2013年7月20日土曜日

GSK China Bribery

 中国公安当局は、英製薬大手グラクソ・スミスクライン(GSK)が旅行
代理店やコンサルタントを媒介者として政府高官や医師に賄賂を贈り、
不法に価格をつり上げていたと公表した。

中国公安省
・2007年以来GSK社が30億元を700余りの旅行代理店及び企業に送金。
・GSKが性的な賄賂も含めた贈賄と脱税容疑。
・GSK4人の中国人幹部が勾留。
 Liang Hong GSK(China) Investment Co Ltd 副社長兼運用マネージャ
 Zhang Guowei 同社 副社長兼人事部長
 その他
・英国人従業員に対して措置はない。

GSK
・中国での贈賄や汚職についての証拠は何も見つかっていない。

IMS Health
・2016年 世界の製薬市場:一位米国、二位は、日本を抜き二位と予想。

贈賄のために、患者が支払う額は10倍。
英国本社関係者の勾留者はなし。
米国で不正販売をしていていたから、中国でも同様かと思ったが、現地
従業員による犯罪のようだ。
贈収賄の額が大きくなると報道になり、政府が改革を進めていると印象
操作か。役人が強いと贈収賄が横行すると言う説は昔も今も変わらない。

GSK 米国で不正販売
中国赤十字会 死にたくなければ賄賂をよこせ


---賄賂横行、外資系企業に警告=英製薬大手事件で20人拘束-中国---
2013/07/15-17:17
http://www.jiji.com/jc/c?g=int_30&k=2013071500269

 【北京時事】英製薬大手グラクソ・スミスクライン(GSK)の中国現地法人「GSK(中国)投資有限公司」が巨額贈賄容疑で中国公安当局の捜査を受けている事件で、同社中国人幹部4人を含め20人以上が拘束されたことが、15日付の中国紙の報道で分かった。国営新華社通信はGSK事件を「(製薬)業界全体の氷山の一角」と指摘。中国市場で外資系企業の賄賂が横行する事態に警告を発する異例の報道を行った。

◇各紙が特集
 15日付の中国メディアは新華社のほか、共産党機関紙・人民日報、新京報、京華時報などが一斉にGSK事件を特集で報道。各紙は12~14日、捜査本部が置かれる湖南省長沙市で、拘束中のGSK中国副総裁らを取材した。
 公安省は11日、「(GSK中国が)医薬品販売ルートを開拓し、販売価格をつり上げる目的で、政府当局者、医薬品業界の協会、病院や医師らに派手な賄賂攻勢をかけた」として捜査を進めていると発表していた。
 「共犯」とされる上海の旅行会社は、GSK中国の医療関係会議や研修を請け負ったが、同社幹部の指示を受け、実際の参加人数を水増ししたり、架空の会議をでっち上げたりした。2009年以降、2000万元(約3億2000万円)以上のリベートを、GSK中国の複数幹部に渡し、この一部が政府当局者らへの賄賂源になったとみられる。
 京華時報によれば、10年以降で約200万元のリベートを受け取ったとされるGSK中国副総裁は昨年、GSK中国が北京で当局の調査を受けた際、旅行会社からの25万元を賄賂として使ったという。また旅行会社も、GSK中国との関係を維持するため同社側に女性をあてがう「性賄賂」を繰り返した。

◇習指導部、事件を重視
 一方、中国の庶民は薬価の高騰に大きな不満を持っており、政府も解決に躍起だ。こうした中、同副総裁は「GSKの中国での唯一の収入源は薬品販売。巨額の裏金が薬価に転嫁され、コストがわずか30元の薬も最終的に患者の手元に渡る際には300元に跳ね上がり、(庶民が)ツケを払わされている」と語ったという。
 汚職に厳しい姿勢で臨む習近平指導部は、「公平な競争を壊し、腐敗を繁殖させる」(人民日報)としてGSK事件を重視しているとみられ、外資系企業も容赦しない方針を示した形だ。


---英グラクソ、中国で価格つり上げ狙い贈賄=公安当局---
2013年 07月 15日 17:11 JST
http://jp.reuters.com/article/businessNews/idJPTYE96E02W20130715

 [北京 15日 ロイター] - 中国公安当局は15日、英製薬大手グラクソ・スミスクライン(GSK.L: 株価, 企業情報, レポート)が旅行代理店やコンサルタントを媒介者として政府高官や医師に賄賂を贈り、不法に価格をつり上げていたと公表した。
 公安省のGao Feng氏は記者会見で、2007年以来同社が30億元(4億8880万ドル)を700余りの旅行代理店及び企業に送金していたことを明らかにした。
 同氏によると、捜査によってグラクソが性的な賄賂も含めた贈賄に主に責任があることが判明した。同社の4人の中国人幹部が勾留されている。
 公安当局は、英国人従業員に対しては何も措置は取っていないとし、グラクソの英国本社からは何の情報も受け取っていないと述べた。
 グラクソは捜査の根拠について当局から伝えられたのは7月初旬だと明らかにしているが、中国での贈賄や汚職についての証拠は何も見つかっていないとし、当局の捜査には協力すると表明している。
 公安省は11日、当局による初期の取り調べでグラクソの幹部が中国において贈賄と、税金に関する法律違反を犯したと話したことを明らかにした。同省によると、大勢のスタッフが関与し多額のお金が長期間にわたって動いており、政府高官や医師会、医療機関や医師らが贈賄の対象となっている。


---GSK routed China bribes through travel agencies - police---
By Michael Martina
BEIJING | Mon Jul 15, 2013 7:24am BST
http://uk.reuters.com/article/2013/07/15/uk-gsk-china-idUKBRE96E02120130715

(Reuters) -  company had transferred as much as 3 billion yuan (323.5 million pounds) to more than 700 travel agencies and consultancies, Gao told a news conference. He did not make clear how much of this money was spent bribing officials and doctors.

Last week the Ministry of Public Security said GSK executives in China had confessed to bribery and tax violations.

Until Monday, Chinese authorities had released few details on the probe into Britain's biggest drugmaker, one of a string of investigations into foreign firms and their pricing practices in the world's second-biggest economy.

"We have sufficient reason to suspect that these transfers were conducted illegally," Gao said.

"You could say the travel agencies and GSK were criminal partners. Among the partners, GSK was mainly responsible. In a criminal organisation there is always a leader."

GSK officials were not immediately available for comment on Monday. The company has previously said it had found no evidence of bribery or corruption in China, but added it would cooperate with the authorities. It has said it was only told about the investigation in early July.

The detained executives include Liang Hong, vice president and operations manager of GSK (China) Investment Co Ltd and Zhang Guowei, the company's vice president and human resources director, the official Xinhua news agency reported.

It was unclear if any of the executives had legal representation.

KEY MARKET FOR DRUGMAKERS

China is an increasingly important country for international drugmakers, which are relying on growth in emerging markets to offset slower sales in Western markets where many former top-selling medicines have lost patent protection.

IMS Health, which tracks pharmaceutical industry trends, expects China to overtake Japan as the world's second biggest drugs market behind the United States by 2016.

The charges of bribery make the GSK case the highest profile corporate investigation in China since four executives from mining giant Rio Tinto Plc were jailed in March 2010 for taking bribes and stealing commercial secrets.

Gao gave no specific examples of how the bribery involving the GSK executives worked in practice. He said there were also instances of "sexual bribery", although he did not elaborate.

The official People's Daily newspaper said GSK collaborated with travel agencies to funnel bribes to doctors and officials by creating fake "conference services" as expenditure for GSK in order to misappropriate funds, some of which would then be spent on bribes.

GSK supplies key products such as vaccines in China, as well as drugs for lung disease and cancer.

Xinhua, given access to Liang by the authorities, quoted the detained executive as saying medicine which cost 30 yuan to make could end up being sold to patients for 300 yuan. It did not specifically say Liang was referring to GSK drugs.

The police last Thursday said the case against GSK involved a large number of staff, with bribes offered to Chinese government officials, medical associations, hospitals and doctors.

UNUSUAL FOR POLICE TO GIVE SUCH DETAIL

Legal experts said the fact the police had disclosed so much information during its investigation suggested the executives would be charged and found guilty.

Under China's legal sysBritish drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline Plc channelled bribes to Chinese officials and doctors through travel agencies for six years to illegally boost sales and to raise the price of its medicines in China, police said on Monday.

Four senior Chinese executives from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) had been detained, said Gao Feng, head of the economic crimes investigation unit at the Ministry of Public Security.

Since 2007 thetem, formal charges would only be announced after preliminary investigations are completed.

"The police would not usually reveal the details of cases they are handling ... they usually wouldn't reveal so much information before a final judgment is handed down," said Yang Zhaodong, partner at Chinese law firm King & Capital, while declining to comment specifically on the GSK case.

"If they are already revealing such information, it means that they feel they have a fairly complete set of evidence."

In the Rio Tinto case, the four executives - one a China-born Australian citizen and three Chinese nationals - received jail terms of between seven and 14 years after being found guilty of getting information from confidential strategy meetings of the body representing China's steel industry in negotiations with iron ore suppliers.

Police said they had taken no action against any British nationals in the GSK case. No information had been received from GSK's UK headquarters, they added.

China has targeted foreign firms on multiple fronts in recent months, including alleged price-fixing, quality controls and consumer rights, forcing companies to defend their reputations in a country where international brands often have a valuable edge over local competitors in terms of public trust.

European food groups Nestle and Danone recently said they would cut the price of infant milk formula in China after Beijing launched an investigation into the industry.

Units of GSK, Merck & Co Inc, Astellas Pharma Inc and other foreign and domestic drugmakers are also being investigated by China's top economic planning agency on cost and pricing issues.

Gao said police had uncovered information during their investigation which pointed to similar money transfers made by other multinational pharmaceutical companies.

"Whether they (other companies) were engaged in illegal behaviour, you can go interview them. But they will not respond to you," said Gao.

"You just need to ask them one question: Are you sleeping well at night?"



---GlaxoSmithKline executives in China 'confess to bribery and tax violations'---
guardian.co.uk, Thursday 11 July 2013 10.39 BST
http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2013/jul/11/glaxosmithkline-bribery-tax-china-gsk?INTCMP=SRCH

China's security ministry says GSK suspected of trying to bribe officials, hospitals and doctors to boost sales and prices

Executives of British drug maker GlaxoSmithKline in China have confessed to charges of bribery and tax law violations after initial questioning by Chinese police, according to the country's security ministry.

The company is suspected of offering bribes to government officials, medical associations, hospitals and doctors to boost sales and prices, China's security ministry said in a statement on its website on Thursday.

GSK is also suspected of using fake receipts in unspecified tax law violations, the ministry added.

"After initial questioning the suspects have admitted to the crimes, and the investigation is ongoing," the statement said.

The statement did not give details on the number of executives questioned, their identities or when the questioning took place.

GSK said it would co-operate with the authorities but said Thursday's announcement was the first official communication it has received about the investigation.

"Corruption has no place in our business," said a company statement. "If evidence of such activity is provided we would of course act swiftly on it."

In recent months China has targeted foreign firms on multiple fronts including alleged price-fixing, quality controls and consumer rights, forcing companies to defend their reputations in a country where international brands often have a valuable edge over local competitors in terms of public trust.

Police in the south-central Chinese city of Changsha said last week they were investigating high-level Chinese staff at GSK on suspicion of unspecified economic crimes.

GSK said on Monday it was investigating new allegations that its staff had used improper tactics to market Botox in China, but had so far found no evidence of bribery or corruption.

GSK, Merck and other foreign and domestic drugmakers were also being investigated by China's top economic planning agency on cost and pricing issues.

China is an increasingly important market for international pharmaceutical companies, which are relying on growth in emerging markets to offset slower sales in western markets where many former blockbuster drugs have lost patent protection.


---China accuses GlaxoSmithKline of paying L300m in bribes---
guardian.co.uk, Monday 15 July 2013 09.17 BST
http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2013/jul/15/glaxosmithkline-drugs-sales-prices-china?INTCMP=SRCH

British drugmaker under investigation by Chinese authorities for alleged bribery and price fixing

The British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline used travel agencies and consultancies as vehicles to bribe officials and doctors and illegally boosted the sales prices of its drugs sold in China, police said on Monday.

Since 2007 the company had transferred as much as 3bn yuan (L323m) to more than 700 travel agencies and companies, Gao Feng, a police official in charge of the investigation into the company, told a news conference.

The investigation had found GlaxoSmithKline was chiefly responsible for the bribes, including instances of sexual bribery, Gao said. Four senior Chinese executives have been detained.

Police said they had taken no action against any British nationals, adding that no information had been received from GSK's UK headquarters.

GSK, which says it was only told of the grounds of the investigation in early July, has said it found no evidence of bribery or corruption in China, adding it would co-operate with the authorities.

The ministry of public security said on Thursday that GSK executives in China had confessed to bribery and tax violations during one of a string of investigations into foreign firms in the world's second-biggest economy.

The ministry said the case against Britain's biggest drugmaker involved a large number of staff and a huge sum of money over an extended period of time, with bribes offered to Chinese government officials, medical associations, hospitals and doctors to boost sales and prices.

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