country.

But soon after the transplants, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention learned the organ recipients had contracted hepatitis C. It turned out the Kentucky donor had a history of substance abuse and had served prison time. The tissue bank that recycled his remains, the CDC said, had screwed up the usual testing done to verify that tissues and organs were safe.

The CDC's Office of Blood and Biologics deployed a team of "shoe-leather epidemiologists" to track down the tissue before someone else got sick. Unlike hearts and other organs -- or blood products that come with a unique barcode -- there's no easy way to track down tissue.

Instead the team found tissues one-by-one, calling hospitals and chasing down doctors. It took nearly a month to locate all the surgeons who had implanted tissue into 15 people. A child, later found to have hepatitis C, had received an infected heart vessel patch before the tissue recall began.

In some cases, inconsistent or non-existent recordkeeping prevents medical sleuths from ever finding potentially infected tissues. In one major case that played out in 2006, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and five tissue companies moved to recall 25,000 tissues taken illegally from U.S. donors without proper consent or testing. Eight hundred of the tissues shipped overseas were never found.

The trade in human tissues is virtually untraceable at a global level. Poor accountability and inadequate safeguards have prompted concerns among medical experts that products made from bone, skin, tendon and other tissues taken from the dead could spread disease to the living -- putting patients who receive tissue implants in dental surgery, breast reconstruction and other procedures at risk.

Little has been done to address this problem, despite U.S. government reports that have raised red flags for the past 15 years -- and despite continuing concerns by the CDC and the World Health Organization.

Lack Of Transparency

The United States is home to the human tissue industry's largest players and provides as much as two-thirds of the world supply. But the U.S. government neither knows where imported tissue originally comes from nor where exported tissue ultimately goes.

Transplants of hearts, lungs, kidneys and other intact organs are tightly monitored because organs have to be a near-exact physical match and move immediately from donor to recipient. Hearts and other organs are charted with unique identification numbers that trace back to their donors.

By contrast, cartilage, bone and skin can be stored for months or years and shipped from place to place. Tissues aren't given standard identification numbers that allow health authorities to track them.

Some health experts have proposed -- without success -- that the U.S. and other countries adopt a barcoding system that would allow them to track tissues across state and national borders. It wouldn't be difficult, and it wouldn't be too costly either, they say.

"If you think of Wal-Mart, they pass through millions of products that are scanned," said Reena Mahajan, a CDC investigator who worked on the case of the hepatitis-infected Kentucky donor. "If they had a recall, it would be very easy."

Without the ability to systematically track products made from human tissues, officials can't respond efficiently if infected tissue is recalled. Nor can authorities assure tissue has been taken legally -- or from countries with low risk for deadly infections such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the undetectable human equivalent to mad cow disease.

A pilot program implemented in the United States to follow the traffic of tissue products showed promise. But without industry support or a federal mandate, the program died. On a global scale, the World Health Organization has tried for years to collect data on the global trade. The effort collapsed when most countries -- including the United States -- failed to provide any data. Now the WHO has refocused efforts on trying to convince counties why they should care.

Mar Carmona, part of a two-person team trying to investigate the issue for the WHO, says the lack of participation from the U.S. helped cripple the program. "If you don't have the U.S., and they're the biggest country," she said, getting a sense of the global picture is almost impossible.

Carmona's boss at the WHO is Dr. Luc Noel.

"I am not sure anyone has complete and precise tissue banking activity data for the USA. I only have estimations," Noel said. And without traceability -- without transparency -- the trade is vulnerable to unchecked infection and illicit networks in a way organs are not. "You store, you ship, you can blur the tracks," he said. "It fits into the legal and illegal trade without much difficulty."

FDA: "It Doesn't Ring A Bell"

The United States allows companies to import tissue provided the donors are not from countries, such as the United Kingdom, with a history of mad cow disease. It sets no limits based on a country's quality of transparency or human rights record. So England is out, but Ukraine is in.

In Ukraine, police have uncovered what they believe to be cases of illegal tissue recoveries that bring into question the safety and oversight of material that is regularly imported into the United States.

U.S. regulations do nothing, however, to address the potential for improperly obtained body parts, said an official with the FDA, the agency tapped to police the trade. They only focus on "safety and efficacy. They do not have anything to do with what's going on in the other countries. Our regulations and our guidance would not address something like that."

Nor does the FDA know where all human tissue is coming from. Not all imports are clearly marked as human -- or even as tissue. Instead, shipments come in under vague import codes such as "Orthopedic Implant Material." Imports are logged into the system with a "country of origin." But that doesn't always lead to the source country. For example, Ukrainian tissue has been sent to facilities in Germany for processing or storage and exported to the U.S. as a product of Germany.

The FDA last year required Florida-based RTI Biologics to change its practice of identifying tissue originating in the Ukraine as German. The company bought out Germany-based Tutogen in 2008 after a long trade partnership. BioImplant -- RTI's Ukrainian supplier -- has since begun exporting significant amounts of tissue to Florida directly from Ukraine.

Without being able to identify the true country of origin, officials might not connect cases of illicit tissue harvesting with products distributed in the United States -- if they were even aware of such cases.

FDA officials said they were unaware of investigations carried out in Ukraine. Dozens of families complained their loved ones' tissues were taken illegally in morgues that are also FDA-registered tissue banks and shipped to Tutogen, a subsidiary of RTI since early 2008.

The first case, from 2005, was dropped when investigators ruled that the law made it difficult to prove whether a crime had been committed. The second case, from 2008, was closed when the supplier on trial died just before a jury returned its verdict. The third and fourth cases, from earlier this year, are still pending.

"If we had any intelligence about a concern, we would flag them accordingly and take the appropriate action," a high-ranking FDA import official said. "If something came in we'd probably hear about it. But it doesn't ring a bell with me."

FDA officials spoke on background, but in the presence of agency press officers. They refused previous and subsequent requests to speak on record.

Broken Chain

Companies in the U.S. distribute more than 2 million tissue products a year. These distributors should be able to track tissue from donor to hospital buyer if something goes wrong. After that, it's the hospital's responsibility -- although not by law -- to assure traceability continues to the recipients.

The doctor who implants the tissue can choose to fill out a postcard and send it to the tissue manufacturer, noted Scott Brubaker, chief policy officer of the industry group the American Association of Tissue Banks. "But this practice is voluntary and compliance is sketchy," he wrote in a book to be published this summer.

Brubaker pointed to increasing difficulties that face companies trading tissue cross-borders. "Tracking capabilities need to be ensured particularly where there is the possibility of importation into one country and then redistribution to others," he wrote in a report prepared as part of a 2011 conference about the global tissue trade. "For the exporter, traceability ends with the first stop in the chain of custody; the final disposition of grafts can remain unknown."

Surgeons are not required to inform tissue companies when they use a graft or when a patient gets sick following a transplant. And even if they do hear about an infection, the companies are required to report only the most serious to the FDA. Experts suspect infection rates are low, but no one really knows.

"There is no good traceability system right now, no barcoding, we don't have surveillance, just shoe-leather epidemiology," said Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, director of the CDC's blood and biologics unit. "Without surveillance, you can't say anything."

Between 1994 and 2007, authorities issued recalls for more than 60,000 tissue grafts. But because doctors aren't required to tell patients that the medical device is human, patients might not connect a subsequent infection with the graft itself.

"If the clinician hasn't explained the patient got human tissue, how do you explain there was a recall?" asked Kuehnert. "Physicians say they don't want to test the patients. We ask, 'Why not?' They say, 'I don't think they realized they got an allograft. So how do I explain why they need HIV or hepatitis testing done?'"

Tissue can be infected with cancer, bacteria, fungus, tuberculosis, HIV, even rabies. Scariest of them all perhaps is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, which can incubate undetected in a body for decades. CJD attacks the nervous system and is always deadly.

Dozens died in the 1980s and 1990s from CJD-tainted tissue. In response, the FDA forbids companies from selling medical products in the U.S. made from tissues imported from the European Union and other regions where mad cow disease had emerged. U.S. companies can still obtain tissue from countries deemed low risk, such as Slovakia. Then they can distribute it in places outside the United States.

CJD is a known unknown. Of even greater concern are diseases that have yet to be discovered.

"I worked in the AIDS era. It was a new virus; no one knew much about it," said Dr. Duke Kasprisin, who has worked in the blood and tissue industry for decades. "We always have a certain squeamishness that something like that can occur again, that there's some new virus on the horizon that we're not thinking about today and wouldn't recognize it."

"You're only as good as the current set of infections," Kasprisin added. "We're ... trying to make sure we're not dealing with something different, something new, something transmissible."

Economist Angelo Ghirardini with the Italian Transplantation Center developed a national system to trace organs more than a decade ago. He followed that in 2008 with a way to track other human tissues such as bone, skin and veins. From his office in Rome, he proudly displays the real-time software that follows activity of Italy's 34 tissue banks.

Using a unique identification code, Ghirardini can tell you where a piece of tissue is at any given time -- all the way from donor to recipient. His team is part of a consortium working to create a common coding system for the European Union's 27 countries.

"It's a priority," said biologist Deirdre Fehily, a member of the Italian team. "It's seen as a primary way of improving safety ... and also addressing ethical issues. Because if you can trace to the origin, you can investigate consent issues."

The system is required by law. But with so many languages and governments to accommodate, it's running behind schedule. The team anticipates the program will be live by 2014.

Europe and the U.S. took different approaches to regulating products made with human parts. Most European countries limit the number of banks per region based on a population's need. The United States does much the same thing with life-saving organs. But regulations are less restrictive with the other human remains.

"The U.S. early on in the history allowed profit making," Fehily explained. "Can you imagine in the States someone saying, 'Connecticut can only have three bone banks'? If someone wants to start a bone bank, they start it."

Grim Outlook

The Government Accountability Office (then called the General Accounting Office) first reported on the lack of traceability in the budding U.S. tissue industry in 1997. "The current tissue-tracking system is inadequate to notify recipients who receive tissues later deemed to have been unsuitable for transplantation," it found. Nor were companies required to report errors "or to report adverse events associated with the transplantation of human tissue."

Following a series of stories published in 2000 by California's Orange County Register about problems and profits in the tissue industry, the Office of Inspector General for Heath and Human Services found nothing had changed. "There is no national system for tracking the availability of tissue," the 2001 report read.

That year U.S. lawmakers convened a hearing. They wanted to know why the government couldn't properly regulate the rapidly-changing industry.

"We do not even know where the tissue goes right now. There is not even a way to sort out and track what happens to the tissue," George Grob, then-deputy inspector general for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, told lawmakers. "And with the modern tissue banking industry, there are so many new processes coming into play all the time that it is difficult to even define the stages through which the tissue is going."

In 2005, the FDA implemented rules requiring tissue banks to track their tissues from donor to distributor. But banks and hospitals maintained different tracking systems. And the government verified compliance through sporadic on-site inspections. Only about 40 percent of banks in operation today have any associated federal inspection record, according to an ICIJ analysis of the FDA's inspection data.

Companies were also required to report at least the worst adverse events -- but the company was given broad discretion to draw the final determination. For example, between September 2010 and October 2011, RTI received 758 complaints or reports of adverse reaction to their tissue, FDA inspectors noted in the company's 2011 inspection. During that time RTI reported four adverse events to the FDA. The company declined requests for comment.

The AATB refused repeated requests over four months for on-record interviews. But during a background interview representatives said most often an infection following transplant cannot be directly linked to the tissue graft used. "A tiny, tiny, tiny minority when there is an infection ascribed to a specific graft," an AATB offical said. "Tissue is safe. It's incredibly safe."

In 2007, the FDA, CDC and United Network for Organ Sharing implemented a pilot traceability system with a clunky name -- the Transplant Transmission Sentinel Network. Companies volunteered to take part in the three-year barcode-based program.

The model was a success insofar as products could be tracked efficiently. But the effort also highlighted gaps in the reporting requirements, a lack of understanding the risks of disease transmission, and a lack of coordination among stakeholders.

"Concerns were also voiced about possible liability, impacting the willingness of participants to report adverse events," researchers later noted. "The prototype proved that a system can be built, but to be quickly implemented nationally will require impetus from legislation or regulation."

The program wasn't renewed at the end of its three-year lifespan. The CDC's Kuehnert is optimistic, but the outlook isn't good.

"All I can say is that we recommend it. But there has to be the momentum to make it happen," the CDC's Kuehnert told ICIJ. "I think we take it for granted that cereal you buy at the store has a barcode on it and it can be tracked back if there is some sort of a problem. You can't do that with tissue right now."


---Body Brokers Leave Trail Of Questions, Corruption---
Posted: 07/18/2012 7:33 am
By Kate Willson, Vlad Lavrov, Martina Keller and Michael Hudson
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/icij/body-brokers-corruption_b_1664913.html

This is the second installment in an International Consortium of Investigative Journalists series.

In April 2003, Robert Ambrosino murdered his ex-fiancee -- a 22-year-old aspiring actress -- by shooting her in the face with a .45-caliber pistol.

Then Ambrosino turned the gun around and killed himself.

Soon after, Ambrosino's corpse entered the United States' vast tissue-donation system, his skin, bones and other body parts destined for use in the manufacture of cutting-edge medical products.

But before they entered the system, Michael Mastromarino, owner of a New Jersey-based tissue recovery firm, needed to solve a couple of problems.

He didn't want to have to report that Ambrosino had perished in a murder-suicide. And he didn't want anyone to know that Ambrosino's family hadn't given permission for his body to be used for tissue donation.

Mastromarino solved both problems the same way: He lied.

He claimed Ambrosino died in a car accident. And he claimed that Ambrosino's family had agreed to donate his tissue before the rest of his remains were cremated.

Mastromarino was the leader of a now-infamous human tissue trafficking ring that fed an international trade in body parts. Along with tissues from Ambrosino's corpse, he stole parts from grandmothers, electrical engineers, and factory workers, as well as from the remains of famed journalist Alistair Cooke.

The disgraced dental surgeon from Brooklyn supplied the raw material for products used for a host of surgical operations -- from knee repair to plastic surgery and cosmetic implants. He was a ground-level player in an industry that makes its profits by harvesting human tissues mostly from the United States, but also from Slovakia, Estonia, Mexico, and other countries around the world. One of Mastromarino's top buyers was Florida-headquartered RTI Biologics, a processor of American, Canadian and Ukrainian body parts that trades among the high-tech companies on the NASDAQ stock exchange.

Years after Mastromarino was sent to prison and the publicity in his case quieted down, his story has been given new life by a lawsuit filed in a Staten Island courthouse. New York Supreme Court Judge Joseph J. Maltese has given the green light for RTI to stand trial Oct. 22 in a civil case that will delve into what the company knew -- or should have known -- about Mastromarino's body snatching.

Evidence already filed in court raises questions about whether RTI was simply a victim of Mastromarino's fraud, or whether it eschewed common sense in favor of its bottom line. An investigation by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) shows that the evidence in the case -- and in other body-stealing scandals across the globe -- also raises larger questions about the conduct of an industry that recycles more than 30,000 human bodies each year.

Police in places including Hungary and Ukraine, and North Carolina and Alabama in the U.S., have alleged that tissue suppliers stole tissue, committed fraud and forgery, or took kickbacks to pad their pockets. These cases suggest that Michael Mastromarino wasn't the only body wrangler who has bent or broken the rules in the drive to supply the industry with flesh and bone.

A Fantastic Product

Mastromarino, now 49, is doing time at a maximum-security prison outside Buffalo, N.Y., serving a sentence of up to 58 years. He describes himself more as a human tissue broker than a body thief.

"This is an industry. It's a commodity. Like flour on the commodity exchange. It's no different," Mastromarino said. "I cut some corners. But I knew where I could cut corners. We were providing a fantastic product."

For more than three years until his crimes came to light in late 2005, Mastromarino's firm supplied bones and other tissue to RTI's nonprofit subsidiary, RTI Donor Services, and four other U.S. companies."

Mastromarino was familiar with RTI's operation from his previous career as one of the busiest dental surgeons in Manhattan. He regularly used products derived from cadaver bone on his patients and, in that capacity, he had signed a consultancy agreement with the company in 2000 to help further refine RTI's products.

But Mastromarino's personal life was falling apart. He started injecting prescription painkillers to sooth an old football injury, became an addict and got busted for drug possession. He tried rehab three times before giving up his medical license.

Familiar with the industry and good with a scalpel, Mastromarino opened his own human tissue recovery company. He called it Biomedical Tissue Services.

The process was easy. Mastromarino filled out a form downloaded from the website of the Food and Drug Administration, the agency that regulates the industry in the U.S.

He didn't have to wait for the FDA to inspect his facilities. He began supplying body parts right away -- with more than a little help, he said, from an industry leader, RTI Donor Services.

"RTI set me up," Mastromarino testified in a pending civil case. "They then said, 'Listen, we can get into your business, we can get you started, we can open up your own business.'"

'Santa's Naughty List'

The parties signed a supply contract in March 2002.

Not long after, Mastromarino's colorful language and short fuse led to complaints from RTI staff. There were also rumors about his alleged involvement with organized crime, according to testimony of Caroline Hartill, RTI Donor Services' vice president of quality assurance.

Court documents outline that RTI executives were concerned enough to hire a lawyer to run a background check on their new business partner.

"The good doctor has been on Santa's naughty list for quite some time," the lawyer, Jerome Hoffman, wrote in December 2002. "I would strongly encourage you not to do business with someone that has this kind of resume."

A few weeks later Hoffman further urged RTI to give Mastromarino "the required 60 days notice under the current contract and not sign a new contract."

RTI didn't heed the lawyer's advice.

Instead, on Feb. 11, 2003, Caroline Hartill signed an amended contract with Mastromarino's firm.

In the new contract, his name was replaced with a freshly licensed doctor who lived in another state and with whom Hartill had never spoken. The doctor served as the medical director of Mastromarino's firm -- according to the signature on paper at least.

Hartill testified in the pending civil case that the amended agreement was simply a routine part of accreditation with the American Association of Tissue Banks, an industry body that oversees some of the biggest tissue banks in the U.S. She said her company wanted the medical director to take Mastromarino's place on the contract because RTI determined it "would like to have more direct interaction with some of the other key principles."

RTI discounted the law firm's concerns, she said, because if Mastromarino had "turned his life around, then who was I to pass judgment on him?"

Mastromarino recalls events differently. He testified Hartill and another RTI executive called him confidentially. They worried about competitors discovering his background and using it against the company, they said. And that's why, Mastromarino said, his name came off the contract.

"Okay, whatever you guys want to do to make it comfortable," Mastromarino told them, according to a deposition he gave in the current civil case.

The company refused interview requests from ICIJ and did not respond to detailed questions provided more than a month before publication.

Reasonable Fees

RTI turns to corpse wranglers for a simple reason: It needs dead bodies to turn a profit.

"We cannot be sure that the supply of human tissue will continue to be available at current levels or will be sufficient to meet our needs," RTI warned stockholders in securities filings. "We expect that our revenues would decline in proportion to any decline in tissue supply."

And it isn't alone.

More than 2,500 companies registered with the U.S. government rely to varying degrees on the fees they charge for crafting implants made from human tissue.

The world's largest human-tissue bank, Musculoskeletal Transplant Foundation, took in nearly $400 million in revenues in 2010.

MTF is set up as a tax-exempt nonprofit, like most organizations that recover the tissue from donors located through hospitals, funeral homes and morgues. Most recovery outfits supply processing companies like RTI, which clean the pieces and mill them into usable implants. The processing companies in turn distribute them directly to hospitals or use an outside vendor such as medical device giant Zimmer to ship them around the world.

Players bid for exclusive access to U.S. donors. For example, medical device company Bacterin announced last year that it "successfully secured rights of first refusal of human tissue with multiple recovery agencies."

Competition has spawned bitter court battles. MTF sued Bacterin last year for hiring former employees who, the lawsuit alleged, used their inside knowledge to pitch a rival bone product to MTF customers. "The very foundation of MTF's business is under direct attack," MTF argued in its complaint.

Publically traded NuVasive sued MTF and its partner Orthofix, accusing it of infringing on a patent for stem cell-laced bone implants. And nonprofit LifeNet Health sued Zimmer over reimbursement fees for processing bone plugs.

RTI gets tissue directly through its nonprofit subsidiary, RTI Donor Services, and has also obtained tissue from other nonprofit tissue banks in at least 23 states.

The Alabama Organ Center is one of RTI's suppliers. It was embroiled in scandal this spring when its second-in-command, Richard Alan Hicks, pleaded guilty to accepting kickbacks from a funeral home in exchange for tissue recovery contracts.

"There are too many loopholes. There are too many temptations. There's too much money out there," Hicks' attorney Richard Jaffe told ICIJ in June. "This industry is out of control."

The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio has also recovered tissue for RTI. Its contract includes a fee chart -- attaching different prices to the same tissue based on the donor's age. RTI reimburses the recovery bank $1,755 for a 20-year-old femur; but $553 for the same bone from an 80-year-old.

In 1984 Congress passed the National Organ Transplant Act, making it illegal to buy and sell human organs and other human tissues. But it allowed charging "reasonable" fees for recovering, cleaning and distributing those parts.

Younger tissue is stronger and can be more lucrative for tissue processors because it can be used for higher-value grafts. Neither RTI nor the University of Texas responded to repeated requests for clarification about why the same tissues would carry such varying fees.

ICIJ turned to Christina Strong, a lawyer for organ procurement organizations (OPO) and tissue banks including tissue giant MTF. ICIJ asked whether there could be any reason other than the quality of the tissue itself for a bank to pay more for younger tissue.

"I have not found a satisfactory answer that makes me like this," she said, pointing to the contract. "I do not like this. I would say to my OPO, 'Don't sign that.' "

Strictly Confidential

With so much competition for American cadavers, some companies seek raw material overseas. That's created a fertile market in Eastern Europe for body brokers and other middlemen who can help supply the tissue trade.

One of the middlemen was Igor Aleschenko, a Russian coroner working in Ukraine. In coordination with Ukraine's ministry of health, he launched BioImplant, a state-owned tissue procurement center to supply Tutogen, a German medical products company.

Bioimplant supplied Tutugen with tissue. But Tutogen executives raised internal questions as early as 2001 about whether it should pull out of Ukraine, according to an internal memo marked "Strictly Confidential!!!!"

Aleschenko was asking for more and more money to play the role of intermediary between the regional satellite morgues around Ukraine and Tutogen in Germany.

"The flow of money is difficult to track," the memo read. "Direct control over our resources is impossible."

Staying in Ukraine would be high-risk, the authors determined.

"We can't control the activities of the middlemen, and commitments are not being honored," the memo said.

But the relationship did not stop.

Over time, 25 Ukrainian morgues registered with the FDA, each listing Tutogen's German phone number on its registration forms. Since 2002, BioImplant and Tutogen have collectively exported to the United States 1,307 shipments of tissue -- mostly bone, skin and fascia sent from Germany.

Families in Kiev first began complaining to police in 2005 that a morgue that was supplying Tutogen's needs was taking tissue without proper consent. The criminal case was closed after an initial investigation. Prosecutors determined that, under Ukrainian law, they couldn't prove a crime had been committed if they couldn't prove that the tissue had been transplanted into someone, court records show.

Three years later Ukrainian police investigated another Tutogen supplier -- this time in central Krivoy Rog. Those charges were dropped after the director of the morgue died while the jury deliberated in his criminal trial. Then in February of this year, police raided the Nikolaev morgue in southern Ukraine.

Some families claimed they were tricked, pressured or threatened into consenting. Police said in some cases signatures had been forged.

Aleschenko has reportedly slipped out of Ukraine for his native Russia. The Ministry will not respond to questions about his whereabouts.

Roman Hitchev, the founder of a major Bulgarian tissue bank and now president-elect of the European Association of Tissue Banks, said he was invited to Ukraine a few years ago at the request of the regional government in Odessa. Officials wanted to operate a bank similar to that of Tutogen suppliers in Kiev. Hitchev said he left, unconvinced.

"They didn't have legal infrastructure, laws. Regulations were insufficient," he said. "There was too much vagueness, too much uncertainty concerning who's responsible in terms of control, traceability. I don't like what I saw, and I just walked away."

Clean Inspections

The market for fresh bodies in former Soviet republics was alluring enough that even Michael Mastromarino -- the New York dental surgeon turned body broker -- tried to get in on the action.

He had connections in Kyrgyzstan. He flew there to meet with a top prison official. The official wined and dined him, Mastromarino said, and promised to sell him the bodies of executed inmates.

Mastromarino went home, energized at the prospects for new supply and revenue streams. He asked the FDA about importing tissue from the country.

The FDA was concerned about the risk that tissues harvested from Kyrgyzstan might carry Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a fatal neurological disease akin to Mad Cow disease.

It gave Mastromarino an answer he didn't want to hear: "No."

So he had to be satisfied with his domestic sources of bodies. For a time, that was fine. Business was good, and he managed to avoid too much scrutiny from his buyers or regulators.

During audits of Mastromarino's company by the FDA and RTI, no one tried to verify whether consents obtained from donors' families were legitimate. Consents were often marked as having been taken by phone. U.S. law requires telephone consents be recorded, but no one double-checked to see if he was actually recording the telephone consents -- or even getting them at all.

A Pennsylvania grand jury later condemned the entire inspection process. "If the lies in the records claimed compliance with regulations, that apparently was sufficient," its 2007 findings read.

Even as Mastromarino's company was passing inspections and booking profits, outsiders raised concerns about his business practices. Maryann Carroll, director of the New Jersey association of funeral directors, complained to RTI that Mastromarino was approaching funeral homes using RTI letterhead.

"Maryann feels like this reimbursement is excessive and looks like he's buying donors," an RTI employee wrote executives, according to undated correspondence detailed in court records. "She claims that if the press gets ahold of this story and slams the donation, then RTI will be dragged into this and her association will state that this is the second time that we were notified and did nothing."

RTI's nonprofit Donor Services unit signed a new contract with Mastromarino in June 2005.

RTI didn't know at the time it signed the new contact, the company later said, that criminal investigators had begun looking into Mastromarino's operations.

Pizza Parlor

RTI wasn't the only big company wanting to do business with Mastromarino.

In August 2005, LifeCell Corporation, a provider of skin grafts for burns, plastic surgery and bladder slings among other procedures, invited Mastromarino to its headquarters in New Jersey. It told him it could pay close to $10,000 per body if he could supply the skin from at least 400 donors a year, according to a copy of the presentation. That could have been worth millions of dollars a year to Mastromarino.

Two weeks after making its pitch, LifeCell received a letter from the Brooklyn District Attorney. Police in New York had been investigating Mastromarino's body-stealing ring for months, after discovering forged consent forms at a Brooklyn funeral home. The DA asked LifeCell to forward any information it had relating to Mastromarino's firm.

LifeCell did not respond to specific questions posed by ICIJ. In a statement the company said "It was LifeCell's extensive donor review process that detected irregularities with Biomedical Tissue Services consent documents in September 2005."

On Sept. 28 -- three weeks after prosecutors asked for LifeCell's records -- Dr. Michael Bauer was clearing donor charts for LifeCell. He had always handled the donors provided by Mastromarino's firm. But he had never tried to independently verify information. He was unaware, he later said, of the ongoing police investigation, but that night something made him do what he'd never done before. He tried calling the number for one of the physicians listed in a donor file.

He got a pizza parlor instead.

In the scandal that followed, LifeCell, RTI, Tutogen, Lost Mountain Tissue Bank and Central Texas Blood and Tissue recalled a total of 25,000 products -- 2,000 of which had been sold overseas to Australia, South Korea, Turkey, Switzerland and other countries.

Live Fast, Die Early

Mastromarino's case brought a spate of bad publicity to the industry. The unwelcome attention flared up again in August 2006, when a similar case broke in North Carolina.

Phillip Guyett had been working in the tissue industry for more than a decade, starting in California, then branching out to Nevada and, eventually, North Carolina.

Along the way, Guyett discovered that the best way to find young, healthy corpses was by trolling county morgues and funeral homes in lower-income locales with high crime rates, or by targeting cities like Las Vegas, where young people act stupid and die early.

Like Mastromarino, Guyett smoothed the process of selling off body parts with creative record keeping. He forged information on donor files, in one case selling hepatitis-infected tissue with a clean vial of blood from a different corpse.

"It's ridiculous. I should never have been able to start a recovery business," he told ICIJ in a recent interview in prison.

"I submitted the form online and in three days I was an official recovery tissue bank registered with the FDA," he says is a book written about his career. "It's harder to sell a hot dog on the street than it was to recover transplant tissue."

Guyett pleaded guilty to three counts of fraud and is serving eight years in a federal prison.

The Mastromarino and Guyett cases prompted U.S. Senator Charles Schumer, a New York Democrat, to push legislation to help rein in the tissue-processing industry. The proposal would have required that new tissue banks meet minimum standards and undergo regular inspections by the FDA. It would also have required the federal government to define "reasonable" fees -- a change companies tell shareholders could endanger future revenue.

His bill died because of hard lobbying by the industry, Schumer said. "They said it wasn't needed. They said that 'Everything is under control,' but I had real doubts," he recalled. "The bottom line here is, what we saw happen in the Brooklyn funeral home could well be happening in lots of other places both here and abroad, and there's no real protection."

Mastromarino agrees.

"Nothing is going to change," he said. "There are too many people making too much money."

Pointing The Finger

After pleading guilty to avoid a possible 8,673-year prison sentence at trial, Mastromarino told prosecutors that his buyers -- RTI, Tutogen and LifeCell -- were not simple victims of his crimes. "Just look at how it works," he told them.

Prosecutors said they didn't find evidence to corroborate his claims. But families of the desecrated dead are now pressing civil charges accusing RTI of negligence -- "not so much exactly what they knew, but what they should have known," plaintiffs' lawyers explained to the judge during the lawsuit's pre-trial combat.

If the case does make it to trial, as scheduled, in October, Mastromarino's story is expected to be a centerpiece of the plaintiffs' evidence.

Important enough to the plaintiffs' case, in fact, that lawyers for RTI Biologics fought to have his testimony thrown out. Mastromarino had already pleaded guilty to defrauding RTI and Tutogen, attorney Nancy Ledy-Gurren told Judge Maltese. He can't turn around and point the finger at them now, she said.

Judge Maltese disagreed.

"You basically want to muzzle Mastromarino from saying anything that involves what your clients said to him - that dialogue that raises the specter of 'What did they know and when did they know it?'" the judge told the company's lawyers during hearings last fall.

In the judge's view, just because the district attorney never prosecuted the executives from the bigger companies doesn't necessarily mean they didn't "participate in an enterprise."

At the least, the judge said, the victims' families have a right to argue: "They should have known. I mean, how could they be so naive?"


---Skin, bones and tissue for sale: How the dead are being used for grisly trade in human body parts---
By Kate Wilson, Vlad Lavrov, Martina Keller, Thomas Maier And Gerard Ryle
PUBLISHED: 19:59 GMT, 17 July 2012 | UPDATED: 07:04 GMT, 18 July 2012
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2175006/Skin-bones-tissue-sale-How-dead-used-grisly-trade-human-body-parts.html?ito=feeds-newsxml

Tissue and bone used for skin grafts, dental implants and cancer treatment taken from patients without consent
Expose carried out by International Consortium of Investigative Journalists

On Feb. 24, Ukrainian authorities made an alarming discovery: bones and other human tissues crammed into coolers in a grimy white minibus.

Investigators grew even more intrigued when they found, amid the body parts, envelopes stuffed with cash and autopsy results written in English.

What the security service had disrupted was not the work of a serial killer but part of an international pipeline of ingredients for medical and dental products that are routinely implanted into people around the world.

Scroll down for video
The seized documents suggested that the remains of dead Ukrainians were destined for a factory in Germany belonging to the subsidiary of a U.S. medical products company, Florida-based RTI Biologics.

RTI is one of a growing industry of companies that make profits by turning mortal remains into everything from dental implants to bladder slings to wrinkle cures.

The industry has flourished even as its practices have roused concerns about how tissues are obtained and how well grieving families and transplant patients are informed about the realities and risks of the business.

In the U.S. alone, the biggest market and the biggest supplier, an estimated two million products derived from human tissue are sold each year, a figure that has doubled over the past decade.

It is an industry that promotes treatments and products that literally allow the blind to see (through cornea transplants) and the lame to walk (by recycling tendons and ligaments for use in knee repairs). It's also an industry fueled by powerful appetites for bottom-line profits and fresh human bodies.

In the Ukraine, for example, the security service believes that bodies passing through a morgue in the Nikolaev district, the gritty shipbuilding region located near the Black Sea, may have been feeding the trade, leaving behind what investigators described as potentially dozens of “human sock puppets” - corpses stripped of their reusable parts.

Industry officials argue that such alleged abuses are rare, and that the industry operates safely and responsibly.

For its part, RTI didn’t respond to repeated requests for comment or to a detailed list of questions provided a month before this publication.

In public statements the company says it 'honors the gift of tissue donation by treating the tissue with respect, by finding new ways to use the tissue to help patients and by helping as many patients as possible from each donation.'

‘Our Misfortune’
Despite its growth, the tissue trade has largely escaped public scrutiny. This is thanks in part to less-than-aggressive official oversight - and to popular appeal for the idea of allowing the dead to help the living survive and thrive.

An eight-month, 11-country investigation by the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) has found, however, that the tissue industry’s good intentions sometimes are in conflict with the rush to make money from the dead.

Inadequate safeguards are in place to ensure all tissue used by the industry is obtained legally and ethically, ICIJ discovered from hundreds of interviews and thousands of pages of public documents obtained through records requests in six countries.

Despite concerns by doctors that the lightly regulated trade could allow diseased tissues to infect transplant recipients with hepatitis, HIV and other pathogens, authorities have done little to deal with the risks.

In contrast to tightly-monitored systems for tracking intact organs such as hearts and lungs, authorities in the U.S. and many other countries have no way to accurately trace where recycled skin and other tissues come from and where they go.

At the same time, critics say, the tissue-donation system can deepen the pain of grieving families, keeping them in the dark or misleading them about what will happen to the bodies of their loved ones.

Those left behind, like the parents of 19-year-old Ukrainian Sergei Malish, who committed suicide in 2008, are left to cope with a grim reality.

At Sergei’s funeral, his parents discovered deep cuts on his wrists. Yet they knew he had hanged himself.

They later learned that his body parts had been recycled and shipped off as “anatomical material.”

'They make money with our misfortune,' Sergei’s father said.

Awkward silence
During the transformational journey tissue undergoes - from dead human to medical device - some patients don’t even know that they are the final destination.

Doctors don’t always tell them that the products used in their breast reconstructions, penis implants and other procedures were reclaimed from the recently departed.

Nor are authorities always aware of where tissues come from or where they go.

The lack of proper tracking means that by the time problems are discovered some of the manufactured goods can’t be found. When the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention assists in the recall of products made from potentially tainted tissues, transplant doctors frequently aren’t much help.

'Oftentimes there’s an awkward silence. They say: "We don’t know where it went",' said Dr. Matthew Kuehnert, the CDC’s director of blood and biologics.

'We have barcodes for our [breakfast] cereals, but we don’t have barcodes for our human tissues,' Kuehnert said. 'Every patient who has tissue implanted should know. It’s so obvious. It should be a basic patient right. It is not. That’s ridiculous.'

Since 2002 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has documented at least 1,352 infections in the U.S. that followed human tissue transplants, according to an ICIJ analysis of FDA data. These infections were linked to the deaths of 40 people, the data shows.

One of the weaknesses of the tissue-monitoring system is the secrecy and complexity that comes with the cross-border exchange of body parts.

The Slovaks export cadaver parts to the Germans; the Germans export finished products to South Korea and the U.S.; the South Koreans to Mexico; the U.S. to more than 30 countries.

Distributors of manufactured products can be found in the European Union, China, Canada, Thailand, India, South Africa, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand. Some are subsidiaries of multinational medical corporations.

The international nature of the industry, critics claim, makes it easy to move products from place to place without much scrutiny.

'If I buy something from Rwanda, then put a Belgian label on it, I can import it into the U.S. When you enter into the official system, everyone is so trusting,' said Dr. Martin Zizi, professor of neurophysiology at the Free University of Brussels.

Once a product is in the European Union, it can be shipped to the U.S. with few questions asked.

“They assume you’ve done the quality check," Zizi said. "We are more careful with fruit and vegetables than with body parts.”
Piece of the action

Piece of the action
Inside the marketplace for human tissue, the opportunities for profits are immense. A single, disease-free body can spin off cash flows of $80,000 to $200,000 for the various non-profit and for-profit players involved in recovering tissues and using them to manufacture medical and dental products, according to documents and experts in the field.

It’s illegal in the U.S., as in most other countries, to buy or sell human tissue. However, it’s permissible to pay service fees that ostensibly cover the costs of finding, storing and processing human tissues.

Almost everyone gets a piece of the action.

Ground-level body wranglers in the U.S. can get as much as $10,000 for each corpse they secure through their contacts at hospitals, mortuaries and morgues. Funeral homes can act as middlemen to identify potential donors. Public hospitals can get paid for the use of tissue-recovery rooms.

And medical products multinationals like RTI? They do well, too. Last year RTI earned $11.6 million in pretax profits on revenues of $169 million.

Phillip Guyett, who ran a tissue recovery business in several U.S. states before he was convicted of falsifying death records, said executives with companies that bought tissues from him treated him to $400 meals and swanky hotel stays.

They promised: 'We can make you a rich man.' It got to the point, he said, that he began looking at the dead “with dollar signs attached to their parts.” Guyett never worked directly for RTI.

Smoked salmon
Human skin takes on the color of smoked salmon when it is professionally removed in rectangular shapes from a cadaver.  A good yield is about six square feet.

After being mashed up to remove moisture, some is destined to protect burn victims from life-threatening bacterial infections or, once further refined, for breast reconstructions after cancer.

The use of human tissue 'has really revolutionized what we can do in breast reconstruction surgery,' explains Dr. Ron Israeli, a plastic surgeon in Great Neck, N.Y.

'Since we started using it in about 2005, it’s really become a standard technique.'

A significant number of recovered tissues are transformed into products whose shelf names give little clue to their actual origin.

They are used in the dental and beauty industries, for everything from plumping up lips to smoothing out wrinkles.

Cadaver bone - harvested from the dead and replaced with PVC piping for burial - is sculpted like pieces of hardwood into screws and anchors for dozens of orthopedic and dental applications.

Or the bone is ground down and mixed with chemicals to form strong surgical glues that are advertised as being better than the artificial variety.

'At the basic level what we are doing to the body, it’s a very physical - and I imagine some would say a very grotesque - thing,' said Chris Truitt, a former RTI employee in Wisconsin.

'We are pulling out arm bones. We are pulling out leg bones. We are cutting the chest open to pull the heart out to get at the valves. We are pulling veins out from the inside of skin.'

Whole tendons, scrubbed cleaned and rendered safe for transplant, are used to return injured athletes to the field of play.

There’s also a brisk trade in corneas, both within countries and internationally.

Because of the ban on selling the tissue itself, the U.S. companies that first commercialized the trade adopted the same methods as the blood collection business.

The for-profit companies set up non-profit offshoots to collect the tissue - in much the same way the Red Cross collects blood that’s later turned into products by commercial entities.

Nobody charges for the tissue itself, which under normal circumstances is freely donated by the dead (via donor registries) or by their families.

Rather, tissue banks and other organizations involved in the process receive ill-defined “reasonable payments” to compensate them for obtaining and handling the tissue.

'The common lingo is to talk about procurement from donors as "harvesting," and the subsequent transfers via the bone bank as "buying" and "selling",' wrote Klaus Hoyer, from the University of Copenhagen’s Department of Public Health, who talked to industry officials, donors and recipients for an article published in the journal BioSocieties.

'These expressions were used freely in interviews; however, I did not hear this terminology used in front of patients.”

U.S.-government funded study of the families of U.S. tissue donors, published in 2010, indicates many may not understand the role that for-profit companies play in the tissue donation system.

Seventy-three percent of families who took part in the study said it was “not acceptable for donated tissue to be bought and sold, for any purpose.”

Few Protections
There is an inherent risk in transplanting human tissues. Among other things, it has led to life-threatening bacterial infections, and the spread of HIV, Hepatitis C and rabies in tissue recipients, according to the CDC.

Modern blood and organ collection is bar-coded and strongly regulated - reforms prompted by high-profile disasters that had been caused by the poor screening of donors. Products made from skin and other tissues, however, have few specific laws of their own.

In the U.S., the agency that regulates the industry is the Food and Drug Administration, the same agency that’s charged with protecting the nation’s food supply, medicines and cosmetics.

The FDA, which declined repeated requests for on-record interviews, has no authority over health care facilities that implant the material. And the agency doesn’t specifically track infections

It does keep track of registered tissue banks, and sometimes conducts an inspection. It also has the power to shut them down.

The FDA largely relies on standards that are set by an industry body, the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB). The association refused repeated requests over four months for on-record interviews.

It told ICIJ during a background interview last week that the 'vast majority' of banks recovering traditional tissues such as skin and bone are accredited by the AATB.

Yet an analysis of AATB accredited banks and FDA registration data shows about one third of tissue banks that recover traditional tissues such as skin and bone are accredited by the AATB.

The association says the chance of contamination in patients is low. Most products, the AATB says, undergo radiation and sterilization, rendering them safer than, say, organs that are transplanted into another human.

'Tissue is safe. It's incredibly safe,' an AATB executive said.

There is little data, though, to back up the industry’s claims.

Unlike with other biologics regulated by the FDA, agency officials explain, firms that make medical products out of human tissues are required to report only the most serious adverse events they discover. That means that if problems do arise, there’s no guarantee that authorities are told.

And because doctors aren’t required to tell patients they’re getting tissue from a cadaver, many patients may not associate any later infection with the transplant.

On this point, the industry says it is able to track the products from the donors to the doctors, using their own coding systems, and that many hospitals have systems in place to track the tissues after they’re implanted.

But no centralized regional or global system assures products can be followed from donor to patient.

“Probably very few people get infected, but we really don’t know because we don’t have surveillance and we don’t have a system for detecting adverse events,” the CDC’s Kuehnert said.

The FDA recalled more than 60,000 tissue-derived products between 1994 and mid-2007.

The most famous recall came in 2005. It involved a company called Biomedical Tissue Services, which was run by a former dental surgeon, Michael Mastromarino.

Mastromarino got many of his raw materials from undertakers in New York and Pennsylvania. He paid them up to $1,000 per body, court records show.
His company stripped bodies of their bones, skin and other usable parts, then returned them to their families. The families, ignorant of what happened, buried or cremated the evidence.

One of more than 1,000 bodies that were dismembered was that of the famous BBC broadcaster and Masterpiece Theatre host Alistair Cooke.

Products made from the stolen human remains were shipped to Canada, Turkey, South Korea, Switzerland and Australia. More than 800 of those products have never been located.

It later came out in court that some of the tissue donors had died from cancer and that none had been tested for pathogens like HIV and hepatitis.

Mastromarino falsified donor forms, lying about causes of death and other details. He sold skin and other tissues to several U.S. tissue-processing firms, including RTI.

“From day one, everything was forged; everything, because we could. As long as the paperwork looked good, it was fine,” said Mastromarino, who is serving a 25-to-58-year prison sentence for conspiracy, theft and abuse of a corpse.
Global Sheriff

Global Sheriff
Each country has its own set of regulations for the use of products made from human tissue, often based on laws that were originally intended to deal with blood or organs.

In practice, though, because the U.S. supplies an estimated two-thirds of the world’s human-tissue-product needs, the FDA has effectively been left to act as sheriff for much of the planet.

Foreign tissue establishments that wish to export products to the U.S. are required to register with the FDA.

Yet of the 340 foreign tissue establishments registered with the FDA, only about 7 percent have an inspection record in the FDA database, an ICIJ analysis shows. The FDA has never shut one down due to concern over illicit activities.

The data also shows that about 35 percent of active registered U.S. tissue banks have no inspection record in the FDA database.

'When the FDA registers you, all you have to do is fill out a form and wait for an inspection,' said Dr. Duke Kasprisin, the medical director for seven U.S. tissue banks. 'For the first year or two you can function without having anyone look at you.'

This is backed by the data, which show the typical tissue bank operates for nearly two years before its first FDA inspection.

'The problem is there is no oversight. The FDA, all they require is that you have a registration,' said Craig Allred, an attorney previously involved in litigation against the industry. 'Nobody is watching what is going on.' The FDA and industry players 'all point the finger at each other.'

Yet in South Korea, for example, the booming plastic surgery market uses FDA oversight as a selling point.

In downtown Seoul, the country’s capital, Tiara Plastic Surgery explains that human tissue products 'are FDA-approved' and are therefore safe.

Some medical centers advertise “FDA-approved AlloDerm” - a skin graft made from donated American cadavers - for nose enhancement.

Le Do-han, the official in charge of human tissue for the South Korean FDA, said the country imports 90 percent of its human-tissue needs.

Raw tissue is shipped in from the U.S. and Germany. This tissue, once processed, is often re-exported to Mexico as manufactured goods.

Despite the complicated movements back and forth, Le Do-han acknowledges that proper tracking hasn’t been put in place.

'It is like putting tags on beef, but I don’t even know if that is possible for human tissues because there are so many coming in.'
Teaming Up

Teaming Up
In its U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission filings, publicly traded RTI provides a glimpse of the company’s size and global reach.

In 2011, the company manufactured 500,000 to 600,000 implants and launched 19 new kinds of implants in sports medicine, orthopedics and other areas.  Ninety percent of the company’s implants are made from human tissue, while 10 percent come from cows and pigs processed at its German facility.

RTI requires its human body parts suppliers in the U.S. and other nations to follow FDA regulations, but the company acknowledges there are no guarantees.

In 2011 securities filings, RTI said there “can be no assurances” that “our tissue suppliers will comply with such regulations intended to prevent communicable disease transmission” or “even if such compliance is achieved, that our implants have not been or will not be associated with transmission of disease.”

Like many of today’s for-profit tissue companies that were once non-profits, RTI broke away from the non-profit University of Florida Tissue Bank in 1998.

Internal company files from Tutogen, a Germany medical products company, show that RTI teamed up with Tutogen as early as September 1999 to help both companies meet their growing needs for raw material by obtaining human tissue from Eastern Europe.

The companies both obtained tissue from the Czech Republic. Tutogen separately obtained tissues from Estonia, Hungary, Russia, Latvia, Ukraine, and later Slovakia, documents show.

In 2002, allegations surfaced in the Czech media that the local supplier to RTI and Tutogen was obtaining some tissues there improperly. Though there is no suggestion that Tutogen or RTI or its employees did anything improper.

In March 2003, police in Latvia investigated whether Tutogen’s local supplier had removed tissue from about 400 bodies at a state forensic medical institute without proper consent.

Wood and fabrics, replacing muscle and bone, were put into the deceased to make it look like they were untouched before burial, local media reported.

Police eventually charged three employees of the supplier, but later dismissed the charges when a court ruled that no consent from donors’ families was necessary. Again, there was no suggestion Tutogen acted improperly.

In 2005, Ukrainian police launched the first of a series of investigations into the activities of Tutogen’s suppliers in that country. The initial investigation did not lead to criminal charges.

The relationship between Tutogen and RTI, meanwhile, became even closer in late 2007, when they announced a merger between the two companies. Tutogen became a subsidiary of RTI in early 2008.

Officials at RTI declined to answer questions from ICIJ about whether it knew about police investigations of Tutogen’s suppliers.
Two Ribs

Two Ribs
In 2008 Ukrainian police launched a new investigation, looking into allegations that more than 1,000 tissues a month were being illegally recovered at a forensic medical institute at Krivoy Rog and sent, via a third party, to Tutogen.

Joseph Dusel, the Chief Prosecutor in Bamberg, said in 2009 that "what the company is doing is approved by the administrative authority by which it is also monitored. We do not currently see any reason to initiate investigation proceedings."

Nataliya Grishenko, the judge prosecuting the case, revealed during subsequent court proceedings that many relatives claimed they’d been tricked into signing consent forms or that their signatures had been forged.

However, the main suspect in the case - a Ukrainian doctor - died before the court could deliver a verdict. The case died with him.

Tutogen 'operates under very strict regulations from German and Ukrainian authorities as well as other European and American regulatory authorities,' the company said in a statement while the case was still pending. 'They have been inspected regularly by all of these authorities over their many years of operation, and Tutogen remains in good standing with all of them.'

Seventeen of Tutogen’s Ukrainian suppliers have undergone an FDA inspection. The inspections are announced, according to protocol, six to eight weeks in advance.

Only one - BioImplant in Kiev - received negative feedback. Among the findings of the 2009 inspection: not all morgues could rely on hot running water and some sanitation procedures were not followed.

FDA inspectors also identified deficiencies with RTI's Ukrainian imports when it visited the company's facilities in Florida.

RTI had English translations, but not original autopsy reports, from its Ukrainian donors, FDA inspectors found during a 2010 audit. Those were often the only medical documents the company used to determine whether the donor was healthy, inspectors noted in their report.

The company told inspectors it was illegal under Ukrainian law to copy the report. But following the inspection it began maintaining the original Russian-language document along with its English translation.

In 2010 and 2011, FDA inspectors asked RTI to change how it labeled its imports. The company was obtaining Ukrainian tissue, shipping it to Tutogen in Germany, then exporting it to the U.S. as a product of Germany.

While the company agreed to change its policies, there is some indication that it may have continued labeling some Ukrainian tissue as German.

This past February, Ukrainian security services launched a raid as officials at a regional forensic bureau in Nikolaev Oblast were loading harvested human tissues into the back of a white minibus. Footage of the seizure shows tissue labeled 'Tutogen. Made in Germany.'

In this case, the security service said forensic officials had tricked relatives of the dead patients into agreeing to what they thought was a small amount of tissue harvesting by playing on their pain and grief.

Seized documents - blood tests, an autopsy report and labels written in English and obtained by ICIJ - suggested the remains were on their way to Tutogen.

Some of the tissue fragments found on the bus came from 35-year-old Oleksandr Frolov, who had died from an epileptic seizure.

'On the way to the cemetery, when we were in the hearse, one of his feet - we noticed that one of the shoes slipped off his foot, which seemed to be hanging loose,' his mother, Lubov Frolova, told ICIJ.

'When my daughter-in-law touched it, she said that his foot was empty.'

Later, the police showed her a list of what had been taken from her son’s body.

'Two ribs, two Achilles heels, two elbows, two eardrums, two teeth, and so on. I couldn’t read it till the end, as I felt sick. I couldn’t read it,' she said.

'I heard that [the tissues] were shipped to Germany to be used for the plastic surgeries and also for donation. I have nothing against donation, but it should be done according to the law.'

Kateryna Rahulina, whose 52-year-old mother, Olha Dynnyk, died in September 2011, was shown documents by investigating police. The documents purported to give her approval for tissue to be taken from her mother’s body.

'I was in shock,' Rahulina said. She never signed the papers, she said, and it was clear to her that someone had forged her approval.

The forensic bureau in Nikolaev Oblast, where the alleged incidents happened, was, until recently, one of 20 Ukrainian tissue banks registered by the FDA.

On the FDA’s website the phone number for each of the tissue banks is the same.

It is Tutogen’s phone number in Germany.

The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists is an independent global network of reporters who collaborate on cross-borders investigative stories.