2012年10月15日月曜日

中国製エシュロンシステム

中国通信大手が、対米スパイ工作に関与とのこと。
 米下院情報特別委員会は、中国の大手通信機器企業の活動が米国の国家
安全保障への脅威になるとする調査報告書を発表、これら企業は中国共産
党や人民解放軍と密接につながり、対米スパイ工作にまでかかわるなどと
指摘した。

問題視された中国企業
・華為技術 Huawey Technologies
・中興通訊 ZTE
・両社の中国の党、政府、軍との特別な関係を挙げ、それぞれ社内に共産
 党委員会が存在し、企業全体が同党の意思で動く。
 華為技術の創業者の任正非総裁が人民解放軍の出身で軍との間に特殊な
 絆があり、孫亜芳会長が公安部門とつながっている疑いが強い。
・華為技術が軍のサイバー攻撃・スパイ部隊に特別のネットワークサービ
 スを秘密裏に提供していることを示す書類を、複数の元社員から入手。
・中国側の操作により、同システムに破壊や混乱を起こすことが可能。
 この種の情報の詳細は報告書の非公開部分に記されている。
・知的所有権侵害や汚職、入国管理法違反など法律違反の行為が多いため、
 米捜査当局にも刑事事件捜査の開始を要請。

中国外務省
・米議会が偏見を捨て、事実を尊重するよう望む

華為技術
・委員会は結論ありきだった
・危険な政治的干渉だ
・報告書の目的は中国企業の米国市場参入の妨害だ
・中国政府と関係ない。

今回の中国製品の問題は、中国製エシュロンシステムとのこと。
米政府構内は、平文が流れることが少ないため、盗聴よりは、破壊や混乱
を問題視しているようだが、他国では、盗聴も問題視しているようだ。
報告書では、Huawei、ZTEともに懸念に対して、1年近く払拭できる反証を
提示できなかったとの報道もある。
China-bashingとの報道もある。

2005年 CiscoとZTEが合資会社設立。Cisco技術使用ライセンス契約締結。
2008年 中国政府のネット監視システム「Golden Shield」にCisco社製
    ルータを納入。
2010年 ライセンス契約解消。製品販売契約は未解消。
2012年5月 ZTE(子会社)がCisco製品をイランへ輸出。

以前、米政府機関にCisco社製のルータが納入された際、不具合が頻発し、
外観はCiscoだが、ファームウェアが模造品と言われた。実際は、Ciscoと
技術提携していたZTEが盗聴や工作のために、書き換えた可能性もある。
中国政府からルータ代100,000ドルを得たいばかりに、ZTEと契約。
現在では、米国で犯罪容疑会社になったようだ。

印、豪、ニュージーランド、米国等では、基幹システムに採用禁止扱い。
輸入規制にならなければ不採用としない日本。
この報道で、日本の通信会社の被害が大きいか。

Aurora Gmail Attacks
携帯電話は盗聴されているか


Huawei, ZTE Criticized by US Congress Committee


Huawei, ZTE Networking Gear Accused of Espionage


US companies told to avoid business with China's technology firms, Huawei and ZTE


---中国Huawei、ZTEにスパイ疑惑 中国側が猛反発---
http://www.itmedia.co.jp/news/articles/1210/10/news036.html

 米下院情報特別委員会がスパイ行為の危険性を理由に、中国の通信機器大手「華為技術(Huawei)」、「中興通訊(ZTE)」との取引自粛などを勧告したことに対し、中国側が猛反発している。

 【北京=川越一】米下院情報特別委員会がスパイ行為の危険性を理由に、中国の通信機器大手「華為技術」、「中興通訊(ZTE)」との取引自粛などを勧告したことに対し、中国側が猛反発している。
 中国外務省の洪磊報道官は8日の記者会見で「米議会が偏見を捨て、事実を尊重するよう望む」と反論。9日の会見では関連の質問に対し回答を拒んで不快感を示した。華為技術側も「委員会は結論ありきだった」「危険な政治的干渉だ」などと訴える声明を出した。
 委員会は両社の背後にちらつく中国の“悪意”を示唆したが、両社は以前から政府や軍との密接な関係が疑われてきた。2010年にはインド政府が両社の製造部品に盗聴機能があるとして安全検査を厳格化。欧州連合(EU)も中国政府からの不当な補助金などに疑念を深めている。
 華為技術は「報告書の目的は中国企業の米国市場参入の妨害だ」と主張した。中国メディアも「米政府は中国企業が米国に競争を持ち込むことを恐れている。自信の欠如は驚くほどだ。恐怖のあまり中国に過敏になっている」と米国の保護主義を批判。「中国は以前のように寛大ではいられない」と対抗措置を促した。
 広東省深●(=土へんに川)市に本社を置く両社は、ともに1980年代に創業。安価な労働力を武器に、通信設備や携帯端末、情報システムなどの開発・生産・販売で業績を伸ばした。アジアやアフリカを足掛かりに欧米進出も果たし、販路は世界140カ国以上に拡大、海外での売り上げが全体の5割以上を占めるまでに成長した。
 洪報道官は8日の会見で「中国の通信機器企業は、市場経済の原則に従ってグローバル経営を展開している」と述べたが、“スパイ疑惑”など進出先での摩擦も少なくないのが現状だ。


---米下院特別委 中国通信大手を名指し「対米スパイ工作に関与」---
2012.10.10
http://www.zakzak.co.jp/society/foreign/news/20121010/frn1210100839000-n1.htm

 【ワシントン=古森義久】米下院情報特別委員会は8日、中国の大手通信機器企業の活動が米国の国家安全保障への脅威になるとする調査報告書を発表、これら企業は中国共産党や人民解放軍と密接につながり、対米スパイ工作にまでかかわるなどと指摘した。
 問題視された中国企業は、米市場でも製品などが広く流通している「華為技術」と「中興通訊(ZTE)」。報告書ではまず、両社の中国の党、政府、軍との特別な関係を挙げ、それぞれ社内に共産党委員会が存在し、企業全体が同党の意思で動くとしている。
 そのうえで報告書は、華為技術が軍のサイバー攻撃・スパイ部隊に特別のネットワークサービスを秘密裏に提供していることを示す書類を、複数の元社員から入手したとしている。
 報告書は、中国によるサイバー作戦の技術面で華為技術やZTEが枢要の役割を果たすとの見解を提示。これら企業の製品を米側の軍や政府、民間の電力、金融などのコンピューターシステムに組み込むと、中国側の操作により、同システムに破壊や混乱を起こすことが可能になるとしている。この種の情報の詳細は報告書の非公開部分に記されているという。
 報告書はまた、華為技術の創業者の任正非総裁が人民解放軍の出身で軍との間に特殊な絆があり、孫亜芳会長が公安部門とつながっている疑いが強いとした。
 その結果、両社の米国に対する活動は商業的とされても米国の国家安全保障への脅威になるとして、米企業の両社との取引自粛や、とくに政府や軍関連機関への調達禁止を勧告した。
 下院情報特別委は、両社に知的所有権侵害や汚職、入国管理法違反など法律違反の行為が多いとして、米捜査当局にも刑事事件捜査の開始を要請したという。


---米下院特別委 中国通信大手を名指し「対米スパイ工作に関与」---
2012.10.9 22:27
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/121009/amr12100922470007-n1.htm

 【ワシントン=古森義久】米下院情報特別委員会は8日、中国の大手通信機器企業の活動が米国の国家安全保障への脅威になるとする調査報告書を発表、これら企業は中国共産党や人民解放軍と密接につながり、対米スパイ工作にまでかかわるなどと指摘した。
 問題視された中国企業は、米市場でも製品などが広く流通している「華為技術」と「中興通訊(ZTE)」。報告書ではまず、両社の中国の党、政府、軍との特別な関係を挙げ、それぞれ社内に共産党委員会が存在し、企業全体が同党の意思で動くとしている。
 そのうえで報告書は、華為技術が軍のサイバー攻撃・スパイ部隊に特別のネットワークサービスを秘密裏に提供していることを示す書類を、複数の元社員から入手したとしている。
 報告書は、中国によるサイバー作戦の技術面で華為技術やZTEが枢要の役割を果たすとの見解を提示。これら企業の製品を米側の軍や政府、民間の電力、金融などのコンピューターシステムに組み込むと、中国側の操作により、同システムに破壊や混乱を起こすことが可能になるとしている。この種の情報の詳細は報告書の非公開部分に記されているという。
 報告書はまた、華為技術の創業者の任正非総裁が人民解放軍の出身で軍との間に特殊な絆があり、孫亜芳会長が公安部門とつながっている疑いが強いとした。
 その結果、両社の米国に対する活動は商業的とされても米国の国家安全保障への脅威になるとして、米企業の両社との取引自粛や、とくに政府や軍関連機関への調達禁止を勧告した。
 下院情報特別委は、両社に知的所有権侵害や汚職、入国管理法違反など法律違反の行為が多いとして、米捜査当局にも刑事事件捜査の開始を要請したという。


---偽ルータによる「サプライチェーン攻撃」とは、米SANS代表が解説---
増田 覚
2009/7/16 17:44
http://internet.watch.impress.co.jp/docs/news/20090716_302811.html

 情報セキュリティの最新動向を紹介するイベント「SANS Future Visions 2009 Tokyo」が16日と17日、東京・台場のホテル日航東京で開催されている。同イベントに伴い、米セキュリティ機関のSANS Institute代表のアラン・パーラー氏が来日。「いま注目される新しいセキュリティの潮流」と題して、情報セキュリティの最新動向について解説した。
 パーラー氏は、最も破壊力のあるセキュリティ攻撃として、次の3つを挙げた。
 1)ソーシャルエンジニアリングとゼロデイ攻撃の融合
 2)閲覧者をウイルスに感染させる信頼されたサイト
 3)サプライチェーン攻撃
 1)については、米salesforce.comの従業員がフィッシング詐欺の被害に遭い、同社の顧客リストが流出した事例を紹介した。攻撃者はFTC(米連邦取引委員会)を装い、不正なサイトへのリンクを含むフィッシングメールをリストの顧客に送信。メールには顧客の氏名や役職が書かれていたことから、多くの人がリンクをクリックしたという。
 不正サイトにアクセスした顧客のPCに脆弱性が存在した場合には、キーロガーがインストールされた。パーラー氏は、「多くのPCがMicrosoft Updateで自動アップデートされているが、『Adobe Flash Player』などのプラグインは更新されていないこともある」と指摘したほか、こうした手口ではゼロデイ攻撃が行われる可能性もあるとした。
 2)については、一般的に信頼されているサイトが改ざんされていると指摘。攻撃者はSQLインジェクション攻撃で不正なスクリプトをサイトに埋め込むことで、閲覧したユーザーのPCにウイルスを感染させているとした。具体的には、国連や米国土安全保障省、セキュリティ企業のCAなどのサイトがこれまでに改ざん被害に遭っていると説明した。
 3)については、海外で製造されたCisco製ルータの偽物が米国内で出回ったことを挙げた。パーラー氏によれば、正規製品が1375ドルであるのに対して、偽物は234ドル。偽物が販売された理由は「単なる金儲けのため」と指摘する一方で、「偽ルータが製造された国の政府はアナウンスを出ていないが、国家ぐるみの行為と見ている」という。
 さらに、「ある国家が偽ルータを使って通信を遮断すれば、相手国のIT環境を混乱させることもできる」と懸念を示した上で、「実際に世界中のさまざまな国の政府は、他国のコンピュータを乗っ取りたいと考えている。偽ルータのようなサプライチェーン攻撃を政府が認めれば、企業は堂々と犯罪を行える」と語った。
 これら3つの攻撃についてパーラー氏は、「止められない状況」とコメント。こうしたことから情報セキュリティに対する予算は今後、「ファイアウォールなどの境界線セキュリティではなく、脅威がシステムに侵入した後の対応に多く割かれるようになるだろう」と話した。実際に米国政府の予算もそのようになっているという。
 また、脅威に対抗するためのセキュリティ専門家に求められるスキルも高まっていると指摘。具体的には、フォレンジック、ネットワーク分析、マルウェアのリバースエンジニアリング、アプリケーションの侵入テスト、セキュリティ監査などの人材が求められるとしたが、「これらの高度なスキルを持つ人材は10%程度」(パーラー氏)だという。
 このほかパーラー氏は、7月7日に韓国や米国の政府サイトなどに仕掛けられたDDoS攻撃についても言及。「MyDoom」の亜種に感染して乗っ取られたPCが、いっせいにDDoS攻撃を行ったことで、一部の政府サイトがアクセス不能になるなどの被害を受けたと説明した。対応方法としては、「Akamaiを使ってトラフィックを分散させた」という。


---New spy fears about China tech companies---
8:30 AM Tuesday Oct 9, 2012
http://www.nzherald.co.nz/business/news/article.cfm?c_id=3&objectid=10839305

American companies should avoid sourcing network equipment from China's two leading technology firms because they pose a national security threat to the United States, the House Intelligence Committee warned yesterday.

The panel said in a report that US regulators should block mergers and acquisitions in this country by Huawei Technologies Ltd. and ZTE Corp, among the world's leading suppliers of telecommunications gear and mobile phones.

Huawei is one of the companies involved in rolling out the Government's ultra-fast broadband network.

The Labour Party said the Government needed to take the US report seriously, and Green MP Gareth Hughes told Radio New Zealand this morning it should be treated as a wake-up call.

"Now we've got both Australia, and likely America, blocking this company over security and espionage concerns, the Government's got to take this seriously and put the interests of New Zealanders first," he said.

 In April this year, Labour MP Clare Curran said New Zealand security agencies warned Prime Minister John Key in 2010 there was no guarantee New Zealand's broadband infrastructure would not be compromised if Huawei was awarded the contract.

She questioned Key on Huawei's involvement when it was revealed Australia banned the Chinese telco last year from tendering for its broadband network because of concerns about potential cyber-attacks.

Curran asked Key in Parliament "Did he read the report he received from security agencies in 2010, and did it say there were no mitigation measures that would totally counteract the compromising of our broadband infrastructure should Huawei be given the contract?" Key replied that he would have read that report, although it was a couple of years ago.

He went on to defend Huawei, saying not only was it one of the three major suppliers of broadband infrastructure equipment in the world, alongside Alcatel-Lucent and Ericsson, it operated in Australia, the United States, Britain, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong and Japan.

Huawei has signed deals with Enable Services and Ultrafast Fibre Ltd, the New Zealand Government's private partners for the ultra-fast broadband (UFB) scheme in Christchurch and the central North Island.

It has also signed a contract with Chorus to help roll out fibre lines in the rural broadband initiative.

Security analyst Paul Buchanan said after the deal was signed that it could potentially give the Chinese government the opportunity to tap into New Zealand intelligence systems, including Echelon - the world's most extensive eavesdropping system to which China is not privy.

"If the United States and Australia now believe that the Chinese have access - or have the potential to engage in - electronic espionage on New Zealand directed at the Echelon system ... that may jeopardise the downstream flow of intelligence from the US and Australia to New Zealand,'' he said.

Buchanan said the belief that Huawei was a private company with no connection to the Chinese government was "ludicrous''.

"There is no such thing as true private enterprise in China. If it is important, the Chinese state has a stake in it,'' he said.

Huawei global head of cyber security John Suffolk said in an interview with Radio New Zealand earlier this year that the idea Huawei could use its UFB contracts to spy under everyone's noses was unrealistic.

"With these rollouts you do tend to find that it's more than one company involved so it's not just Huawei equipment - it's connecting to other people's equipment, so to say that you can snoop ... I think it's a hell of a lot more complicated than people think it is. That's a little bit James Bond-ey, to be honest.''

Suffolk said Huawei had nothing to hide.

"We only write and design commercial equipment used by commercial operators ... and we're quite happy to be put through the most rigorous audit or inspection anyone can dream of.''

Suffolk also questioned branding Huawei a "Chinese technology company''.

"When you begin to look at what technology is, you don't have a north or an east or a west or a south, you have a global technology supply chain. You unpick your iPhone or your iPad and you will find many different suppliers' components in that technology.''

Reflecting US concern over cyber-attacks traced to China, the US report released today also recommends that US government computer systems not include any components from the two firms because that could pose an espionage risk.

"China is known to be the major perpetrator of cyber-espionage, and Huawei and ZTE failed to alleviate serious concerns throughout this important investigation. American businesses should use other vendors," the committee's chairman, Rep. Mike Rogers, R-Mich, told a news conference. He said the Chinese companies could not be trusted with access to computer networks that support everything from power grids to finance systems.

The recommendations are the result of a year-long US probe, including a congressional hearing last month in which senior Chinese executives of both companies denied posing a security threat and being under Beijing's influence.

Rogers said they are clearly tied to the Chinese government, and that allowing Huawei and ZTE to provide network equipment and services in America risks confidential consumer information and undermines core national security interests. He said the committee was not concerned about the sales of handsets that make up the bulk of their US businesses, but rather network infrastructure where they have made fewer inroads.

William Plummer, vice president for external affairs for Huawei, said his company, a private entity founded by a former Chinese military engineer, was being victimised because of US government concerns about China's government.

"Huawei is Huawei, Huawei is not China," he told reporters. "My company should not be held hostage to someone's political agenda."

Ahead of the report's release, China's foreign ministry said investment by telecommunications companies is mutually beneficial. "We hope the US will do more to benefit the interests of the two countries, not the opposite," spokesman Hong Lei said at a regular briefing in Beijing Monday.

The panel's recommendations, however, will likely hamper Huawei and ZTE's ambitions to expand their businesses in America. Their products are used in scores of countries, including in the West.

The bipartisan report could also become fodder for a presidential campaign in which the candidates have been competing in their readiness to clamp down on Chinese trade violations. Republican Mitt Romney, in particular, has made it a key point to get tougher on China by designating it a currency manipulator and fighting abuses such as intellectual property theft.

Rogers said its release had nothing to do with politics, and was motivated by the need to alert US companies of the risks. The committee's top Democrat, C.A. Dutch Ruppersberger, said US companies should proceed with "their eyes wide open." He cited an estimate from the US Cyber Command that more than $US300 billion in US trade secrets was stolen last year.

The committee says it received information from industry experts and current and former Huawei employees suggesting that Huawei, in particular, may be violating US laws. The allegations include immigration violations and an alleged "pattern and practice" of Huawei using pirated software in its US facilities.

Rogers said that information of alleged bribery by Huawei to gain a contract in the US would be forwarded on Tuesday to the FBI, and he was confident it would lead to an investigation. The committee also planned to forward information on allegations of "beaconing" from Huawei equipment to China that is the unauthorized transfer of information from a computer network.

Huawei, founded in 1987 has grown rapidly to become the world's second largest supplier of telecommunications network gear, operating in more than 140 countries. ZTE Corp, which is partly state-owned, is the world's fourth largest mobile phone manufacturer, with 90,000 employees worldwide.

The report says the companies failed to provide responsive answers about their relationships and support by the Chinese government, and detailed information about their operations in the US It says Huawei, in particular, failed to provide thorough information, including on its corporate structure, history, financial arrangements and management.

Plummer said it wasn't clear what Rogers was referring in the allegations of "beaconing." He said Huawei had provided "endless data" to the investigation, which he contended was not objective. He said its recommendations could create "market-distorting trade policy" and risk the tens of thousands of American jobs Huawei helps to support through procurement from U.S.-based suppliers that totalled $6.6 billion last year.

The recommendations "undermine competition, which undermines innovation which drives up the price of your broadband," he said.

ZTE said a September 25 letter to the committee, released on Monday, that China's government had never requested access to ZTE's equipment.

"Direct exclusion of one or two identifiable Chinese companies is an obvious unfair trade practice and, as a practical matter, would not provide meaningful security for US telecom infrastructure systems," the letter says.

In justifying its investigation, the committee contended that Chinese intelligence services, as well as private companies and other entities, often recruit those with direct access to corporate networks to steal trade secrets and other sensitive data.

It warned that malicious hardware or software implants in Chinese-manufactured telecommunications components and systems could allow Beijing to shut down or degrade critical national security systems in a time of a crisis.

Huawei denies being financed to undertake research and development for the Chinese military, but the committee says it has received internal Huawei documentation from former employees showing the company provides special network services to an entity alleged to be an elite cyber-warfare unit within the People's Liberation Army.

The intelligence committee recommended that the government's Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States, or CFIUS, bar mergers and acquisitions by both Huawei and ZTE. A multi-agency regulatory panel chaired by Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, CFIUS screens foreign investment proposals for potential national security threats.

Last year, Huawei had to unwind its purchase of a US computer company, 3Leaf Systems, after it failed to win CFIUS approval. Still, Huawei employs 1,700 people in the US, and business is expanding. US revenues rose to $US1.3 billion in 2011, up from $765 million in 2010.

ZTE has also enjoyed growth in its sale of mobile devices, although in recent months it has faced allegations about banned sales of US-sanctioned computer equipment to Iran. The FBI is probing reports that the company obstructed a US government investigation into the sales.


---Huawei calls US Congress report 'China-bashing'---
AFP NewsBy Rob Lever
Tue, Oct 9, 2012
http://sg.news.yahoo.com/us-oppose-major-revisions-global-telecom-rules-143125397.html

Chinese tech giant Huawei on Monday called a congressional report warning of security risks from its telecom equipment "an exercise in China-bashing" as US lawmakers held firm to their allegations.

A US spokesman for Huawei said the report by the House Intelligence Committee, which warned of national security risks from equipment from Huawei and fellow Chinese firm ZTE, was "utterly lacking in substance."

"Huawei unequivocally denies the allegations in the report," the spokesman, William Plummer, told reporters on a conference call.

Plummer said Huawei requested the congressional investigation a year ago in an effort to clear the air and help provide a better understanding of how the telecom equipment industry shares a "global supply chain" that may lead to security vulnerabilities.

"The report utterly ignores these facts and dismisses 10 months of open information sharing," he said.

"This report is little more than an exercise in China-bashing and misguided protectionism."

Plummer said that if the committee's recommendations to block access to contracts and acquisitions for Huawei and ZTE are carried out, "it would set a monstrous market distorting precedent which could be used against American companies doing business overseas."

And because rival vendors based in the US and Europe use much of the same components, he said the idea of blocking a single company to improve cybersecurity is "at best naive."

The comments came as Beijing reacted to the report by urging Washington to "set aside prejudices" and "do things that will benefit China-US economic cooperation instead of the contrary."

But US lawmakers, who officially released the report on Monday, remained adamant about the potential risks cited in the document.

"We have to be certain that Chinese telecommunication companies working in the United States can be trusted with access to our critical infrastructure," said committee chairman Mike Rogers.

"Any bug, beacon or backdoor put into our critical systems could allow for a catastrophic and devastating domino effect of failures throughout our networks. As this report shows, we have serious concerns about Huawei and ZTE, and their connection to the communist government of China."

Rogers said China "is known to be the major perpetrator of cyber espionage, and Huawei and ZTE failed to alleviate serious concerns throughout this important investigation. American businesses should use other vendors."

Representative Dutch Ruppersberger, the ranking Democrat on the panel, echoed those comments, saying, "It is our responsibility on the Intelligence Committee to protect our country's national security.... As this report shows, we have serious concerns about Huawei and ZTE."

Separately, Representative Frank Wolf said the report "confirms what many have suspected for years: Huawei and ZTE's relationship with the Chinese People's Liberation Army is too opaque to allow them to command and control US telecom networks."

Wolf added that "it would be unwise for any American company or government agency to use Huawei or ZTE products" and urged American firms currently using these products to "quickly divest" of the assets.

Both Huawei and ZTE have repeatedly denied any ties with the Chinese government.

ZTE, in a statement published by China's Xinhua news agency, said its equipment is "safe."

"ZTE is China's most independent, transparent, globally focused publicly traded company," the statement added.

The committee report said the two firms "cannot be trusted" to be free of influence from Beijing and could be used to undermine US security.

The panel launched its probe over concerns that China could use the fast-growing firms for economic or military espionage, or cyber attacks.

"Based on available classified and unclassified information, Huawei and ZTE cannot be trusted to be free of foreign state influence and thus pose a security threat to the United States and to our systems," the document said.


---Cisco Dumps Chinese Firm Over Alleged Iranian Spy Gear Sales---
By Klint FinleyEmail Author
10.08.12 3:56 PM
http://www.wired.com/wiredenterprise/2012/10/cisco-zte/

Cisco has ended its seven-year partnership with the Chinese hardware manufacturer ZTE following an internal investigation into whether ZTE sold Cisco networking gear to Iran, according to a report released on Monday.

The report  from Reuters  arrived on the same day that the U.S. House of Representatives’ Intelligence Committee released a draft report saying that ZTE and another Chinese manufacturer, Huawei, should be frozen out of the U.S. market because they may pose a security threat due to ties with the Chinese government.

Asked to comment on the Reuters report, a Cisco spokesman said: “Cisco has no current relationship with ZTE.”

According to Reuters, Cisco conducted its own probe into ZTE’s activities after the news service reported in March that the FBI was investigating whether ZTE sold U.S. gear to Iran despite a U.S. embargo in the country.

The equipment was allegedly part of a surveillance system sold by ZTE to Telecommunication Co of Iran (TCI), a near-monopoly owned by the Iranian government and a consortium of companies. According to Reuters, the system has the ability to monitor landline, mobile, and internet communications.

Reuters reports that Cisco entered a partnership to license its technology to ZTE seven years ago and that the relationship was seen as a way of combating Huawei, which has grown into one of the world’s largest manufacturers of telecom equipment. Citing a former Cisco executive, Reuters says that ZTE would manufacturer Cisco technology in China so that it would be “cost-competitive” with gear from Huawei.

But according to Reuters, the relationship turned sour when ZTE tried to enter the U.S. market. Reportedly, the licensing contract ended by 2010, but ZTE remained a licensed distributor of distributor and reseller of Cisco products.

Then Reuters revealed the FBI’s investigation into ZTE. And in May of this year, according to The Smoking Gun, the FBI filed an affidavit accusing ZTE of covering up sales to Iran. According to the affidavit, published by The Smoking Gun, ZTE’s general counsel for its U.S. subsidiary in Dallas told the FBI that the company had begun to shred documents in an attempt to cover up its dealings with Iran after the Reuters story broke.

He also said that the TCI contract described how ZTE would evade the embargo, and aired suspicions that the company set up new companies specifically to sell U.S.-made equipment to Iran, the affidavit says.

It’s illegal in the U.S. to make non-humanitarian sales to Iran. China has no such restrictions, but according to Reuters, U.S. companies generally prohibit Chinese companies from reselling their goods in Iran as part of their
agreements.

Cisco is no stranger to criticism over its sales to China. In 2008, an internal memo was leaked detailing the company’s efforts in 2002 to market its products to be used in the Chinese government’s “Golden Shield” system, better known in the West as the “Great Firewall of China.” Terry Alberstein, a senior director of corporate communications at Cisco, told Wired at the time that the company sold $100,000 worth of routers to be used as part of Golden Shield.

Although a surveillance system is at the heart of the ZTE issue, the U.S. is trying to expand its own domestic surveillance techniques. According to The New York Times, the Obama Administration plans to submit a bill that if enacted would require companies to ensure that their products are “technically capable” of complying with wiretap orders. This would include making it possible for authorities to decrypt BlackBerry messages, or eavesdrop on Skype’s peer-to-peer connections.

0 コメント: