2013年9月23日月曜日

国連 サリン報告

国連調査団がサリン被害を報告した。
 国連は、シリアの首都ダマスカス近郊で8月21日に起きた戦闘で、化学
兵器が使用されたと断定する調査団の報告書を公表した。

報告書
United Nations Mission to Investigate Allegations of the Use of Chemical Weapons
in the Syrian Arab Republic

・スウェーデンの化学兵器専門家による調査団。
・2013年8月21日 ダマスカス近郊で使用された化学兵器の調査。
・2013年8月26日に現地で調査開始。
 2013年8月31日に調査を終了し、ダマスカスを出発。
・調査団が発砲される。
・(現場で採取された試料から)神経ガスのサリンが積まれた地対地
 ロケット弾が使われたのは明白と指摘。
・子供を含む市民に対し、化学兵器がかなりの規模にわたって使用された
 と結論づける。

国連事務総長
・報告書が正式に公表され次第、責任の所在を問う手続きが間違いなく
 進められる。

1993年162カ国が化学兵器禁止条約に調印し、化学兵器の製造と備蓄を禁止。
外務省 化学兵器禁止条約(CWC)締約国・署名国一覧によると、
シリアや南スーダン、エジプト、北朝鮮等は、未署名で、シリアは最近、
加盟申請書を提出し、国連が受理した。

サリンミサイル(?)には、英語表記されていたとの説や反政府軍による
サリン砲弾の発砲説等があり、政府軍、反政府軍共にサリン噴霧の疑惑
は消えない。シリア公共放送が放送した映像のサリン砲弾には、英語表記
が見当たらない。この映像のカメラ位置が、隠し撮りされたようには、
見えない。反政府軍が本当に反政府軍かは不明。
米CIAが反政府軍へ、露が政府軍へサリンを提供した可能性もある。
化学兵器禁止条約へ調印しても履行していない国が化学兵器を提供か。

イスラエルは、シリアの化学兵器工場を破壊したが、全ての工場を破壊
したのではないと思う。8月21日のサリン噴霧は、高品質とのこと。
サリンの成分を検出し、比較する成分分析があれば結果はでると思う。
報道されたサリン製造国は多い。

アルカイダ 毒ガス爆弾製造計画
シリア政府軍劣勢 大量破壊兵器投入へ
シリア内戦 宗派争い開始
イラク サリン工場摘発
Syria Sarin Gas


Syrian "rebels" are firing chemical weapons.


Sarin: use and origin


---シリアにサリン製造可能な化学物質輸出 独、02~06年に100トン超---
2013.9.19 10:51
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/130919/erp13091910520001-n1.htm

 ドイツが2002~06年にかけ、シリアに100トン以上の化学物質を輸出していたことが分かった。経済技術省が18日公表した。化学兵器用に転用可能だったとされるが、メルケル首相は先月21日の攻撃で使われた証拠はないと表明した。
 同省は野党左派党の議員の質問に書面で回答した。それによると、輸出されたのはフッ化ナトリウムやフッ化水素アンモニウムで、民生用として許可された。これらを基に神経ガスのサリンを製造することが可能という。
 首相は18日の公共テレビARDとのインタビューで「私が入手可能な情報によると、化学物質は民生用として使われた」と指摘。経済技術省は慎重な審査を経て輸出を許可したと説明した。(共同)


---「サリンは高品質」国連調査団 米英仏、政権使用と非難---
2013.9.17 08:46
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/130917/mds13091708540002-n1.htm

 【ニューヨーク=黒沢潤】シリアの首都ダマスカス郊外で化学兵器が使用されたと断定した報告書を作成した国連調査団のセルストローム団長は16日、国連安全保障理事会の非公式会合で、使われた神経ガスのサリンはイラン・イラク戦争や東京の地下鉄サリン事件で用いられたものより高品質だったと指摘した。
 英国のライアルグラント国連大使によれば、セルストローム団長は「使われたサリンは350リットルに上る」とも説明した。
 報告書は、化学兵器を使用したのがアサド政権か反体制派かについては明確に言及していない。潘基文(パン・ギムン)事務総長は「(化学兵器の使用は)戦争犯罪にあたる」と述べ、攻撃を実行した者を早急に特定することが重要との考えを示した。
 安保理の欧米理事国からは同日、化学兵器を使用したのはアサド政権との指摘が相次いだ。米国のパワー国連大使は「(サリンが積まれた)直径122ミリのロケット弾を所有するのは政権側だけだ」と強調。その上で「化学兵器攻撃の数日前、シリア政府軍は兵士たちにガスマスクを配給した」と述べた。
 ライアルグラント英国連大使も「(高品質のサリンは)家内工業で作ることはできない」と述べ、政権側が使用したとの見方を示した。
 これに対し、ロシアのチュルキン国連大使は、政権側が使用したとの明確な証拠はないとして、「反体制派が使用した可能性も注意深く検証されるべきだ」と語った。


---国連、サリン使用断定 政権側関与示唆…報告書公表---
2013.9.17 01:33
http://sankei.jp.msn.com/world/news/130917/erp13091701330001-n1.htm

 【ニューヨーク=黒沢潤】国連は16日、シリアの首都ダマスカス近郊で8月21日に起きた戦闘で、化学兵器が使用されたと断定する調査団の報告書を公表した。報告書は「(現場で採取された試料から)神経ガスのサリンが積まれた地対地ロケット弾が使われたのは明白だ」と指摘した上で、「子供を含む市民に対し、化学兵器がかなりの規模にわたって使用されたと結論づける」と、化学兵器の使用を断定した。
 報告書は15日、調査団のセルストローム団長から潘基文(パン・ギムン)事務総長に提出された。潘氏は16日に行われる国連安全保障理事会の非公式会合で、詳細を説明する見通しだ。
 報告書は化学兵器を使用したのが政権側か反体制派かには言及していないが、米メディアによれば、環境サンプルなどから、政権側が使用したことを示唆する内容。
 潘氏は報告書が正式に公表され次第、「責任の所在を問う手続きが間違いなく進められる」と強調していた。
 今回の報告書は8月21日の事件に関する調査結果に絞られ、他の地域での化学兵器使用疑惑に関しては、今後出される最終報告書に記載される見通しだ。
 事件をめぐっては、国際非政府組織(NGO)の「国境なき医師団」が、首都の3病院に神経毒性の症状を訴える患者計約3600人が搬送され、うち355人が死亡したとの声明を出した。
 一方、オバマ米政権は少なくとも1429人が死亡し、アサド政権が化学兵器攻撃を行った「強い確信」があるとの報告書を発表し、軍事介入をめぐる議論が活発化した。
 国連調査団は8月26日に現地での活動を開始、同月31日にダマスカスを出発した。


---Sarin: the deadly history of the nerve agent used in Syria---
Ian Sample   
The Guardian, Tuesday 17 September 2013 19.10 BST   
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/sep/17/sarin-deadly-history-nerve-agent-syria-un

Now we know. On the morning of 21 August, as the air above Damascus cooled, rockets filled with the nerve agent sarin fell on rebel-held suburbs of the Syrian capital and left scores of men, women and children dead or injured. UN inspectors had been in the country for three days, on a mission to investigate allegations of earlier atrocities. They quickly changed tack. They brokered a temporary ceasefire with the regime and the rebels and made straight for Ghouta. Video reports from the area showed hospital staff overwhelmed and desperate.

Never before had UN inspectors worked under such pressure and in the midst of a war zone. The small team, headed by the Swedish chemical weapons expert Ake Sellstrom, was threatened with harm. Their convoy was shot at. But their 41-page report was completed in record time.

Sarin was that breed of accident that scientists come to regret. Its inventors worked on insecticides made from organophosphate compounds at the notorious IG Farben chemical company in Nazi Germany. In 1938, they hit on substance 146, a formula that caused massive disruption to the nervous system. The chemical name was isopropyl methylfluorophosphate, but the company renamed it sarin to honour the chemists behind the discovery - Schrader, Ambros, Ritter and Van der Linde - according to Benjamin Garrett's 2009 book The A to Z of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Warfare. The chemical they created had the grim distinction of being many times more lethal than cyanide.

Substance 146 is not hard to make, but it is hard to make without killing yourself. There are more than a dozen recipes that lead to sarin, but all require technical knowhow, proper lab equipment and a serious regard for safety procedures. One major component is isopropanol, more commonly known as rubbing alcohol. Another is made by mixing methylphosphonyl dichloride with hydrogen or sodium fluoride. But methylphosphonyl dichloride is not easy to come by. Under the Chemical Weapons Convention it is listed as a schedule 1 substance, making it one of the most restricted chemicals in existence.

Last year, the US and other countries stepped up efforts to block sales to Syria of chemicals that might be used to make sarin. But the country had already amassed substantial stocks of the precursors needed to make the agent. This month, it emerged that Britain had approved export licences to Syria for the sale of more than four tonnes of sodium fluoride between 2004 and 2010, though business secretary Vince Cable said there was no evidence they had been used in the Syrian weapons programme. The exports came on top of sales approved last year for sodium and potassium fluoride under licences that were later revoked on the grounds that they could be used in the manufacture of weapons.

Though referred to as a nerve gas, sarin is a liquid at temperatures below 150C. To maximise its potential as a weapon, the substance is usually dispersed from a canister, rocket or missile in a cloud of droplets that are fine enough to be inhaled into the lungs. Inevitably, some evaporates into gas, much as spilt water turns into vapour. The chemical enters the body through the eyes and skin too. Sarin has no smell or taste and is colourless, so the first people may know of its use is when victims start to fall.

Sarin takes such a dreadful toll on the body by interfering with a specific but crucial aspect of the nervous system. It blocks an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase, with devastating consequences. Nerves that usually switch on and off to control muscle movements can no longer be switched off. Instead, they fire constantly. There are mild effects: the eyes become irritated, the vision blurred; people's pupils shrink, they drool and vomit. Then there are the lethal effects. Breathing becomes laboured, shallow, erratic. Unable to control their muscles, victims have convulsions. The lungs secrete fluids and when people try to breathe, foam comes from their mouths, often tinged pink with blood. A lethal dose can be as small as a drop and can kill in one to 10 minutes. If people survive the first 20 minutes of a sarin attack, they are likely to live.

Soon after sarin was invented, the recipe for the agent was passed to the German army, which set about manufacturing stocks of the weapon. The agent was loaded into shells, but never used on Allied forces in the second world war. At Nuremberg in 1948, one of the inventors, Otto Ambros, was convicted of war crimes and sentenced to eight years in prison. He was released after four years, and whisked off to the US where he worked as a consultant on that country's own chemical weapons programme. In military circles, sarin came to be known by a secret name: GB.

A unique document from 1952, one year after Ambros arrived in the US, describes the gruesome effects of sarin poisoning after an unfortunate military accident. On the morning of 7 November 1952, a jet aircraft sped towards Dugway Proving Ground in Tooele, Utah. The sky was clear and the wind was a gentle breeze of 3-4mph. Each of the plane's wing tanks were filled with 100 gallons of sarin.

The plan was for the plane to spray the sarin over a target site, but because of a malfunction, each tank still contained 90 gallons of sarin when they were jettisoned in an isolated area of the site at 8.29am. The tanks fell from 2,000ft on to the salt crust of the open desert and burst open as they struck the ground. The sarin, dyed red to help gauge how far it had dispersed, was spread over 38,000 sq ft.

An inspection crew was sent out in an ambulance to investigate the site where the tanks had landed. Half an hour before arriving, they all donned gas masks. All except one 32-year-old man. He promptly climbed out of the ambulance and walked towards a crater made by one of the falling tanks. Within 10 seconds, he turned, clutched his chest and made quickly back to the ambulance. He called for his gas mask and stumbled. According to the report: "As he staggered, one arm extended and flexed in a jerky manner. He collapsed upon reaching the ambulance."

Medics swiftly administered a deep injection of atropine into the man's thigh. This is the standard antidote for sarin, and it works by blocking the agent's effects on nerves. As he breathed, he made screeching sounds and low-pitched gargles. He had rapid, violent convulsions for a minute, his legs and spine extending, his arms flung above his head. He then fell into a flaccid paralysis and stared straight ahead. Two minutes later he made only the occasional gulp for air. Soon his pupils were pinpoints. "No arterial pulse could be detected by the aid man," the report says.

The details of the exposure continue, recorded in minute, excruciating detail. Miraculously, the man survived after being hooked up to an "iron lung" resuscitator at a hospital. Nearly three hours after the accident, the report notes: "The patient appeared alert and oriented although he complained of severe malaise." The man held the unenviable title of the most severe sarin casualty of the time.

The US was not the only country to experiment with sarin in the cold war years. The USSR produced the agent for chemical warfare. And Britain took an interest too. A year after the incident at Dugway, a 20-year-old RAF engineer called Ronald Maddison took part in an experiment at Porton Down, the UK's chemical warfare facility in Wiltshire. At 10.17am on 6 May, Porton scientists dripped liquid sarin on to the arms of Maddison and five others who, for the scientists' safety, were held in a sealed gas chamber. Maddison fell ill and slumped over the table. He was taken to the on-site hospital but died at 11am. In 2004, more than 50 years later, an inquest found that the Ministry of Defence had unlawfully killed Maddison after one of the longest cover-ups in cold war history.

Accidents and unethical experiments gave only a glimpse of the horrors that scientists had made possible with the invention of sarin. In the hands of a nation's military, sarin and other agents were a means to kill swiftly such large numbers of people that the figures are quoted as rounded hundreds, even thousands. Saddam Hussein's bombardment of Halabja in northern Iraq lasted two days in 1988 and killed 5,000 people. The attack against the Kurdish people was recognised as an act of genocide by the Supreme Iraqi Criminal Tribunal in 2010. It was the largest chemical weapons attack against civilians in history.

In 1993, 162 countries signed the Chemical Weapons Convention, which outlawed the manufacture and stockpiling of chemical weapons. Gradually, nations began to destroy their stocks, itself a complex and dangerous task. Engineers came up with some blunt but effective ways of dealing with the problem. One is to strap explosives to rockets, shells or canisters filled with chemical agents and blow them up in an armoured blast chamber. Another is to burn the munitions in an armoured kiln. Stores of chemicals held in barrels are incinerated or "neutralised" by mixing them with other chemicals. Sophisticated facilities use airtight vessels and process their waste, but they are a luxury. In Iraq in the 1990s, chemical agents were mixed with petrol and burned in a furnace built from bricks in a trench in the desert.

The convention did not put the raw chemicals for sarin out of reach. Two years later, in 1995, the Aum Shinrikyo sect punctured bags of homemade sarin in the Tokyo subway. Though only a dozen people were killed, more than 5,500 sought medical help, the vast majority being the "worried well" who feared they had been exposed. The psychological impact did not end with the attack. Kenichiro Taneda, a doctor at St Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo, recalled the awful realisation that he would have to wheel a young woman who had died in the emergency department past a large crowd to reach the hospital mortuary. So as not to cause more worry he "transferred her by keeping an oxygen mask on her face and covering her body with a blanket".

Physicians who treated the victims of the Tokyo attack ran extensive tests to look for signs of sarin in blood, urine and other medical samples. The tests, and others developed by the military, have become standards for chemical weapons inspectors looking for evidence that sarin has been used.

Sarin itself reacts easily with water and so it breaks down when it meets rain, moisture in the air or sweat. The agent's fragility in water led hospital staff in Syria to uses hoses to drench rooms where they received victims after chemical attacks. For the same reason, sarin does not hang around for long in the environment, or in people. Laboratories can test for the substance, but more often will find breakdown products. The first substance sarin degrades into is isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), which is generally regarded as proof positive for sarin. But IMPA itself breaks down, into methylphosphonic acid (MPA). Finding MPA in blood or urine is not a smoking gun for sarin: it can come from other organophosphates. Knowing which one matters.

The UN inspectors found concrete evidence that sarin was used with lethal effect in Ghouta on the outskirts of Damascus on 21 August. The team plans to go back soon, to visit Khan al-Assal, Sheik Maqsood and Saraqueb, before submitting a final report. That will end another grim chapter in the story of sarin, and open a new one focused on destroying the weapon.

0 コメント: