2013年5月30日木曜日

米軍 国外で米国民殺害

米軍は国外で米国民を殺害した。

Eric Holder
・パキスタンやイエメンなどの海外で実施する無人機攻撃で殺害した米国
 人は2009年以降、計4人。
 2011 Yemen Anwar al-Awlaki  米国へのテロ攻撃を謀議。
       Samir Khan     爆弾の製造方法なども紹介。
       Abdul Rahman Anwar al-Awlaki アウラキの息子
       Jude Kenan     テロ組織に関与。

・2002年以降死亡者見積
 Yemen 240-347名
 Pakistan 2541-3533名

 オバマ米大統領は、ワシントンの国防大学で、政権2期目の包括的な
テロ対策指針について演説、内外から批判の強い無人機攻撃の対象を限定
すると表明した。「市民に犠牲者が出ないとほぼ確実視できる」などの新
たな基準を設ける。グアンタナモ海軍基地(キューバ)閉鎖実現へ向け、
施設の収容者をイエメンへ移送する手続きを始める考えも示した。

米軍の犠牲者が少ないUAVを使った軍事作戦は、効果が高いとされ、国際法
違反と言われながら、継続するようだ。他国の民間人の犠牲者は問題にせず、
自国民のみを問題にする米議会。人種差別は米国民の根本か。

米CIAのブラックサイトの一部を閉鎖予定と発表しながら未だに継続。

米無人機は違法か
ALCU 殺害者リスト作成は法律違反
CIA Black Site
OP Cupcake
カダフィ殺害
OP TROY
米テロ報告書2011
米無人機 勲章と暗殺
U.S. Attorney Obtains Phone Records


Obama defends 'just' drone strikes


---オバマ大統領、無人機攻撃を限定 対テロ転換点に新指針---
2013/05/24 08:11
http://www.47news.jp/CN/201305/CN2013052401001367.html

 【ワシントン共同】オバマ米大統領は23日、ワシントンの国防大学で、政権2期目の包括的なテロ対策指針について演説、内外から批判の強い無人機攻撃の対象を限定すると表明した。「市民に犠牲者が出ないとほぼ確実視できる」などの新たな基準を設ける。グアンタナモ海軍基地(キューバ)閉鎖実現へ向け、施設の収容者をイエメンへ移送する手続きを始める考えも示した。
 テロとの戦いは転換点にあるとの認識の下、米国への脅威の度合いに応じて敵を選別し、対テロ戦争を縮小する方向性を明確にした。政策遂行に当たってオバマ政権が重視する透明性も指針に反映させた。


---海外での無人機攻撃で米国人4人を殺害、米政府が初の公表---
2013.05.23 Thu posted at 17:45 JST
http://www.cnn.co.jp/usa/35032454.html

 ワシントン(CNN) 米国のホルダー司法長官は22日、テロ組織掃討を狙いパキスタンやイエメンなどの海外で実施する無人機攻撃で殺害した米国人は2009年以降、計4人であることを明らかにした。
 米上院司法委員会のレーヒー委員長宛ての書簡で表明したもので、米政府当局者が海外での無人機攻撃で殺害した米国人の数を公にしたのは初めて。4人の死亡そのものはメディアで報じられていた。
 長官はこの中で無人機攻撃の明確な標的としたのは、イエメンで2011年に死亡したアルカイダ系「アラビア半島のアルカイダ」(AQAP)のアンワル・アウラキ師1人のみと説明した。同師は米国へのテロ攻撃を謀議していたとされる。
 長官はまた、オバマ政権はアウラキ師とは別の3人を無人機攻撃で殺害したことは承知していると指摘。この3人は、AQAPの英語機関誌「インスパイア」を作成したとされるサミール・カーン容疑者、アウラキ師の16歳だったとされる息子にジュード・ケナン・モハメド容疑者。
 同誌は爆弾の製造方法なども紹介していた。モハメド容疑者は米ノースカロライナ州を拠点にしたテロ組織に関与し、海外での米国人拉致、殺害やテロリストへの物的支援などの罪で訴追された。逮捕されたことはないが、パキスタンに一時滞在していたともされる。
 カーン容疑者はアウラキ師と同じ現場で殺され、アウラキ師の息子は父が死亡した約2週間後に殺害された。米司法省はモハメド容疑者が無人機攻撃を受けた場所は明らかにしていない。ホルダー長官はアウラキ師以外の3人の殺害の経緯にも触れなかった。
 長官は無人機攻撃による4人の殺害は機密情報扱いだったが、オバマ大統領の指示で公表に踏み切ったと指摘。オバマ氏は今年年初の一般教書演説でテロ対策での作戦などの情報は議会に提供し続けるなどの考えを示していた。
 海外での対テロ作戦で殺傷能力を持つ兵器などを使って米国人を標的にすることは今年初め、ブレナン米中央情報局(CIA)長官の長官指名人事に関する議会聴聞会で問題が提起されていた。上院議員らはこの種の作戦遂行を合法化とする根拠の説明を求めていた。
 また、一部議員は米本土内でのテロ計画への関与が疑われる米国人に対し無人機攻撃が適用される可能性があるとの疑念も抱いている。
 ホルダー長官は昨年、これらの疑念を踏まえ、米政府が致死性の兵器使用の対象とする米国人は、アルカイダもしくは系列組織の幹部で、米国人の殺害計画への積極的な加担者に限るとの見解を示していた。
 ホワイトハウスによると、オバマ大統領は23日、米国防大学で演説し、アルカイダや系列組織掃討の政策の詳細に言及する予定。無人機攻撃の必要性や正当性にも触れるとみられる。


---Obama shifts U.S. from 'perpetual war-footing,' limits drone strikes---
By Matt Spetalnick and Roberta Rampton
WASHINGTON | Thu May 23, 2013 7:35pm EDT
http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/05/23/us-usa-obama-speech-idUSBRE94M04Y20130523

(Reuters) - President Barack Obama on Thursday shifted the United States away from a "boundless global war on terror," restricting deadly drone strikes abroad and signaling that America's long struggle against al Qaeda will one day end.

In a major policy speech, Obama narrowed the scope of the U.S. targeted-killing campaign against al Qaeda and its allies and took new steps toward closing the Guantanamo Bay military prison - controversial elements of the U.S. counterterrorism fight that have drawn condemnation at home and abroad.

"Our nation is still threatened by terrorists," Obama said at Washington's National Defense University. "We must recognize however, that the threat has shifted and evolved from the one that came to our shores on 9/11."

After launching costly wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States is tiring of conflict and while combating terrorism is still a high priority for the White House, polls show by large margins that Americans' main concerns are the economy and healthcare.

Faced with criticism about civilian casualties in attacks by unmanned aerial vehicles, Obama said the United States would only use these drone strikes when a threat was "continuing and imminent," a nuanced change from the previous policy of launching strikes against a significant threat.

Under new presidential guidance signed by Obama on Wednesday, the Defense Department will also take the lead in launching lethal drones, as opposed to the current practice of the CIA taking charge.

That would subject drone operations to more scrutiny from Congress and might lead to the Pentagon taking over drone operations in Yemen, but not in Pakistan, where the CIA is likely to continue to run the program.

Now in his second term and with no need to worry about re-election, Obama appears intent on confronting human rights and civil liberties challenges that threaten to stain his legacy.

Those include the Guantanamo prison at the U.S. Naval Base in Cuba, where more than 100 prisoners are on hunger strike and dozens are being force-fed to keep them alive.

Obama said he would lift a moratorium on sending Yemeni detainees home, appoint a State Department coordinator and work with Congress to break a deadlock over the camp where most prisoners have been held for more than a decade without trial.

Human rights groups mostly welcomed Obama's assertion that America could not remain on "a perpetual war-time footing."

"Our systematic effort to dismantle terrorist organizations must continue. But this war, like all wars, must end. That's what history advises. That's what our democracy demands," Obama said.

Republican opponents accused him of giving in to terrorism.

"The president's speech today will be viewed by terrorists as a victory. Rather than continuing successful counterterrorism activities, we are changing course with no clear operational benefit," Senator Saxby Chambliss from Georgia said.

Although the number of drone strikes has dropped in the past year after peaking in the middle of Obama's first term, the use of remote-controlled aircraft to attack extremists - and the civilian casualties that have sometimes resulted - has increased tensions with countries such as Pakistan and drawn criticism from rights activists.

The New America Foundation's widely cited drone attack database shows there have been 355 drone strikes in Pakistan's tribal regions since 2004 and more than 60 in Yemen since 2009.

Pilotless aircraft are increasingly playing a role in the armory of the United States and other countries. The U.S. Navy made aviation history on May 14 by launching an unmanned stealth jet off an aircraft carrier for the first time, with an eye on possible rivals like China and Iran.

Obama suggested the possibility of creating a secret court to oversee counterterrorism drone strikes, but he left it to Congress to decide on that.

"Beyond Afghanistan, we must define our effort not as a boundless ‘global war on terror' - but rather as a series of persistent, targeted efforts to dismantle specific networks of violent extremists that threaten America," Obama said.

UNTYING GUANTANAMO KNOT

Renewing his longstanding vow to close the Guantanamo prison, Obama called it "a symbol around the world for an America that flouts the rule of law."

Obama has been frustrated by his inability to make good on his 2008 campaign pledge to shut Guantanamo, which was opened by his predecessor, President George W. Bush, to hold men rounded up on suspicion of involvement with al Qaeda and the Taliban after the September 11 attacks.

Obama's current proposals will likely face resistance from Republican lawmakers and possibly some fellow Democrats, who have posed obstacles to transferring prisoners.

A hunger strike by 103 of the 166 detainees - 32 of whom have lost so much weight that they are being force-fed - has put pressure on Obama to take action.

"There is no justification beyond politics for Congress to prevent us from closing a facility that should never have been opened," Obama said.

The president was interrupted for more than a minute by a heckler from the Code Pink movement, who berated him for not closing the prison.

While he cannot shut Guantanamo on his own, Obama did announce some steps aimed at getting some prisoners out. He lifted a moratorium on detainee transfers to Yemen out of respect for that country's reforming government. Yemenis make up the largest group of prisoners.

He also called on Congress to lift restrictions on the transfer of terrorism suspects from Guantanamo and directed the Defense Department to identify a site in the United States to hold military tribunals for Guantanamo detainees. Lawmakers from both major parties have opposed bringing them to the U.S. mainland.

"Where appropriate, we will bring terrorists to justice in our courts and military justice system," he said.

Zeke Johnson, director of Amnesty International USA's Security with Human Rights Campaign called Obama's wide-ranging 50-minute address a "momentous speech." "Now it's time for him to take immediate action and get the job done ," he said.

But he made clear that differences remained with Obama's policies. "What's needed on drones is not a "kill court," but rejection of the radical redefinition of "imminence" used to expand who can be killed, as well as independent investigations of alleged extrajudicial executions and remedy for victims," he said.

Obama's speech came after his administration acknowledged on Wednesday that since 2009, four Americans had been killed in drone strikes in Yemen and Pakistan, including militant cleric Anwar al-Awlaki.

Obama defended those operations, saying that when a U.S. citizen goes abroad to wage war against the United States, his citizenship should not be a shield.

But in recognition of a debate within Congress about whether strikes could be launched within the United States, Obama said such strikes would not be constitutional.


---White House says drone strikes have killed four US citizens---
Dan Roberts in Washington
guardian.co.uk, Thursday 23 May 2013 14.20 BST   
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/may/22/white-house-drone-strikes-us-citizens

Eric Holder acknowledges previously classified details of drone program and says US deliberately targeted Anwar al-Awlaki, who died in Yemen in 2011

The White House has launched a new effort to draw a line under its controversial drone strike policy by admitting for the first time that four American citizens were among those killed by its covert attacks in Yemen and Pakistan since 2009.

In a letter to congressional leaders sent on Wednesday, attorney general Eric Holder acknowledged previously classified details of the drone attacks and promised to brief them on a new US doctrine for sanctioning such targeted killings in future.

Holder claimed one of the US citizens killed, Anwar al-Awlaki, was chief of external operations for al-Qaida in the Arabian Peninsula (Aqap) and had been involved in plots to blow up airplanes over US soil. However, Holder said three others killed by drones - Samir Khan, Abdul Rahman Anwar al-Awlaki and Jude Kenan - were not "specifically targeted". The second of these victims, Anwar al-Awlaki's son, is said by campaigners to have been 16 when he died in Yemen in 2011.

The Bureau of Investigative Journalism estimates that between 240 and 347 people have been killed in total by confirmed US drone strikes in Yemen since 2002, with a further 2,541 to 3,533 killed by CIA drones in Pakistan.

Amid mounting concern that the policy has harmed US interests overseas, President Obama is expected to give a major speech on his counter-terrorism strategy at the National Defense University in Washington on Thursday, marking the start of a concerted effort to better justify and explain the killings.

"The president will soon be speaking publicly in greater detail about our counterterrorism operations and the legal and policy framework," Holder told 22 senior members of Congress in Wednesday's letter.

"This week the president approved a document that institutionalises the administration's exacting standards and processes for reviewing and approving operations to capture or use lethal force against terrorist targets outside the United States and areas of active hostilities."

The attorney general said this document would remain classified, but relevant congressional committees would be briefed on its contents. No further details were given of other killings in the five-page letter.

Earlier, White House spokesman Jay Carney said Obama would also outline his renewed attempt to shut the Guantanamo Bay detention centre in the speech and seek to explain why previous efforts had failed.

After a week in which Obama has been accused of failing to deal openly with crises such as the the targeting of Tea Party activists by the Internal Revenue Service, the White House hope it can defuse concern over drones and Guantanamo by being more transparent about its objectives.

"These are matters that … he believes are subject to legitimate questions, and that these are issue areas he believes we need to be as transparent as possible about." said Carney. "And I think you'll see that reflected in his remarks tomorrow."

The White House says Thursday's speech will cover "broad counter-terrorism policy, including military, diplomatic, intelligence, and legal efforts".

"[Obama] will review the state of the threats that we face, particularly as the al-Qaida core has weakened but new dangers have emerged," it added. "He will discuss the policy and legal framework under which we take action against terrorist threats, including the use of drones.

"He will review our detention policy and efforts to close the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay. And he will frame the future of our efforts against al Qaeda, its affiliates and its adherents."

Greater transparency is unlikely to satisfy critics of the drone strikes alone, but the White House has also been keen to stress in recent days that the number of attacks has fallen significantly since Obama's first term and Thursday's speech may mark a turning point in the use of such tactics by the US.

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