2013年11月25日月曜日

UN ICRAC

国連ICRACが開催された。
 将来出現が予想される「殺人ロボット」と呼ばれる高度に自動化された
兵器を巡り、ジュネーブで開かれた特定通常兵器使用禁止制限条約(日米等
117か国加盟)締約国会議で、規制のための国際ルール作りに向けた議論を
始めることが全会一致で決まった。

ICRAC(International Committee for Robot Arms Control)
・対象:人間の指示なしに敵を捜して攻撃できる完全自律型兵器。
・人間が遠隔操作する現行の無人攻撃機を含まないと明記。
・2014年 専門家会合開催
 殺傷の判断を自ら行う兵器が戦場と社会に及ぼす影響について軍事や
 法律、人道、倫理の面から議論、締約国会議で正式議題とするかを検討。

遠隔操作やロボットの定義が不明。
ICBMや追跡型ミサイル等では、発射や自己破壊は人間が指示するが、目標
への追跡は、装置が判断する場合があり、これは適用外のようだ。
完全自律型兵器で思いつくのは、鉄腕アトムやCyberdyne Systems Model
101くらいか。
自動運転車両や自立型ヘリコプタの方が、ロボットよりも兵器として実現
する可能性は早いかもしれない。規制できるのだろうか。

技本 TACOM2号機を中国へ提供か
CIA テロリスト狩り
karrar
UAV 民間人犠牲急増
国連 小型武器会議
中国海洋局 UAV監視システム導入
米無人機 勲章と暗殺
X47B Catapult Launch at Air Carrier
X47B 空母着艦成功
グローバルホーク 日本へ負担要求
DefCon21 Car Jack


International Conference Calls On UN To Ban Killer Robots!! Take Action Now!!


---人間の指示なしで攻撃…殺人ロボット規制議論へ---
2013年11月16日21時30分  読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/news/20131116-OYT1T00754.htm

 【ジュネーブ=石黒穣】将来出現が予想される「殺人ロボット」と呼ばれる高度に自動化された兵器を巡り、14~15日ジュネーブで開かれた特定通常兵器使用禁止制限条約(日米など117か国加盟)締約国会議で、規制のための国際ルール作りに向けた議論を始めることが全会一致で決まった。
 対象となるのは、人間の指示なしに敵を捜して攻撃できる完全自律型兵器。人間が遠隔操作する現行の無人攻撃機を含まないと明記したため、無人機を配備する米国なども賛成した。
 2014年5月に専門家会合を開き、殺傷の判断を自ら行う兵器が戦場と社会に及ぼす影響について軍事や法律、人道、倫理の面から議論、締約国会議で正式議題とするかを検討する。


---Killer Robots Could Be Banned By The UN Before 2016---
11/18/2013 @ 12:20PM
http://www.forbes.com/sites/bridaineparnell/2013/11/18/killer-robots-could-be-banned-by-the-un-before-2016/

Killer robots could be banned by 2016 after the UN’s Convention on Conventional Weapons agreed to add them to its agenda for next year.

Campaigners have successfully lobbied the United Nation’s CCW to start discussions on whether countries should be allowed to develop and deploy fully autonomous weapons, which would be able to make tactical military decisions on the use of force without human intervention.

The CCW said in Geneva on Friday that it was adding concerns about the technology, which has not yet been fully developed, to its agenda for next year.

Thomas Nash, director of nonprofit Article 36, which works to prevent unnecessary or unacceptable harm by certain weapons, told Forbes that the UN’s decision was “very significant” and could lead to a ban on killer robots by 2016.

“The Convention doesn’t often add concerns to its agenda and when it does, this usually results in new international rules, either developed within the convention or alongside it,” he said.

“UN discussions can often move slowly, but the speed at which this topic has gotten on the agenda is quite remarkable. We would say that a year to discuss the topic, including a four-day intensive expert meeting in Geneva, should be enough to move to negotiations in 2015 and there’s no good reason why those negotiations should take longer than a year.

“Of course it’s impossible to say and things could take much longer, but, if the will is there, it should be possible to get a legal instrument adopted by the end of 2015,” he added.

Article 36 is active in the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, along with over 40 other non-governmental organisations. The campaign is aiming to get fully autonomous weapons banned before computer scientists and engineers get a chance to develop them.

Nash said that there were already systems in development, like the UK’s Taranis combat aircraft - which have autonomous targeting mechanisms - and fully independent machines might not be very far off.

Roboticists and other scientists and experts have already backed the call to ban killer robots, with over 270 of them signing a declaration with the International Committee for Robot Arms Control (ICRAC), another Campaign member. Nash said that the Campaign has no desire to hamper these scientists’ research into more autonomous robotics, even for the military, as long as human beings are still in the loop.

“Robots that help pull people out of burning buildings would be a good thing,” he pointed out.

“Indeed, the campaign is not saying that military robotics are problematic per se.

“The concern for this campaign is the development of systems that autonomously select and attack targets. Those systems should never be developed,” he explained.

Beatrice Fihn, programme manager at Reaching Critical Will, which is the disarmament programme of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom and another Campaign member, said that the UN decision was really important for the movement, but there was still work to be done.

“I think it’s important to continue discussing fully autonomous weapons in other forums than the Convention too, like the Human Rights Council, the General Assembly and perhaps also in other meetings outside the UN,” she said. “The issue is too important and the implications of these weapons affects so many different perspectives, so it’s important not to limit the discussions to the Convention only.”

The Campaign has also urged states to come up with their own national policies on fully autonomous weapons. According to the group, more than 40 countries have been willing to speak publicly about killer robots in the last few months, but so far none have come down firmly on the side of a ban.

“There are a few states that have expressed grave concerns about fully autonomous weapons, but it’s very early yet for many states to have developed comprehensive policies on the issue,” Fihn said.


---Campaign to Stop Killer Robots takes significant step forward at UN---
By mbolton on November 15, 2013 in ICRAC in the media, ICRAC News
http://icrac.net/2013/11/campaign-to-stop-killer-robots-takes-significant-step-forward-at-un/

ICRAC welcomes the historic decision taken by nations to begin international discussions on how to address the challenges posed by fully autonomous weapons. The agreement marks the beginning of a process that the campaign believes should lead to an international ban on these weapons to ensure there will always be meaningful human control over targeting decisions and the use of violent force.

At 16:48 on Friday, 15 November 2013, at the United Nations in Geneva, states parties to the Convention on Conventional Weapons adopted a report containing a decision to convene on May 13-16, 2014 for their first meeting to discuss questions related to “lethal autonomous weapons systems” also known as fully autonomous weapons or “killer robots.” These weapons are at the beginning of their development, but technology is moving rapidly toward increasing autonomy.

“This is a very significant step forward for the International Committee for Robot Arms Control (ICRAC ),” said Professor Noel Sharkey, Chairman of ICRAC. “We are now on the first rung of the international ladder to fulfill our goal of stopping these morally obnoxious weapons from ever being deployed.”

ICRAC was formed in 2009 to initiate international discussion on autonomous weapons systems. It is made up of experts in robotic technology, artificial intelligence, computer science, international security and arms control, ethics and international law. It is a co-founder of the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots.

The Campaign to Stop Killer Robots believes that robotic weapons systems should not be making life and death decisions on the battlefield. That would be inherently wrong, morally and ethically. Fully autonomous weapons are likely to run afoul of international humanitarian law, and that there are serious technical, proliferation, societal, and other concerns that make a preemptive ban necessary.

“Law follows technology.  With robotic weapons, we have an rare opportunity to regulate a category of dangerous weapons before they are fully realized and the CCW is our best opportunity for regulation,” said Dave Akerson an ICRAC legal expert.

A total of 117 states are party to the Convention on Conventional Weapons, including nations known to be advanced in developing autonomous weapons systems: United States, China, Israel, Russia, South Korea, and United Kingdom. Adopted in 1980, this framework convention contains five protocols, including Protocol I prohibiting non-detectable fragments, Protocol III prohibiting the use of air-dropped incendiary weapons in populated areas, and Protocol IV, which preemptively banned blinding lasers.

“This is a momentous opportunity to get states on the record and behind a ban on fully autonomous offensive weapons,” said Heather Roff, an ICRAC philosopher. “If we can gain enough support, we might succeed in banning a technology before it actually harms innocent civilians.”

The agreement to begin work in the Convention on Conventional Weapons could lead to a future CCW Protocol VI prohibiting fully autonomous weapons.

ICRAC with the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots supports any action to urgently address fully autonomous weapons in any forum. The decision to begin work in the Convention on Conventional Weapons does not prevent work elsewhere, such as the Human Rights Council.

Since the topic was first discussed at the Human Rights Council on 30 May 2013, a total of 44 nations have spoken publicly on fully autonomous weapons since May: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, Egypt, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Holy See, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Lithuania, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Russia, Sierra Leone, Spain, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and United States. All nations that have spoken out have expressed interest and concern at the challenges and dangers posed by fully autonomous weapons.

Together with the Campaign to Stop Killer Robots, ICRAC urges nations to prepare for extensive and intensive work next year, both within the CCW and outside the CCW context.  We urge states to develop national policies, and to respond to the UN Special Rapporteur on Extrajudicial Executions’ call for national moratoria on fully autonomous weapons. We urge states to come back one year from now and agree to a new mandate to begin negotiations. The new process must be underscored by  a sense of urgency.

Peter Asaro, vice-chairman of ICRAC said “The actions of the CCW this week are a hopeful first step towards an international ban on autonomous weapons systems.’

Mathew Bolton delivered a statement on behalf ICRAC at the UN CCW meeting yesterday. As a group of experts we are prepared to help any nations with expert discussions of autonomous weapons systems and to help develop clear definitions for the language to be used in a treaty to ban them. Video footage of the statement, ICRAC’s first ever statement in an official diplomatic forum, is available here.

ICRAC recently coordinated the circulation of a “Scientists Call” to ban fully autonomous weapons systems, signed by more than 270 Computer Scientists, Engineers, Artificial Intelligence experts, Roboticists and professionals from related disciplines in 37 countries, saying: “given the limitations and unknown future risks of autonomous robot weapons technology, we call for a prohibition on their development and deployment. Decisions about the application of violent force must not be delegated to machines.”


---'Killer robots' ban must be part of Geneva talks, says campaign group---
Richard Norton-Taylor   
theguardian.com, Wednesday 13 November 2013 00.05 GMT   
http://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/13/geneva-talks-killer-robots-ban-campaign

Campaign to Stop Killer Robots says UN-sponsored meeting must stop development of fully autonomous weapons

An international coalition of disarmament and human rights groups has said that UN-sponsored talks in Geneva this week must seize the opportunity to ban the development of fully autonomous weapons, dubbed "killer robots".

The Campaign to Stop Killer Robots said that such weapons, once activated, would select and engage targets without human intervention.

Though they have yet to be fully developed, robotic systems with various degrees of autonomy and lethality are used by the US, Israel, South Korea, and the UK, while other nations, including China and Russia, are believed to be moving toward systems that would give full combat autonomy to machines, the campaign warned.

"In recent months, fully autonomous weapons have gone from an obscure, little-known issue, to one that is commanding international attention", it said.

The Geneva meeting is expected to lead to an agreement to place the issue of "killer robots" firmly on the agenda of the UN Convention on Conventional Weapons. "Most fundamentally, an international ban is needed to ensure that humans will retain control over decisions to target and use force against other humans," said Mary Wareham of Human Rights Watch (HRW).

The US defence department issued a directive on 21 November 2012 that requires a human being to be "in the loop" when decisions are made about using lethal force, unless department officials waive the policy at a high level, HRW said.

However, it added that the directive was not a comprehensive or permanent solution to the potential problems posed by fully autonomous systems. "The policy of self-restraint it embraces may also be hard to sustain if other nations begin to deploy fully autonomous weapons systems", it added.

"Governments must address the fundamental question of whether it is inherently wrong to let autonomous machines make programmed decisions about who and when to kill," said Professor Noel Sharkey, chair of the International Committee for Robot Arms Control (ICRAC),

Thomas Nash, director of Article 36, set up to prevent the unintended, unnecessary or unacceptable harm caused by certain weapons, said: "The UK is in a strong position to play a leadership role in developing such a treaty. This country has advanced scientific and military capabilities, diplomatic clout around the world and a policy position that says weapons should always be under human control".

Nash added: "The problem is the government seems to be saying we don't need new international rules to govern these unprecedented technological developments around autonomy on the battlefield. That position is at best naive and at worst reckless."

The campaign to stop autonomous weapons is an international coalition of civil society groups. It says a ban "should be achieved through an international treaty, as well as through national laws and other measures, to enshrine the principle that decisions to use violent force against a human being must always be made by a human being".

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