2013年7月19日金曜日

George Zimmerman Not Guilty

Travon射殺者に無罪判決がでた。
 米南部フロリダ州サンフォードの住宅街で昨年2月、丸腰の黒人少年を
射殺し、殺人罪に問われた元自警団員のジョージ・ジマーマン被告(29)
に対し、地元の陪審団は、無罪評決を下した。

George Zimmerman
・高校生のトレイボン・マーティンさん=当時(17)=が父親の知人宅に
 徒歩で向かう途中に発生。トレイボンさんは被告に不審者と思われて
 呼び止められ、激しくもみあった末に射殺された。
・第2級殺人(計画性の薄い殺人)罪で起訴された。
・「警官気取り」で銃を撃つ必要もないのに、トレイボンさんの胸を
 撃ち殺害した。
・もみ合った際に加害者は、被害者の頭を地面に強く打ち付けたり、
 被害者が逃げた際に加害者が追跡した等被害者の命を危険にさらし、
 発砲した。

Stand Your Ground法を改定する可能性があるとのことだったが、不明な
まま。

陪審員は女性6人で白人5名有色系1名の人種分配。
Stand Your Ground法により、経緯を説明しなかった警察への不審や地裁
が指名した陪審員に白人が多く、無罪評決は誤審として、被害者支持者は、
抗議デモを展開。
被害者家族は評決を受け入れた。
陪審員は正しい判断をしたが、施行している法律や法律が成立した社会が
間違っていると考える人もいる。
一般人に公民権侵害の証明は困難との説もある。

検察は、加害者の行動は、Stand Your Ground法の範囲を超えると主張
したようだ。

加害者の弁護士は、被害者が加害者による銃撃を乗り切った場合、被害
者による暴行が推測でき、また待ち伏せされた可能性もあると主張。

この裁判の報道を見ると、米社会は、治安と銃規制が絡む問題があり、
一部地域で外出するには、命がけと言うことになりそう。
でも、米国は、こんな地域ばかりではないと思う。

Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act Again
フロリダ 条例見直しへ


George Zimmerman Verdict: Trayvon Martin Shooting Brings up Question of Race


George Zimmerman Found Not Guilty


---米大統領、人種差別問題に苦慮=黒人少年射殺事件で緊張拡大も---
2013/07/18-15:56
http://www.jiji.com/jc/c?g=int_30&k=2013071800589

 【ワシントン時事】米フロリダ州の黒人少年射殺事件で、元自警団員の被告が今週初めに無罪を言い渡されたことを受け、オバマ大統領が再燃する人種差別問題への対応に苦慮している。大統領は「評決の尊重」を国民に呼び掛けているものの、各方面からの抗議はやみそうにない。20日には全米100都市で抗議デモが計画されている。
 事件は2012年2月、フロリダ州サンフォードで発生。地元自警団のリーダーだったジョージ・ジマーマン氏(29)が近くを通り掛かった高校生のトレイボン・マーティン君=当時(17)=を不審者と思い込み、もみ合いの末に射殺した。
 警察がジマーマン氏を逮捕しなかったことから、人種差別問題に発展。当初は大統領も「私に息子がいれば、トレイボンに似ていただろう」と発言し、「黒人」の立場から同情心をあらわにした。
 しかし陪審団が13日、ジマーマン氏の正当防衛を認めて無罪の評決を下すと、オバマ氏は「われわれは法治国家の国民だ」と自制を要請。ジマーマン氏を人種差別に基づく「憎悪犯罪」(ヘイトクライム)で訴追しようとする動きに対しては「表明する意見はない」(大統領報道官)と沈黙を貫いている。
 オバマ氏が慎重姿勢なのは、初の黒人大統領として人種間の格差是正への取り組みが期待される一方、「黒人」であるが故に人種統合の代表として一層の公平さを求められるジレンマを抱えているためだ。
 09年7月にハーバード大の著名な黒人教授が誤認逮捕された際、オバマ氏は警察を「愚かだ」と批判し、逆に人種差別問題をあおり立てる結果となり、発言の撤回を余儀なくされた。


---米国:黒人少年射殺 元自警団団長、無罪 評決に抗議デモ---
2013年07月15日
http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20130715mog00m030009000c.html

 【ニューヨーク草野和彦】米南部フロリダ州サンフォードで2012年、黒人の高校生の少年が自警団の男に射殺された事件で、サンフォードの裁判所の陪審員は13日、殺人罪に問われた男の正当防衛の主張を認め、無罪の評決をした。評決後、全米各地で抗議デモが起きており、今後、米国社会に根強く残る人種差別を巡って議論が再燃しそうだ。
 事件はサンフォードの住宅街で12年2月26日夜、当時17歳のトレイボン・マーティン君がコンビニエンスストアで買い物をし、知人宅に戻る途中に発生。
 不審者とみなした自警団団長でヒスパニック系白人のジョージ・ジマーマン被告(29)ともみ合いになった末、被告が持っていた拳銃でマーティン君の胸を撃ち、死亡させた。
 事件直後、被告は警察に銃で撃ったことは認めたが、正当防衛を主張。警察も逮捕しなかったことで「人種差別」との抗議デモが全米各地に拡大した。
 これに押されるように州司法当局が12年4月11日、第2級(計画性の薄い)殺人罪で起訴。先月始まった公判も注目を集めていた。
 公判で検察側は、ジマーマン被告がマーティン君を見た目で不審者と決めつけているとし、「撃ちたいから撃った」と故意性を主張したが、陪審員はこれを認めなかった。
 AP通信によると、無罪評決後にカリフォルニア州の3都市などで抗議集会が発生。オークランドでは地元新聞社ビルの窓が割られたり、米国旗が燃やされたりしたが、逮捕者は出ていない模様だ。


---米フロリダ黒人少年射殺 元自警団員に無罪評決---
2013年7月15日 朝刊
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/world/news/CK2013071502000104.html

 【ニューヨーク=長田弘己】米フロリダ州サンフォードの住宅街で昨年二月、丸腰の黒人少年トレイボン・マーティンさん=当時(17)=を射殺し、殺人罪に問われた元自警団員ジョージ・ジマーマン被告(29)の裁判で、陪審は十三日、同被告に無罪評決を言い渡した。検察側は控訴できないため、確定する。
 事件は当初、もみ合いの末の正当防衛だったと主張する被告を警察が逮捕しなかったため、人種差別との批判が起こり、全米で抗議活動が広がった。
 検察側は、被告がマーティンさんを不審人物と決めつけ、追いかけて、「必要がないのに、撃ちたいから撃った」と指摘した。
 一方、弁護側はマーティンさんに暴力をふるわれ、「身の危険を感じたから撃った」と正当防衛を主張。また、被告はヒスパニック系で、黒人への人種的偏見については否定していた。
 AP通信によると、陪審は女性六人で、うち五人は白人だった。
 フロリダ州は二〇〇五年、深刻な身の危険を感じた場合は、その場から退避せずに銃の使用を許可する州法「スタンド・ユア・グラウンド法」を制定。同法が、安易な銃の使用を助長させているとの指摘もある。


---黒人少年射殺の被告に無罪評決 人種問題絡め米注目の裁判---
2013.07.14 Sun posted at 16:21 JST
http://www.cnn.co.jp/usa/35034665.html

 (CNN) 米フロリダ州中部サンフォードの路上で2012年2月に発生した元自警団団員によるアフリカ系(黒人)の少年の射殺事件で、同地の陪審裁判は13日、ジョージ・ジマーマン被告(29)に対し無罪の評決を下した。
 被告は、発砲は少年の暴力に対する正当防衛の行為として無罪を主張。無罪の評決は、全員女性の陪審6人がこの主張に理解を示したことを意味する。フロリダ州の州検察当局は第2級殺人で被告を訴追していた。検察は今回の陪審評決を受け入れる考えを示した。
 この裁判は人種や銃保持の権利などの問題と絡め全米で注目を集めていた。陪審6人のうち5人は白人、1人はマイノリティーで、評決内容の決定に計16時間半費やす慎重姿勢を見せていた。
 少年のトレイボン・マーチン君(当時17)の父親はツイッターで家族をこれまで支援してきた人々への感謝を示しながらも、無罪評決に対する戦いは今後も続けると言明した。
 事件は昨年2月26日の夜、少年がサンフォードのコンビニ店で買い物を終え、雨の中、父親の婚約者の家へ戻る際に発生。被告は不審な少年を見つけたとして警察に連絡したが、警官が急行しているので尾行しないよう指示を受けた。
 しかし、被告は車外に出て、少年の居場所を確認する行動などを取ったとされる。少年との小競り合いが起きたのはこの後だったが、どちらが最初に仕掛けたのかが論点の1つとなっていた。また、少年が被告の銃を見つけ、手に取ろうとしたのかなどの事実認定も争われた。
 ヒスパニックのジマーマン被告は黒人少年に対する人種的偏見があるとの批判もあったが、被告の弁護士はこれを否定していた。


---黒人少年射殺の自警団員に「無罪」評決 全米で脚光浴びた裁判---
2013.7.14 13:37
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/130714/amr13071412110002-n1.htm

 【ニューヨーク=黒沢潤】米南部フロリダ州サンフォードの住宅街で昨年2月、丸腰の黒人少年を射殺し、殺人罪に問われた元自警団員のジョージ・ジマーマン被告(29)に対し、地元の陪審団は13日、無罪評決を下した。
 この事件をめぐっては、「正当防衛」を理由に被告が1カ月以上も逮捕されなかったことが「黒人差別」だとして、全米各地で激しい抗議デモが相次いだ。
 事件は、高校生のトレイボン・マーティンさん=当時(17)=が父親の知人宅に徒歩で向かう途中に発生。トレイボンさんは被告に不審者と思われて呼び止められ、激しくもみあった末に射殺された。被告は第2級殺人(計画性の薄い殺人)罪で起訴された。
 検察側は「警官気取り」の被告が銃を撃つ必要もないのに、トレイボンさんの胸を撃ち殺害したと主張。被告側はこれに対し、もみ合った際にトレイボンさんが被告の頭を地面に強く打ち付けるなど、命を危険にさらしたため発砲したなどと主張していた。
 無罪評決を受け、サンフォードでは大勢の地元住民が「トレイボンに正義を」などと叫んで激しく抗議した。


---Rallies large and small follow Zimmerman verdict---
8:55 p.m. EDT July 14, 2013
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/07/14/trayvon-martin-george-zimmerman-rallies/2516555/

NEW YORK (AP) - With chants and prayers, sermons and signs, outrage over a jury's decision to clear George Zimmerman in the shooting of an unarmed black teenager poured from street protests and church pulpits Sunday amid calls for federal civil rights charges to be filed in the case.

Demonstrations large and small broke out across the country - ranging from a few dozen to several hundred - in support of the family of Trayvon Martin as protesters decried the not guilty verdict as a miscarriage of justice.

The NAACP and protesters called for federal civil rights charges against Zimmerman, who was acquitted Saturday in Martin's February 2012 shooting death, which unleashed a national debate over racial profiling, self-defense and equal justice.

The Justice Department said it is looking into the case to determine whether federal prosecutors should file criminal civil rights charges now that Zimmerman has been acquitted in the state case. Meanwhile, President Barack Obama and religious and civil rights leaders urged call in hopes of ensuring peaceful demonstrations in the wake of a case that became an emotional flash point.

At Manhattan's Middle Collegiate Church, many congregants wore hooded sweatshirts - the same thing Martin was wearing the night he was shot. Hoodie-clad Jessica Nacinovich said she could only feel disappointment and sadness over the verdict.

"I'm sure jurors did what they felt was right in accordance with the law but maybe the law is wrong, maybe society is wrong; there's a lot that needs fixing," she said.

The Rev. Jacqueline Lewis, wearing a pink hoodie, urged a peaceful but vocal response.

"We're going to raise our voices against the root causes of this kind of tragedy," she said, adding, "We'll aim our fight for justice against the ease with which people can get firearms in this country."

At a youth service in Sanford, Fla., where the trial was held, teens wearing shirts displaying Martin's picture wiped away tears during a sermon at the St. Paul Missionary Baptist Church.

About 200 people turned out for a rally and march in downtown Chicago, saying the verdict was symbolic of lingering racism in the United States. Seventy-three-year-old Maya Miller said the case reminded her of the 1955 slaying of Emmitt Till, a 14-year-old from Chicago who was murdered by a group of white men while visiting Mississippi. Till's killing galvanized the civil rights movement.

"Fifty-eight years and nothing's changed," Miller said, pausing to join a chant to "Justice for Trayvon, not one more."

Protesters also gathered in Miami, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C along with a host of other cities.

Hours after the verdict Saturday night, demonstrators gathered on U Street in Washington, D.C., chanting, "No justice, no peace." One protester carried a sign that read, "Stop criminalizing black men."

In Miami, more than 200 people gathered for a vigil. "You can't justify murder," read one poster. Another read "Don't worry about more riots. Worry about more Zimmermans."

Carol Reitner, 76, of Miami, said she heard about the vigil through an announcement at her church Sunday morning. "I was really devastated. It's really hard to believe that someone can take the life of someone else and walk out of court free," she said.

In Manhattan's Union Square, hundreds of people gathered to voice their passions over the verdict, hoisting placards with images of Martin.

Some tempered their anger, saying they didn't contest the jury's decision based on the legal issues involved.

But "while the verdict may be legal, a system that doesn't take into account what happened is a broken legal system," said Jennifer Lue, 24.

Civil rights leaders, including the Revs. Jesse Jackson and Al Sharpton, urged peace in the wake of the verdict. Jackson said the legal system "failed justice," but violence isn't the answer.

But not all the protesters heeded those calls in the protests the broke out immediately after the verdict.

In Oakland, Calif., some angry demonstrators broke windows, burned U.S. flags and started street fires. Some marchers also vandalized a police squad car and used spray paint to scrawl anti-police graffiti on roads and Alameda County's Davidson courthouse. In Los Angeles, police said a crowd of about 100 protesters surrounded an officer and eventually had to be dispersed by officers firing beanbag rounds.


---George Zimmerman found not guilty---
Yamiche Alcindor, USA TODAY
8:25 p.m. EDT July 14, 2013
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/07/13/george-zimmerman-found-not-guilty/2514163/

SANFORD, Fla. -- George Zimmerman, the man accused of murdering Trayvon Martin, was found not guilty of second-degree murder and manslaughter Saturday night.

The verdict is the culmination of a case that captured the nation's attention and will undoubtedly be imprinted in America's history. For Zimmerman, it means trying to recapture his life after he was at the center of a national maelstrom over racial profiling, state gun laws and what constitutes self-defense.

The not guilty verdict means the jury of six women, after deliberating for more than 15 hours over two days, found that Zimmerman justifiably used deadly force. They determined that he reasonably believed that such force was "necessary to prevent imminent death or great bodily harm" to himself - Florida's definition of self-defense.

Zimmerman showed no emotion as the verdict was read. After the verdict was read, he smiled slightly and shook hands with one of his lawyers.

The unidentified jurors decided Zimmerman didn't "intentionally commit an act or acts that caused death" or demonstrate a "depraved mind without regard for human life" -- Florida's definitions of manslaughter and second-degree murder, respectively.

In a press conference after the verdict, Zimmerman attorney Mark O'Mara said his client will now need to get on with his life.

"I think he's going to be great. I think he is still worried. Hopefully everyone will respect the jury's verdict," O'Mara said.

He offered his sympathies to Trayvon's parents for the loss of their son. But he said despite the national protests that erupted after the shooting, the case had nothing to do with civil rights.

Zimmerman's brother, Robert, told CNN's Piers Morgan that his brother was processing the reality that he is free.

"He has some decompressing to do," he said. "Our family was emotional. We are exonerated as a family and George is exonerated as a defendant. It's going to take us some time to heal."

For all the euphoria on Zimmerman's team, prosecutors and Trayvon's family faced a huge letdown. Trayvon's parents were not in the courtroom when the verdict was read.

Trayvon's father, Tracy, posted on Twitter, "Even though I am broken-hearted, my faith is unshattered. I will always love my baby Tray ... even in his death I know my baby proud of the FIGHT we along with all of you put up for him."

The family's attorney Benjamin Crump thanked all the protesters nationwide who "put their hoodies up and to everybody who said, 'I am Trayvon.' " He urged supporters to remain peaceful, despite the verdict.

Lead prosecutor Bernie De la Rionda said, "I am disappointed in the verdict but I respect it. We accept the jury's verdict."

State Attorney Angela Corey said the case was a challenge. But she said, "That scream stops when the shot was fired and we always believed it wasTrayvon Martin."

Outside the courtroom, demonstrators who supported Trayvon stood in stunned silence. But legal analysts say they were not surprised by the verdict because the prosecution did not prove its case.

"The prosecution had no clear narrative, witnesses that appeared poorly prepared, and at the end of the day, this is more of a loss by the prosecution than a win by the defense," criminal attorney Darren Kavinoky said.

Susan Constantine, a jury consultant and body language expert who attended Zimmerman's trial regularly, said the verdict meant there was reasonable doubt. "They just could not put the pieces together," she said.

The case has gripped the nation since the shooting happened on Feb. 26, 2012. Police initially did not charge Zimmerman with a crime, citing Florida's "stand-your-ground" law, which allows someone who believes they are in imminent danger to take whatever steps are necessary to protect themselves.

Protests ensued in several cities, including New York, by supporters of Trayvon's family. Many protesters voiced the opinion that Trayvon was targeted and killed for racial reasons. Trayvon, 17, was black and Zimmerman is Hispanic.

"You have a little black boy who was killed," said Benjamin Crump, an attorney for the parents of Trayvon. "It's going to be reported in history books and 50 years from now, our children will talk about Trayvon Martin's case like we talk about Emmett Till."

Emmett Till, a 14-year-old black young man, was tortured, grossly disfigured and murdered in 1955 in Mississippi after being accused of flirting with a white woman.

In Zimmerman's case, State Attorney Corey stepped in and charged Zimmerman with murder on April 11, 2012. Prosecutors never argued that Zimmerman racially profiled the teen and instead said the teen was profiled as a criminal.

The five-week trial of Zimmerman, held in the same Florida city where Trayvon was killed, brought the facts of the case under a nationally televised spotlight, with every moment captured on camera. More than 50 witnesses testified, and when deliberations began Friday afternoon, the jury requested a list of the plethora of evidence that lawyers presented.

Some of the items include several statements Zimmerman gave to police, Trayvon's autopsy report and photos of both Zimmerman's injuries and Trayvon's body. Witnesses included forensic experts who testified about the angle at which Trayvon was shot, the position Zimmerman's gun may have been in, and where DNA and blood was found.

Other witnesses offered conflicting statements about how the fight happened, who had the upper hand when Zimmerman fired the shot and who was screaming for help in a 911 call recording.

The defense called nine people -- including both of Zimmerman's parents -- to testify that the screams belonged to Zimmerman. Both of Trayvon's parents and his brother all said Trayvon was screaming moments before he was shot.

In at times riveting detail, prosecutors tried their best to convince jurors that Zimmerman was a killer who "tracked" Trayvon, an innocent teenager, and murdered him before police arrived.

"That child had every right to be afraid of a strange man following him," prosecutor John Guy told jurors before they began deliberations. "This case isn't about standing your ground. It's about staying in your car."

Zimmerman attorney O'Mara cast Trayvon as the aggressor, saying the teen may have been charged with aggravated battery had he survived the shooting. Trayvon, instead of going home, likely hid, waited for Zimmerman and confronted him, the lawyer said.

Elizabeth Parker, a former prosecutor who is now a criminal defense attorney in Palm Beach, Fla., said the defense did a good job of humanizing Zimmerman .

"The defense did a phenomenal job of presenting their case through the state's witnesses," Parker said. "They were able to get George Zimmerman's testimony in through several witnesses --sparing him from having to undergo vigorous cross-examination by these bulldog prosecutors."

One such is example was the testimony of Sanford police officer Christopher Serino, called by the state and later the defense, Parker said. Serino agreed with prosecutors that Zimmerman may have been profiling Trayvon but said no physical evidence or witness statements contradicted Zimmerman's claim of self-defense and that the medical examiner's report supported Zimmerman's version of events.

Now that the verdict is in, Zimmerman is a free man. But he may have to go into hiding and be unable to live a normal life for some time, said Jose Baez, the defense attorney who successfully defended Casey Anthony, a Florida mother accused of killing her daughter in a high-profile capital murder case.

"The end is not near for George Zimmerman," he said.

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