2013年8月9日金曜日

Manning Guilty

Bradley Manningは、有罪の判決を受けた。
 「ウィキリークス」に機密情報を漏らした米陸軍上等兵のマニング被告
に対し、軍事法廷の判事は、スパイ活動取締法違反など約20の罪で有罪と
判断、起訴内容のうち最も重罪で終身刑になる可能性のあった「利敵行為」
については無罪とした。

WikiLeaksへの機密情報提供で、直接被害に遭った人の有無が問われたが
アフガニスタン国民がタリバンによって殺害されたとのこと。
エチオピアの記者やカタールでの実害を報道で見たが、アフガニスタン
での被害は知らなかった。

Bradley Manningは、20の罪により、懲役136年を受ける可能性があるが、
逃亡しなかったようだ。
Julian AssangeやEdward Snowdenは、亡命を計画した。

ManningもSnowdenは、志願して軍役についていた時は、所属先で、いじ
めを受けていたとの報道もある。流出した情報をみると、民間人としての
視点と麻痺した軍人との違いが浮き彫りになる。

Assangeは、豪上院選に出馬を発表。
大使館から外へ出られないのに、当選後の議員活動はできるのだろうか。

米軍機密文書公表
CIA Black Site
ウィキリークスで実害
Snowden Nobel Peace Prize Nominee


Germans protest Berlin's role in NSA spying - Brits do nothing about GCHQ


---スノーデン容疑者、ロシア入国 1年間の政治亡命---
2013.8.1 21:54
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/130801/erp13080121570008-n1.htm

 【モスクワ=遠藤良介】米当局の情報監視活動を暴露して訴追された中央情報局(CIA)の元職員、エドワード・スノーデン容疑者(30)が1日、ロシア当局によって1年間の亡命を認められた。容疑者は、1カ月以上にわたって滞在していたモスクワの空港を離れ、ロシアに入国した。露主要メディアが、スノーデン容疑者を支援している弁護士の話として伝えた。再三にわたって身柄の引き渡しを求めていた米国との関係に影響する可能性がある。
 スノーデン容疑者が向かった先について、弁護士は「安全上の理由から」として明らかにしていない。容疑者は6月23日に香港からモスクワに到着。米国が旅券を失効させる措置をとったため、シェレメチェボ空港の乗り継ぎエリアに滞在していたとされる。
 プーチン露大統領はこれまで、米国による身柄引き渡し要請には応じられないとする一方、容疑者は亡命を希望していた南米諸国など「どこにでも飛び立つ権利がある」と主張。ロシア滞在を認める条件として「米国に損害を与える行為をやめること」を挙げ、対米関係に配慮を見せる発言をしていた。


---ウィキリークス情報漏えい 米兵に一部無罪判決---
2013年7月31日 夕刊
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/world/news/CK2013073102000222.html

 【ニューヨーク=長田弘己】米軍法会議は三十日、内部告発サイト「ウィキリークス」に膨大な量の機密情報を提供したとして情報漏えいなど二十二の罪に問われた米陸軍のマニング上等兵(25)に対し、終身刑の可能性があった「敵対勢力のほう助」については無罪としたが、防ちょう法違反など二十の罪状で有罪を言い渡した。
 事件は米国史上最大級の機密漏えいで、審理の最大の争点は「敵対勢力のほう助」にあたるかどうかだった。判決はマニング上等兵が国際テロ組織アルカイダなどが見ることになるのを承知して情報を漏えいしたとする検察側の主張を退けた。
 AP通信によると、量刑の言い渡しは三十一日から始まるが、多くの罪状が有罪となったことにより最大で禁錮百三十六年の刑となる可能性がある。


---機密漏らした米上等兵に有罪 ウィキリークスに---
2013年7月31日 10時59分
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/s/article/2013073101000965.html

 【ワシントン共同】内部告発サイト「ウィキリークス」に機密情報を漏らした米陸軍上等兵のマニング被告(25)に対し、軍事法廷の判事は30日、スパイ活動取締法違反など約20の罪で有罪と判断、起訴内容のうち最も重罪で終身刑になる可能性のあった「利敵行為」については無罪とした。
 量刑は31日以降、順次言い渡される。利敵行為の適用は退けられたものの、米メディアによると、少なくとも数十年の禁錮刑が科される可能性がある。


---CIA元職員に死刑求刑せず 米政府がロシアに伝達---
2013年7月27日 00時17分
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/s/article/2013072601002415.html

 【ワシントン共同】ホルダー米司法長官は26日までに、ロシア側に対し、モスクワの空港に滞在する米中央情報局(CIA)元職員スノーデン容疑者が米国に送還された場合、死刑を求刑することはないと伝えた。米メディアが報じた。
 米司法当局は、国家安全保障局(NSA)による個人情報収集活動を暴露した元職員をスパイ活動取締法違反容疑などで訴追し、ロシア側に送還を求めている。
 元職員は先に中米ニカラグアに亡命申請した際、「終身刑や死刑の恐れがある」と主張していた。


---アサンジ氏、豪上院選に出馬へ 政党を設立---
2013年7月26日 07時15分
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/s/article/2013072501002379.html

 【ロンドン共同】内部告発サイト「ウィキリークス」創設者のジュリアン・アサンジ容疑者(42)は25日、オーストラリアで年内に行われる上院選に向け、政党「ウィキリークス党」を立ち上げ、自身を含め7人が立候補すると発表した。
 同党は既に今月、政党登録を済ませているという。
 アサンジ氏はオーストラリア出身で、以前から上院選への出馬に意欲を見せていた。同氏はスウェーデンでの性犯罪容疑で2010年に英国で逮捕され、保釈中にロンドンの在英エクアドル大使館に駆け込み、亡命申請。1年以上にわたって籠城生活を続けている。


---Manning conviction under Espionage Act worries civil liberties campaigners---
Wednesday 31 July 2013 15.20 BST
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/jul/31/bradley-manning-espionage-act-civil-liberties

Private awaits sentencing in WikiLeaks case as one observer says: 'Obama has managed to do what Nixon couldn't'

Bradley Manning began his first day as a convict on Wednesday, after he was found guilty of 20 counts relating to the transmission of state secrets to WikiLeaks. Outside the courtroom, the consequences of what amounts to a major escalation in the US government's war on whistleblowers are beginning to sink in.

Tuesday's verdict was the first time under the Obama administration that any leaker of official secrets has been convicted under the 1917 Espionage Act - a criminal statute designed to ensnare actual spies and traitors working with foreign governments. The only other time in US history that an official has been found guilty at trial under the Act for passing classified information to the press involved a naval intelligence expert, Samuel Morison, in 1985.

Jesselyn Radack of the Government Accountability Project, a former Department of Justice whistleblower herself, said the consequences of Manning being found guilty of six counts under the Espionage Act should not be underestimated. She compared it to the failed attempt by the US government to prosecute Daniel Ellsberg, source of the 1970s Pentagon Papers on the Vietnam war. "This is Obama's first conviction against a non-spy under the act," she said. "He has now managed to do what Nixon couldn't."

The Espionage Act offences - which cover the leaking of the Iraq and Afghan war logs, more than 700 detainee files from Guantanamo Bay, documents relating to a US airstrike that killed civilians in Farah Province, Afghanistan, and other records - add up to a possible maximum 60-year sentence out of the total of 136 years in military custody which Manning faces. The court in Fort Meade, Maryland, where Manning's court-martial has conducted for nearly two years, will now begin hearings over his sentencing, with both prosecution and defence teams calling a slew of new witnesses.

The judge presiding over the court-martial, Colonel Denise Lind, is expected to reach a decision on Manning's sentence over the next three weeks. Given the sheer number of charges to which the soldier has been found guilty, and the cumulative sentence they carry, the 25-year-old army private is now facing the real prospect of spending a large portion of his adult life in military custody.

A sentence that could stretch into decades would set a precedent of a kind all its own: it would be signify a huge intensification of the punishment for those who disclose US state secrets. That in turn could have implications for others facing such charges, including the NSA source Edward Snowden.

Under the Obama administration, seven Espionage Act prosecutions have been unleashed - more than all those initiated by previous presidents combined. Of those that have been completed, prosecutions have either failed - as in the case of Thomas Drake, a former NSA official against whom all 10 charges were dropped - or led to a prison term for non-Espionage Act charges, as in the case of John Kiriakou, who is serving a 30-month sentence for disclosing classified information about a fellow CIA officer.

"The Manning verdict takes us to a whole other level," said Liza Goitein, who co-directs the Brennan Center for Justice's liberty and national security programme. "The government has done a poor job in thinking through the potential effects of this prosecution."

Though Manning was found not guilty of the most serious charge, "aiding the enemy", Goitein suggested that multiple convictions under the Espionage Act are certain to have a chilling effect across public information. "This will discourage the average whistleblower, an official who maybe has just a few classified documents that reveal corruption or wrong-doing and who ensure[s] accountability in the system. This will shoot down the least offensive, and the most valuable leaks."

Goitein added that one class of leak will not be endangered by a hefty Manning sentence: "authorised" leaks from the government itself. "Leaking will continue, but it will increasingly be skewed to the one-sided party line of what the government wants the public to know."

In securing the six Espionage Act convictions, military lawyers drew on a precedent set by a separate federal whistleblower prosecution under the Act against Stephen Kim, a former state department official accused of disclosing intelligence on North Korea's nuclear programme to Fox News. The judge in the Kim case ruled last month that prosecutors did not have to prove that the released information could actually be potentially damaging to the US or to the "advantage of a foreign nation" - only that the defendant was aware that it could be.

That lowered standard of proof was imported into the Manning trial. It prevented the soldier's defence team presenting evidence to the trial that the actual damage of the WikiLeaks disclosures was minimal.

Ben Wizner, director of the American Civil Liberties Union's speech, privacy and technology project, said that this would set up a major impediment to fair hearings in leak cases, as it essentially barred any discussion of whistleblower protections in Espionage Act trials. That would make it impossible for the justice system to distinguish between genuinely harmful leaks and those that were essential for a healthy democracy.

"There is no distinction drawn between the nature of a leak between those that could be harmful and those that are beneficial and needed," he said. "What this says to a potential leaker is: 'We will throw the book at you, no matter what.'"


---In Sentencing, U.S. Tries to Prove Harm by Manning---
By EMMARIE HUETTEMAN
Published: July 31, 2013
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/us/in-sentencing-us-tries-to-prove-harm-by-manning.html?_r=0

FORT MEADE, Md. - As the sentencing phase began Wednesday in the court-martial of Pfc. Bradley Manning, the government tried to demonstrate how his disclosure of hundreds of thousands of military and diplomatic documents to WikiLeaks had sown mistrust and damaged the United States.

 Prosecutors suggested a maximum punishment of 136 years in prison, but legal experts say it is unlikely that he will receive a sentence that long. Prosecutors also recommended a reduction of rank, forfeiture of pay, dishonorable discharge and a fine.

During more than three hours of testimony, Robert A. Carr, a retired brigadier general who led a Defense Intelligence Agency task force investigating the leak, described the Pentagon’s fears that the revelations would erode trust between nations, between citizens and leaders, and between American soldiers and civilians in places like Afghanistan, among others.

“We were very concerned that folks might choose not to talk to us anymore because the information that came out could be detrimental to their livelihood,” General Carr said.

Pressed by one of Private Manning’s lawyers, Mr. Carr could not cite specific data showing the effect of the leak on the number of foreign civilians and emissaries talking to the United States, though he said he knew of examples.

Asked whether he was aware of anyone who had been harmed by the disclosures, General Carr said he knew of an Afghan national who had been killed by the Taliban. But a defense lawyer jumped in, objecting that the individual’s name had not been found in leaked documents, a point that General Carr acknowledged. But he added that the Taliban had tried to tie the death to the WikiLeaks disclosures. The judge, Col. Denise R. Lind, said she would disregard that part of his testimony.

John Kirchhofer, a former deputy chief of counterintelligence at the Defense Intelligence Agency, discussed his background before the court closed for classified testimony.

Colonel Lind acquitted Private Manning on Tuesday of the most serious charge, “aiding the enemy,” but found him guilty of most of the other charges against him, including six counts of violating the Espionage Act of 1917. The judge has yet to release the findings behind her verdict, leaving those who are following the trial to speculate about her reasoning. On Wednesday, she offered no guidance on when they would be made public.

The judge said Wednesday that Private Manning had served about three and a half years of pretrial confinement to date, including a credit of 112 days for “unlawful” confinement. The Army private was held in solitary confinement and even stripped of his clothing before his trial began.

The sentencing phase resembles the trial, with both the government and the defense calling more than 20 witnesses to try to influence the severity of the punishment. It is expected to take weeks. Private Manning has the option to testify, but it is unclear whether he will.

The court-martial is continuing on Thursday.

---Manning verdicts are 'dangerous precedent' - Assange---
31 July 2013 Last updated at 10:17 GMT
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-23512954

Julian Assange, founder of the anti-secrecy organisation Wikileaks, has said the conviction of US Army Private Bradley Manning on spying charges is a "dangerous precedent".

Pte Manning, 25, had admitted leaking thousands of classified documents to Wikileaks but said he did so to spark a debate on US foreign policy.

The leak is considered the largest ever of secret US government files.

He faces a maximum sentence of up to 136 years.

Pte Manning was convicted on Tuesday of 20 charges in total, including theft and computer fraud but was found not guilty on the most serious charge of aiding the enemy.

In addition to multiple espionage counts, he was also found guilty of five theft charges, two computer fraud charges and multiple military infractions.

His sentencing hearing is set to begin on Wednesday. It may be a lengthy process, as both the defence and the prosecution are allowed to call witnesses.

Many will hope the court does make an example of Pte Manning to discourage others from making secrets public, the BBC's North America Editor Mark Mardell reports from Washington.

Mr Assange said the verdicts represented "dangerous national security extremism".

Speaking from the Ecuadorean embassy in London, Mr Assange said: "This has never been a fair trial.

"Bradley Manning isn't guilty of anything in that he's actually very heroic for demanding government transparency and accountability and exposing the American people and the rest of the world to the crimes committed by the American government," he said.

Mr Assange said the only victim in the case had been the US government's "wounded pride".

He said that there were two appeals within the US justice system as well as the Supreme Court. "WikiLeaks will not rest until he is free," Mr Assange said.
Graphic footage

Pte Manning appeared not to react as Judge Colonel Denise Lind read out the verdict on Tuesday, but his defence lawyer, David Coombs, smiled faintly as the not guilty charge on aiding the enemy was read.

"We won the battle, now we need to go win the war," Mr Coombs said of the sentencing phase. "Today is a good day, but Bradley is by no means out of the fire."

During the court martial, prosecutors said Pte Manning systematically harvested hundreds of thousands of classified documents in order to gain notoriety.

With his training as an intelligence analyst, Pte Manning should have known the leaked documents would become available to al-Qaeda operatives, they argued.

The defence characterised him as a naive and young soldier who had become disillusioned during his time in Iraq.

His actions, Mr Coombs argued, were those of a whistle-blower.

In a lengthy statement during a pre-trial hearing in February, Pte Manning said he had leaked the files in order to spark a public debate about US foreign policy and the military.

Much of the court martial was spent considering the soldier's intentions as he leaked the documents.

Amnesty International said in a statement the "the government's pursuit of the 'aiding the enemy' charge was a serious overreach of the law, not least because there was no credible evidence of Manning's intent to harm the USA by releasing classified information to WikiLeaks."

But the Democratic and Republican leaders of the US House of Representatives intelligence committee said "justice has been served", in a joint statement after the ruling.

Among the items sent to Wikileaks by Pte Manning was graphic footage of an Apache helicopter attack in 2007 that killed a dozen people in the Iraqi capital Baghdad, including a Reuters photographer.

The documents also included 470,000 Iraq and Afghanistan battlefield reports and 250,000 secure state department cables between Washington and embassies around the world.

Pte Manning, an intelligence analyst, was arrested in Iraq in May 2010. He spent weeks in a cell at Camp Arifjan, a US Army installation in Kuwait, before being transferred to the US.

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