2013年2月1日金曜日

光学5号機 識別力41cm

光学5号機実証衛星の識別力は41cmとのこと。
 政府の情報収集衛星「レーダー4号機」が、鹿児島県南種子町の種子島
宇宙センターからH2Aロケット22号機で打ち上げられた。
 衛星は予定の軌道に投入され、打ち上げは成功した。H2Aロケットの打上
げは、連続16回の成功となる。衛星が正常に機能すれば、光学、レーダー
の各衛星2基以上を同時に運用するいわゆる「4基体制」が、当初計画から
10年遅れで完成し、世界中のどんな地点も1日1回以上監視できるようになる。

レーダ4号機
・情報収集衛星は事実上の偵察衛星。
・夜間や悪天候でも電波で地上にある約1mの大きさのものを見分けられる。
・昼間の晴天時しか地上を撮影できないが、地上にある60cm-1mのものを
 見分けられる光学衛星と合わせて運用。

レーダー4号機と同時に打ち上げられた光学5号機実証衛星。
現在運用されている光学衛星3号機、4号機は、識別力60cm(設計は40cm?)。
光学衛星5号機実証衛星は、識別力41cm以下を期待されている。

GeoEye-1の識別力は、白黒41cm、カラー165cm。
GeoEye-2の識別力は、25cm、米政府の規制により、50cmの予定。
光学5号機の運用に期待がかかる。

東日本大震災の被災状況写真を収集できても、銀河3号2号機のような陽動
作戦の判別がつくかは不明。
日本の情報の分析解析方法が不明で、内閣衛星情報センターが収集した
情報を米国へ転送し、診断待ちの可能性もある。これも集団的自衛権の
行使なのかもしれない。

報道では、偵察衛星は、光学3号、4号とレーダ3号、4号の4機体制で運用
とのこと。どの衛星も一周で得られるデータ量、通信速度等の詳細は不明。
識別力40cmで、銀河3号2号機の全体像を収集するのに、地球何週回るの
だろうか。

自衛隊装備拡充へ
国際公共財 集団的自衛権行使へ
銀河3号2号機発射 光明星3号が軌道進入
衆院選2012 タカ派選択
DSN UAV通信衛星受託か


"偵察衛星"を打ち上げ 夜間や曇りでも地上監視(13/01/27)


---全世界1日1回以上監視…情報衛星打ち上げ成功---
2013年1月27日22時57分  読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/news/20130127-OYT1T00382.htm

 政府の情報収集衛星「レーダー4号機」が27日午後1時40分、鹿児島県南種子町の種子島宇宙センターからH2Aロケット22号機で打ち上げられた。
 衛星は予定の軌道に投入され、打ち上げは成功した。H2Aロケットの打ち上げは、連続16回の成功となる。衛星が正常に機能すれば、光学、レーダーの各衛星2基以上を同時に運用するいわゆる「4基体制」が、当初計画から10年遅れで完成し、世界中のどんな地点も1日1回以上監視できるようになる。
 情報収集衛星は事実上の偵察衛星。このうち、今回打ち上げられたレーダー衛星は、夜間や悪天候でも電波で地上にある約1メートルの大きさのものを見分けられる性能があるとされている。昼間の晴天時しか地上を撮影できないが、地上にある60センチ~1メートルのものを見分けられる光学衛星と合わせて運用される。


---識別力は60センチ、米民間衛星にも及ばず---
2013年1月27日21時13分  読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/news/20130127-OYT1T00716.htm

 情報収集衛星は、これまでは天候によっては2日に1回しか監視できない場合があった。
 複数の政府関係者によると、昨年12月12日の北朝鮮による事実上の長距離弾道ミサイル発射の際は、情報収集衛星も前日に発射台からのミサイル取り外しをとらえたが、その後の動きを把握できず、政府は「発射の可能性がなくなったわけではない」との米国情報を頼りに警戒を続けた。アルジェリアの人質事件でも政府は衛星による情報収集を試みたが、成果はほとんどなかったようだ。
 4基体制の完成について、北海道大の鈴木一人教授(国際政治経済学)は「武力を使わずに国際紛争を解決するには、情報力がカギとなる。1日1回であっても、常に他国の情報を入手できる手段ができた意義は大きい」と強調する。
 しかし、地上にある物体を見分ける性能は光学衛星で現状、最高約60センチとされ、自動車を識別できる程度だ。人間がいるかどうかを識別できる米偵察衛星の約10センチはもちろん、米民間衛星「ジオアイ」の約40センチにも及ばない。


--- Japan Launches Two Intelligence Satellites Into Orbit, Officials Say---
By ERIC TALMADGE 01/27/13 02:04 AM ET EST
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/01/27/japan-launches-two-intelligence-satellites_n_2561755.html

TOKYO -- Japan launched two intelligence satellites into orbit on Sunday amid growing concerns that North Korea is planning to test more rockets of its own and possibly conduct a nuclear test.

Officials say the launch Sunday of the domestically produced HII-A rocket went smoothly and the satellites - an operational radar satellite and an experimental optical probe - appear to have reached orbit.

Japan began its intelligence satellite program after North Korea fired a long-range missile over Japan's main island in 1998. North Korea conducted a launch last month that it says carried a satellite into orbit but has been condemned by the U.S. and others as a cover for its development of missile technology.

The latest Japanese launch was in the planning stages long before the current increase in tensions with North Korea, but underscores Japan's longstanding wariness of its isolated neighbor's abilities and intentions.

The radar satellite, which can provide intelligence through cloud cover and at night, is intended to augment a network of several probes that Japan already has in orbit. The optical probe will be used to test future technology and improvements that would allow Japan to strengthen its surveillance capabilities.

Japan still relies on the United States for much of its intelligence.

Its optical satellites are believed to be about as good as commercial satellites, meaning they are able to detect objects of about 40 centimeters (16 inches) in size from their orbits. With the additional radar satellite, Japan hopes to be able to glean intelligence on any specified location once a day.

Japan, which hosts about 50,000 U.S. troops, is especially concerned about North Korea because its main islands are already within range of the North's missiles. Along with developing its own network of spy satellites, Japan has cooperated with Washington in establishing an elaborate missile defense shield.

North Korea's powerful National Defense Commission declared last week that the country would carry out a nuclear test and launch more rockets in defiance of the U.N. Security Council's announcement that it would punish Pyongyang for its long-range rocket test in December with more sanctions, calling it a violation of a ban on nuclear and missile activity.

North Korea's state news agency said on Sunday that leader Kim Jong Un vowed at a meeting of top security and foreign officials to take "substantial and high-profile important state measures."


---Reconnaissance satellites launched by H-2A rocket---
BY STEPHEN CLARK
SPACEFLIGHT NOW
Posted: January 27, 2013
http://www.spaceflightnow.com/h2a/f22/#.UQXUA2d_XIA

Japan launched two spy satellites Sunday to collect sharp imagery for the government's defense and intelligence agencies, continuing a series of clandestine space missions devised to keep track of North Korean military activity.

The payloads lifted off on a Japanese H-2A rocket at 0440 GMT (11:40 p.m. EST) from the Tanegashima Space Center, Japan's primary launch site nestled on a picturesque island in the Pacific Ocean.

Liftoff occurred at 1:40 p.m. local time in Japan, and the rocket pitched southeast from Tanegashima before turning south for its ascent to orbit over the Pacific Ocean.

The 187-foot-tall launcher soared into an overcast sky on the power of its two solid rocket boosters and a hydrogen-fueled main engine, rapidly vanishing into clouds and leaving a billowing exhaust plume and booming noise in its wake.

The launch was streamed live online by amateur observers, but there was no official webcast provided by the Japanese government or Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, the H-2A rocket's commercial operator.

The H-2A rocket surpassed the speed of sound in less than a minute, and 1.6 million pounds of thrust pushed the orange and white launcher higher over the Pacific Ocean.

The solid-fueled boosters jettisoned about two minutes after liftoff, and the rocket's nose fairing released as the H-2A rocket reached the thin upper atmosphere.

The rocket's cryogenic upper stage took over next, igniting to put the mission's two secretive payloads into orbit.

The launch marked the 22nd flight of an H-2A rocket and the eighth launch dedicated to Japan's spy satellite program.

Japanese officials declared the launch a success about 20 minutes after liftoff.

Two payloads were aboard the H-2A rocket, the country's fourth radar reconnaissance satellite and a demonstration craft with an optical camera, according to the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, which owns the Tanegashima Space Center.

The Japanese government calls the spacecraft Information Gathering Satellites.

The radar-equipped satellite can take pictures of the ground day-and-night and in all weather conditions.

Japan has not disclosed the exact capabilities of the satellites, including their imaging resolution.

The most advanced Japanese reconnaissance satellites likely provide imagery with a resolution less than a meter. The optical demonstration craft launched Sunday may provide imagery with a resolution as high as 40 centimeters, or about 15 inches, better than U.S. commercial imaging satellites, according to the Kyodo news agency.

Japan established the space-based reconnaissance program in the wake of a North Korean missile test over Japanese territory in 1998. Although the program was initially aimed at monitoring North Korea, the satellites can take pictures of nearly any place on Earth each day.

The first Information Gathering Satellites were launched in 2003.

Japanese officials used imagery from the IGS program in the aftermath of the March 2011 earthquake that spawned a devastating tsunami and the following crisis at the Fukushima nuclear power plant.

Sunday's mission marked the first space launch of the year for Japan, which plans at least three more launches in 2013.

In July, Japan will launch its fourth robotic cargo craft to the International Space Station aboard the heavy-lift H-2B rocket. In the autumn, Japan plans the first flight of its smaller solid-fueled Epsilon satellite launcher from the Uchinoura Space Center on the south shore of Kyushu, the southernmost of Japan's main islands.

Before the end of 2013, another H-2A rocket will deploy JAXA's second Advanced Land Observing Satellite, which will collect environmental data for climate science and disaster response applications.

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