2013年11月14日木曜日

FDA 悪玉油規制へ

米FDAがトランス脂肪酸を規制するようだ。
 FDAは、揚げ物用の調理油などに含まれ、肥満や心疾患との関連が指摘
されるトランス脂肪酸が食品に含まれないように段階的に禁止する方針
を打ち出した。「食品に使う上で安全とは認められない」と判断した。
食品業界に要請する。外食産業などに影響が出そうだ。

トランス脂肪酸
・油の加工過程や加熱処理等で生成。
・血中の悪玉コレステロールを増やし、摂取を続けると動脈硬化や心筋
 梗塞等生活習慣病のリスクを高める。

農水省
食品に含まれる総脂肪酸とトランス脂肪酸の含有量
トランス脂肪酸の低減
トランス脂肪酸が特に多い食品
クロワッサン、味付けポップコーン、コーヒークリーム、
コンパウンドクリームバター、マーガリン、ファットスプレッド、
ショートニング、菓子パイ、ケーキ、クッキー、ハヤシルウ等

トランス脂肪酸は減ったが、飽和脂肪酸が増加したのがマーガリンや
ショートニング。

経済的理由も含め、生活習慣が変化し、トランス脂肪酸を主食にする人もおり、
生活習慣病が増加。

NYCは、2007よりレストランで使用禁止。
Macdonaldは2008年より、油を変更。

材料を変えて、味が変わらない食品は良いが、そうでないものもあり、
結局、購入者が減り、減益のようだ。
もぐらたたきの規制だが、全てを規制すれば食べるものがなくなるか。

ピンクの次は青


---トランス脂肪酸、米で規制へ…「心臓病の原因」
2013年11月8日12時18分  読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/science/news/20131108-OYT1T00430.htm

 【ワシントン=中島達雄】米食品医薬品局(FDA)は7日、マーガリンなどの加工食品に含まれるトランス脂肪酸の規制に乗り出す方針を明らかにした。心臓病の原因になると指摘されており、「安全ではない」と判断した。トランス脂肪酸を含む食品の販売はFDAの許可制となり、販売禁止になる食品も出てくる見通しだ。60日間、国民から意見を募集したうえ、正式に決める。
 トランス脂肪酸は、液体の油を固体に変える際に生成する分子で、ケーキや揚げ物などにも含まれる。体内に入ると、血液中の悪玉コレステロールを増やし、善玉コレステロールを減らす働きがあるため、摂取しすぎると動脈硬化が進行、心臓病になりやすくなる。 米疾病対策センター(CDC)は、トランス脂肪酸の規制により、年間2万人の心筋梗塞を防ぎ、心臓病による死者を7000人減らすことができると推定している。


---米FDA、悪玉油を段階的禁止へ 食品業界に要請---
2013/11/08 10:22
http://www.47news.jp/CN/201311/CN2013110801000736.html

 【ワシントン共同】米食品医薬品局(FDA)は7日、揚げ物用の調理油などに含まれ、肥満や心疾患との関連が指摘されるトランス脂肪酸が食品に含まれないように段階的に禁止する方針を打ち出した。「食品に使う上で安全とは認められない」と判断した。食品業界に要請する。外食産業などに影響が出そうだ。
 トランス脂肪酸は油の加工過程や加熱処理などでできる。血中の悪玉コレステロールを増やし、摂取を続けると動脈硬化や心筋梗塞など生活習慣病のリスクを高めるとの研究結果があり、世界的に使用量を制限する動きが出ている。


---FDA Says Trans Fats Aren't Safe in Food---
By Thomas M. Burton and Julie Jargon
Updated Nov. 7, 2013 7:36 p.m. ET
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303309504579183652200663132

Determination Could Lead to Ban in Baked Goods, Other Foods

Regulators moved Thursday to banish trans fat, the artery-clogging ingredient long used to make french fries crispy and pastries flaky, from the American diet.

The Food and Drug Administration ruled for the first time that trans fat isn't generally considered safe, drawing praise from doctors and capping a movement that already had led to bans in New York City and elsewhere.

"There are very few things in nutrition that actually make a difference, and this is one," said John LaPuma, a physician and chef who leads Chef Clinic in Santa Barbara, Calif. "Trans fat is the worst fat for the heart, the blood vessels and the rest of the body."

Food companies and restaurant chains offered a generally muted reaction, saying they either had stopped using trans fat or planned to quit soon. But some said they needed more time to reformulate their offerings.

ConAgra Foods Inc. continues to use trans fats to give texture to some Marie Callender's desserts "as in a flaky pie crust, for example," said spokeswoman Teresa Paulsen. She said the company has removed trans fat from other products "and will continue to proactively work in this area."

Ingredient makers create trans fat by adding hydrogen to vegetable oil in a century-old process. The resulting solid fat, called partially hydrogenated oil, can extend the shelf life of products and improve their taste.

For many years, trans fat-once a main ingredient in margarine-was thought to be more healthful than the lard, butter and other animal fats they often replaced. But health concerns began building several decades ago after studies linked trans fat to higher LDL, or bad cholesterol, as well as to heart attacks and strokes. The Institute of Medicine said in a widely cited 2002 report that "there is no safe level" of the ingredient.

A turning point came in the middle of the last decade when the FDA put in place a requirement that processed food makers disclose the presence of trans fat. Food makers started switching oils rather than have the ingredient show up on the "Nutrition Facts" label.

Margarine makers were among the first companies to remove trans fat, according to the Center for Science in the Public Interest. But not all makers have completely removed it.

New York City barred restaurants from using trans fat starting in 2007. The next year McDonalds Corp. completed its changeover to oil with no trans fat, instead using a blend of canola, corn and soybean oils for fries and hash browns. Other fast-food chains also made the switch.

Euromonitor International, a research firm, estimates that U.S. consumption of hydrogenated vegetable oils-a category that includes some fats that aren't trans fats-will total 220,203 metric tons this year, down from 719,159 metric tons in 2000. The Grocery Manufacturers Association says that since 2005, food makers have lowered the amount of trans fat in their products more than 73%.

Still, FDA Commissioner Margaret Hamburg said "current intake remains a significant public-health concern." Further reductions in trans fat could prevent an additional 20,000 heart attacks and 7,000 deaths a year in the U.S., the FDA said.

Nutrition experts say eating too much fat of any kind can be harmful, but alternative fats such as soy and olive can be part of a healthy diet.

While a final ruling by the FDA won't come until after a 60-day comment period, Dr. Hamburg and the agency's top food official, Michael Taylor, left little doubt that their goal was to remove trans fat from the food supply.

"Trans fats increase the shelf life of foods but decrease the shelf life of humans," said Dean Ornish, the nutrition expert and medical professor at the University of California, San Francisco, who advised both McDonald's and PepsiCo Inc. on removing trans fats from their food.

While some nutrition advocates had been urging a ban for years, Dr. Ornish commended the FDA for its timing. "The FDA needed to build a business consensus," he said.

The FDA never ruled officially that trans fat was safe. It simply didn't challenge that assertion when it was made over three decades by food companies that added trans fat to products.

While a ban would have little effect on many food companies, some would face difficulty in eliminating trans fat, said Euromonitor analyst Lauren Bandy. Euromonitor says roughly half of the hydrogenated vegetable oils in the packaged foods U.S. consumers eat come from popcorn, about a quarter from dessert mixes and about 8% from industrial packaged cakes.

"For something like a cooking oil, it's easier to find an alternative, but food manufacturers have to think about the texture of their products, so it's much more of an effort for them to find alternatives," Ms. Bandy said.

Diamond Foods, the maker of Pop Secret popcorn, said that it is reviewing the FDA's announcement and that it already offers some products that are free of trans fats.

Cargill Inc., which sells partially hydrogenated shortening to commercial customers, said it would help them switch to alternatives. Another maker, Archer Daniels Midland Co., said it is a steadily declining business and that it sells low- and zero-trans-fat oils.

J.M. Smucker Co., which owns Pillsbury baking mixes, continues to use trans fat in products such as cake mixes and frostings, but said it didn't expect an impact on its business because it already had been moving to other ingredients. "We are confident all of our product reformulations will be complete well before the FDA implements any new rules," a spokeswoman said.

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