2014年1月23日木曜日

NSA情報収集改革策

NSAの情報収集改革策が発表された。
 オバマ米大統領は、ワシントンの司法省で演説し、米NSAによる情報収集
活動の改革策を発表した。

改革策
・(米国を標的にしたテロやサイバー攻撃を防ぐために情報収集活動は不可
 欠で)情報機関の武器を一方的に取り上げることはできない。
・米国内の電話通話記録の大量収集・保管について、政府外の機関に保管
 を委ね、記録照会に必要な手続きを三月末までに厳格化する方針。
・同盟・友好国の外国首脳の盗聴は原則として行わない。
・米国は国家安保上の脅威ではない普通の人をスパイしない。
・(同盟国や友好国の首脳の通話傍受も)国家安保上やむを得ない場合を除
 き行わない。

Dishfire
・SMSのデータを2億メッセージ/日で収集し保存。
・SMSの位置情報、連絡先、金融取引、電子名刺等の通知情報を分析。
・保存されたデータベースには、英政府の通信傍受機関、政府通信本部も
 アクセス可能。

QUANTUM(USB組込型盗聴器)
・2008年以降、採用。
・NSAは、中国軍や露軍、メキシコの警察や麻薬組織、EU内の貿易関連
 機構、サウジアラビア、印、パキスタン等へ10万台近いコンピューター
 に、NSAと情報の送受信を可能にするソフトウェアを埋め込んだ。
・ネット非接続でも、工作員らがコンピューターに埋め込んだ無線機を
 通じて、盗聴、ウイルス送付可能。
・数マイルの距離にブリーフケースサイズの中継器(Nightstand)を経由。
・中国が同様の盗聴器を運用したため、NSAが抗議した。
・人民解放軍61398部隊への工作を目標。
 米国内でHuawei関係の装置販売を禁止も含む。
・イランの核施設を攻撃したStuxnet。

米政府は、NSAの情報収集を原則と言っている以上、現状維持のようだ。

Stuxnetは、QUANTUMに含まれるようだ。
61398部隊に対して、破壊工作ソフトウェアで攻撃が目標とのことだから、
米国務省のように、区分けがされ、機能しているのかもしれない。

機密性の高さにより、ネットや周辺機器の切り離し、スクリーニングも
考慮されると思う。

米ソ冷戦と言われたが、最近は、サイバー戦争。
一つが汚染されると感染が拡大。
コンピュータや周辺機器の真の意味でのスクリーニングはできるのか。

Stuxnet,Duga,Flameは官製か
Chinese Army Unit61398
OP Olympic Games
NSA OPs Keep Allies Safe
NSA analyzed GCHQ Report
DROPOUT JEEP


President Obama Speaks on U.S. Intelligence Programs


---米、疑念一掃ならず NSA情報収集改革策---
2014年1月19日 朝刊
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/world/news/CK2014011902000116.html

 【ワシントン=竹内洋一】オバマ米大統領は十七日、国家安全保障局(NSA)による情報収集活動の改革策を発表し、国内外からの信頼回復に乗り出した。ただ、これまで米国民だけでなく同盟国の首脳や市民も対象にした活動の実態が暴露されたことで、国内世論や国際社会は不信を深めている。大統領が改革策を示しただけでは疑念一掃には至らず、信頼回復はなお時間がかかりそうだ。
 改革の眼目は、国家安全保障の確保とプライバシー保護の間でバランスを取ることだった。オバマ氏は十七日の演説で、米国を標的にしたテロやサイバー攻撃を防ぐために情報収集活動は不可欠で「情報機関の武器を一方的に取り上げることはできない」と強調。改革策は情報収集能力を維持しながら「行き過ぎの危険性」(オバマ氏)を除去する内容になった。
 そのための中核部分が、米国民や外国人の通話記録の収集は規模を縮小しながらも続け、収集した記録の保管先をNSAではなく、非政府機関にすることだ。オバマ氏は「米国は国家安保上の脅威ではない普通の人をスパイしない」と訴えた。同盟国や友好国の首脳の通話傍受も「国家安保上やむを得ない場合を除き行わない」と明言した。
 裏返せば、米当局が国家安保上の脅威になりうると判断すれば、監視対象にする余地を残しているということになる。実際、ドイツのメルケル首相の携帯電話盗聴疑惑を受け、米独両国はスパイ禁止協定の締結交渉をしているが、米国はドイツ国内での盗聴の全面停止を拒否しているという。
 情報活動の根幹を維持しながらの「改革」だけに、国内外の疑念を一気に払拭(ふっしょく)することは難しい。その上、亡命した米中央情報局(CIA)のスノーデン元職員が持ち出した機密ファイルは約百七十万点に上るとも言われる。今後も暴露報道が続き、対米不信が増幅される懸念は残ったままだ。


---オバマ大統領、NSA改革案を発表 暗号解読については触れず---
2014年01月19日 09時01分 更新
http://www.itmedia.co.jp/enterprise/articles/1401/19/news006.html

元CIA職員が暴露した米連邦政府による個人情報収集に関する懸念に対応するため、オバマ大統領が情報収集活動に関する改革案を発表した。電話通信記録の利用については制限されるが、国家安全保障目的の情報収集・保管は継続する。
[佐藤由紀子,ITmedia]

 米連邦政府のバラク・オバマ大統領は1月17日(現地時間)、政府による情報収集活動に関する改革案を発表した。
 この改革案は、米国家安全保障局(NSA)の元契約社員、エドワード・スノーデン氏が米国の情報収集活動についての機密情報を暴露したことにより、内外からの批判が高まったことを受けたもの。
 スノーデン氏がメディアに持ち込んだ機密文書により、米政府が米国民の電話による通話記録を収集・保管していることや、同盟国を含む各国指導者の通話を盗聴していること、暗号化されたものを含むインターネット上の通信データを収集していることなどが明らかになった。
 改革案では、現在NSAが実施している通話記録の収集・保管は政府外の組織に移管し、政府当局が記録を利用する際には外国情報活動監視法(FISA)の秘密裁判所の承認が必要になる。また、“国家安全保障上の重要性がない限り”同盟国や友好国の指導者の通話を監視しない。ただし“他国と同様に”各国政府の情報を収集することは続ける。オバマ大統領は演説で、「同盟国の首脳が何を考えているか知りたくなったら直接電話する」と語った。
 なお、PRISMの存在や暗号解読、企業のデータセンターへの侵入などインターネット上の情報収集についてはほとんど触れられていない。改革案のファクトシート(概況報告書)には「米連邦政府は情報収集を合法的な国家安全保障目的にのみ使っており、一般市民の電子メールや通話を無差別に検閲するためではない」とあり、今後も情報収集を続けることが正当化されている。
 Googleをはじめとする米大手IT企業らが再三連邦政府に求めてきた情報開示については、「事業者は、連邦政府から受け取った個人情報提供命令について従来よりも多くの情報を公開できるようにする」とある。
 オバマ大統領は「この改革案により、米国民は自分の権利が守られていると従来よりも確信できるようになり、同時に政府当局は国家安全保障の確保に必要なツールを維持できる」と語った。


---米、同盟国首脳の盗聴停止 大統領表明 情報収集で改革案---
2014年1月18日 夕刊
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/world/news/CK2014011802000241.html

【ワシントン=竹内洋一】オバマ米大統領は十七日、内外から批判されている国家安全保障局(NSA)による情報収集活動の改革案を発表した。NSAが保管している膨大な個人の通話履歴を非政府機関に委ねる方針を表明。同盟・友好国首脳を標的にした盗聴などの監視活動は原則として行わない考えを示した。
 オバマ氏は司法省での演説で、二〇〇一年九月の米中枢同時テロ後、NSAの活動が「多くの(テロ)攻撃を阻止してきた」と意義を強調。一方で、政府の情報収集活動が行き過ぎる危険性も明確になったとして、安全保障とプライバシー保護を両立させる形で「米国民や世界中の人々の信頼」を回復しなければならないと表明した。
 NSAが保管している膨大な個人の通話履歴は、非政府の管理に移す方針を表明。データの移管先や保管方法に関し、司法長官らに三月末までに報告をまとめるよう指示した。通話履歴の照会には司法機関による事前許可を課し、収集対象を制限する措置を即時発効させた。
 オバマ氏は「緊密な友好・同盟国首脳の情報監視は国家安全保障上やむを得ない場合を除き行わない」と明言した。「首脳の考えを知りたい時は監視ではなく電話すればいい」と述べた。
 外国での情報収集活動に関しては、外国人にも「米国民と同じ保護策」の一部を適用すると述べ、個人情報の利用制限の検討を情報当局に命じた。さらに、情報当局の活動を承認する秘密裁判所においてプライバシー保護の観点からも審議できるようにするため、独立した意見を述べる政府外委員会を設置するよう議会に要請した。
 NSAの活動に対しては米中央情報局(CIA)のスノーデン元職員による暴露を受け、プライバシー侵害だとして内外で批判が噴き出した。同盟国ドイツのメルケル首相ら外国首脳の携帯電話盗聴疑惑も発覚し、外交問題に発展している。


---同盟国首脳の盗聴原則行わず…米がNSA改革策---
2014年1月18日11時02分  読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/news/20140118-OYT1T00323.htm

 【ワシントン=白川義和】オバマ米大統領は17日、ワシントンの司法省で演説し、米国家安全保障局(NSA)による情報収集活動の改革策を発表した。
 プライバシー侵害との批判が強い米国内の電話通話記録の大量収集・保管については、政府外の機関に保管を委ね、記録照会に必要な手続きを厳格化する方針を示した。
 同盟・友好国の外国首脳の盗聴は原則として行わないことも表明した。
 NSAの活動の実態は昨年6月以降、元中央情報局(CIA)職員エドワード・スノーデン容疑者によって暴露された。NSAが電話会社から通話記録の提供を受け、発信者と受信者の電話番号、通話日時、通話時間をデータベース化していることや、外国首脳を盗聴している疑惑が明らかになり、オバマ大統領は見直しを表明していた。


---米安全保障局、世界中で 一般市民の携帯メッセージ 1日2億通収集か----
2014年1月17日 夕刊
http://www.tokyo-np.co.jp/article/world/news/CK2014011702000242.html

 【ロンドン=共同】英紙ガーディアン(電子版)は十六日、米情報機関の国家安全保障局(NSA)が、一般市民らがやりとりする携帯電話のテキストメッセージを世界中で一日当たり二億通近く収集し、情報分析に利用していると報じた。
 米中央情報局(CIA)のエドワード・スノーデン元職員から提供された機密文書を基に、英テレビ局チャンネル4と共同で調査し、判明したとしている。
 オバマ米大統領は十七日、NSAの情報収集活動に関する改革方針を発表する予定。発表を前に、市民のプライバシー保護の必要性を米政府にあらためて訴えた形だ。
 同紙によると、大量のテキストメッセージは「ディッシュファイア」と呼ばれるプログラムで無作為に収集され、位置情報や連絡先、金融取引の情報などが分析対象となっているという。
 メッセージが保存されたデータベースには、英政府の通信傍受機関、政府通信本部もアクセス可能だという。


---NSA、PC10万台に監視ソフト…米紙報道---
2014年1月16日13時21分  読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/news/20140116-OYT1T00504.htm

 【ワシントン=白川義和】米紙ニューヨーク・タイムズは15日、米国家安全保障局(NSA)が、米国へのサイバー攻撃を警戒、防御するため、中国軍やロシア軍など世界各国の10万台近いコンピューターに、NSAと情報の送受信を可能にするソフトウエアをひそかに埋め込んでいると報じた。
 インターネットに接続していない状態でも、工作員らがコンピューターに埋め込んだ無線機を通じて、情報を盗みとったり、ウイルスを送り込んだりすることができるという。
 米当局者の話やNSAの文書を基に報じたもので、こうした技術は2008年ごろから使われるようになった。メキシコの警察や麻薬組織、欧州連合(EU)内の貿易関連機構、サウジアラビアやインド、パキスタンのネットワークも対象になっているという。


---Obama Says NSA's Mass Collection of U.S. Phone Data Will End---
By Carol E. Lee and Siobhan Gorman
Updated Jan. 17, 2014 7:35 p.m. ET
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702304603704579326333792513314

President Also to Require Court Order for Search of Information

WASHINGTON-President Barack Obama's plan to curtail the government's mass collection of American phone data shakes up U.S. spying practices amid a world-wide firestorm over revelations about the nation's surveillance programs.

But Mr. Obama, promising a continued review, left large swaths of the surveillance programs unchanged, and many of his proposals for overhauling them still face congressional debate and approval.

The president's plan, which drew mixed reactions from both sides of the surveillance debate after he announced them in a speech Friday, sets the stage for possible conflicts with intelligence officials and their allies in Congress.

In one of the biggest changes, he said the government would stop storing huge amounts of telephone data in NSA computers, but he hasn't determined where the databases will be located, such as at phone companies. Instead, he asked the attorney general and intelligence officials to work with Congress to come up with alternative locations within 60 days. That could prove difficult.

Other changes will take effect immediately. Intelligence officials now must seek approval from a secret national-security court before conducting government searches of a person's phone data, Mr. Obama said. In addition, data searches have been scaled back, so that investigators may only examine personal connections that are two steps removed from a target, instead of three.

Mr. Obama also adopted new privacy protections for non-U.S. citizens and ended government spying on heads of state of close American allies, though monitoring leaders' staff members wasn't prohibited.

Mr. Obama never mentioned two issues that have upset U.S. technology executives, who worry about losing business overseas-reports of secret government taps on overseas data centers and the weakening of encryption standards.

The president said he recognized many surveillance issues weren't settled, and cast the changes as an attempt to balance national security with privacy and civil-liberties concerns.

"The reforms I'm proposing today should give the American people greater confidence that their rights are being protected, even as our intelligence and law-enforcement agencies maintain the tools they need to keep us safe," he said in the speech delivered at the Justice Department.

As a whole, the overhauls of NSA practices both at home and overseas comprise the most significant revision of U.S. surveillance in more than a decade. They focus primarily on three types of spy operations: mass collection of phone records, mass collection of foreign communications and the monitoring of foreign leaders. The overhaul also includes changes to the court that oversees NSA surveillance.

The government's bulk phone-data collection has come under the most intense debate, and senior administration officials say Mr. Obama was still wrestling the day before his speech with potential changes to the program. He didn't decide until Thursday night on some elements of his plan, including the requirement of court orders for records searches.

"We are ending the [bulk-data] program as it currently exists," a senior administration official said Friday, after Mr. Obama finalized his decisions.

Mr. Obama's speech marked an inflection point in a debate over surveillance programs that began after their creation by the Bush administration in the wake of the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks. It was reignited last spring by a series of highly sensitive leaks by former government contractor Edward Snowden, who is now a fugitive in Moscow.

Mr. Obama's plan satisfied some of the most vocal critics of NSA surveillance on Capitol Hill. The top Democrat on the House Judiciary Committee, John Conyers (D., Mich.), called the overhaul "a courageous first step."

In a joint statement, Sens. Ron Wyden (D., Ore.), Mark Udall (D., Colo.), and Martin Heinrich (D., N.M.), members of the Senate intelligence committee who have pushed for privacy protections, called Mr. Obama's decision to move bulk data storage out of the NSA "a major milestone."

But unanswered questions about how the directives will be implemented-in particular, where phone data will be housed outside the government-have left some uneasy.

"The major disappointment is the president does not commit to ending government collection and retention of Americans' bulk data," said Anthony Romero, executive director of the American Civil Liberties Union. "He appears open to mending bulk-data collection, but he does not commit to ending bulk-data collection. Bulk-data collection and retention is the quintessential unreasonable search and seizure under the Fourth Amendment."

Some Republicans were uneasy for the opposite reason, suggesting the new restrictions could hamper security programs. "When lives are stake, the president must not allow politics to cloud his judgment," said House Speaker John Boehner (R., Ohio). "I look forward to learning more about how the new procedure for accessing data will not put Americans at greater risk."

Some new rules are unsettling for the intelligence community. Requiring a judge's order for data searches, for instance, appeals to many privacy advocates. But some intelligence leaders have said the change is needless, cumbersome and will slow inquiries.

The leaders of the Senate and House intelligence committees, Sen. Dianne Feinstein (D., Calif.) and Rep. Mike Rogers (R., Mich.), questioned that change.

"If instituted, that approval process must be made faster in the future than it was in the past-when it took up to nine days to gain court approval for a single search," they said in a joint statement. "We encourage the White House to send legislation with the president's proposed changes to Congress so they can be fully debated."

Mr. Obama said that while new rules are being developed, searches could be made without court orders "in the case of a true emergency."

Mr. Obama tried to balance the interests of those on both sides of the debate. He defended U.S. intelligence practices in his speech, saying they have helped foil terrorist plots. But he also conceded the way they are structured opens up the potential for abuse.

"The power of new technologies means that there are fewer and fewer technical constraints on what we can do," Mr. Obama said. "That places a special obligation on us to ask tough questions about what we should do."

Mr. Obama didn't adopt one recommendation for greater court oversight from a review panel, which urged that the Federal Bureau of Investigation be required to obtain court approval before issuing so-called national-security letters demanding information from businesses and organizations. Instead, Mr. Obama asked the attorney general to make the process more transparent and allow recipients of such letters to make more information public. Currently, companies cannot ever acknowledge they have received a letter.

As part of his overhaul, Mr. Obama established a new process to evaluate surveillance operations yearly, weighing costs and benefits of monitoring a particular individual. He also ordered a continuing review of classified opinions of the secret Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court to determine if future opinions can be made public.

The Office of Director of National Intelligence late Friday declassified and released two dozen previously secret court orders that chronicle renewals of the phone-data program.

Mr. Obama spelled out new privacy protections for non-U.S. citizens, specifying that surveillance will only be done for national-security purposes, such as counter-spying, counterterrorism and cybersecurity. He also shortened the amount of time the NSA can retain communications data on non-U.S. citizens.

"The bottom line is that people around the world-regardless of their nationality-should know that the United States is not spying on ordinary people who don't threaten our national security, and that we take their privacy concerns into account," Mr. Obama said. "This applies to foreign leaders as well."

Officials of foreign governments greeted Mr. Obama's address with a mix of skepticism and measured support, suggesting Washington still has a way to go to quell the chorus of outrage that followed revelations last year of NSA spying on non-U.S. citizens and foreign leaders.

Mexican Foreign Minister Jose Antonio Meade, who met Friday in Washington with his U.S. and Canadian counterparts, noted in an interview on Mexican radio a positive reaction from Europe and elsewhere. "We have to … be certain that it will give us the security we need to continue working on the basis of confidence on shared problems and challenges," he said.

Last year, Mexico demanded an investigation by the U.S. government into reports that the NSA spied on text messages of President Enrique Pena Nieto when he was still a presidential candidate, and later reports that it had intercepted emails of former President Felipe Calderon.

Many of the changes Mr. Obama announced, including the issue of telephone databases, leave considerable leeway in their implementation.

The president's proposals also leave some key surveillance practices untouched. They include another set of mass data-collection programs run by other U.S. spy agencies. For example, the overhauls don't affect a Central Intelligence Agency program that collects data on international money transfers from companies like Western Union WU -1.61% that includes records of millions of Americans.

Mr. Obama also announced no changes to NSA operations under its regular foreign-spying authority, spelled out in a presidential executive order. That policy governs the vast majority of the NSA's spying, and lawmakers have acknowledged that they have paid little attention to those operations.


---Report: NSA 'collected 200m texts per day'---
17 January 2014 Last updated at 02:01 GMT
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-25770313

The US National Security Agency (NSA) has collected and stored almost 200 million text messages a day from around the world, UK media report.

The NSA extracts and stores data from the SMS messages, and UK spies have had access to some of the information, the Guardian and Channel 4 News say.

The reporting is based on leaks by ex-NSA contractor Edward Snowden and comes ahead of a key US policy announcement.

The NSA told the BBC the programme stored "lawfully collected SMS data".

"The implication that NSA's collection is arbitrary and unconstrained is false," the NSA said.

President Barack Obama is set on Friday to announce changes to the US electronic surveillance programmes, based in part on a review of NSA activities undertaken this autumn by a White House panel.

On Thursday, the White House said Mr Obama had briefed UK Prime Minister David Cameron on the review.

The documents also reveal the NSA's UK counterpart GCHQ had searched the NSA's database for information regarding people in the UK, the Guardian reports.

In a statement to the BBC, GCHQ said all of its work was "carried out in accordance with the strict legal and policy framework".
'Privacy protections'

The programme, Dishfire, analyses SMS messages to extract information including contacts from missed call alerts, location from roaming and travel alerts, financial information from bank alerts and payments and names from electronic business cards, according to the report.

Through the vast database, which was in use at least as late as 2012, the NSA gained information on those who were not specifically targeted or under suspicion, the report says.

The NSA told the BBC its activities were "focused and specifically deployed against - and only against - valid foreign intelligence targets in response to intelligence requirements".

While acknowledging the SMS data of US residents may be "incidentally collected", the NSA added "privacy protections for US persons exist across the entire process".

"In addition, NSA actively works to remove extraneous data, to include that of innocent foreign citizens, as early as possible in the process."

The Guardian and Channel 4 also reported on a GCHQ document on the Dishfire programme that states it "collects pretty much everything it can" and outlines how the GCHQ analysts are able to search the database, with certain restrictions.

The GCHQ statement said: "All of GCHQ's work is carried out in accordance with the strict legal and policy framework which ensures that our activities are authorised, necessary and proportionate and that there is rigorous oversight."
'Cosmetic'

Mr Snowden, a former contractor with the NSA, has been charged in the US with espionage and is currently a fugitive in Russia.

Last month, a US panel gave President Barack Obama dozens of recommendations for ways to change US electronic surveillance programmes.

On Friday, Mr Obama is expected to outline his response to those suggestions as well as his own conversations with a variety of US groups concerned with spying, in a speech at the justice department.

He is expected to support the creation of a public advocate to argue in front of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, a secretive bench that approves the bulk records collections, according to details leaked to US media by the White House.

Mr Obama is also expected to extend some privacy protections to foreigners, including more oversight on how the US monitors foreign leaders, and limit how long phone information is kept.

But he is not expected to take the bulk phone collection out of the hands of the NSA, as the panel recommended, instead leaving that question to Congress.

Civil rights and privacy groups were wary ahead of the speech.

"While we welcome the president's acknowledgement that reforms must be made, we warn the president not to expect thunderous applause for cosmetic reforms,'' David Segal of Demand Progress told the Associated Press news agency.


---N.S.A. Devises Radio Pathway Into Computers---
By DAVID E. SANGER and THOM SHANKERJAN. 14, 2014
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/15/us/nsa-effort-pries-open-computers-not-connected-to-internet.html?_r=0

WASHINGTON - The National Security Agency has implanted software in nearly 100,000 computers around the world that allows the United States to conduct surveillance on those machines and can also create a digital highway for launching cyberattacks.

While most of the software is inserted by gaining access to computer networks, the N.S.A. has increasingly made use of a secret technology that enables it to enter and alter data in computers even if they are not connected to the Internet, according to N.S.A. documents, computer experts and American officials.

The technology, which the agency has used since at least 2008, relies on a covert channel of radio waves that can be transmitted from tiny circuit boards and USB cards inserted surreptitiously into the computers. In some cases, they are sent to a briefcase-size relay station that intelligence agencies can set up miles away from the target.

The radio frequency technology has helped solve one of the biggest problems facing American intelligence agencies for years: getting into computers that adversaries, and some American partners, have tried to make impervious to spying or cyberattack. In most cases, the radio frequency hardware must be physically inserted by a spy, a manufacturer or an unwitting user.

The N.S.A. calls its efforts more an act of “active defense” against foreign cyberattacks than a tool to go on the offensive. But when Chinese attackers place similar software on the computer systems of American companies or government agencies, American officials have protested, often at the presidential level.

Among the most frequent targets of the N.S.A. and its Pentagon partner, United States Cyber Command, have been units of the Chinese Army, which the United States has accused of launching regular digital probes and attacks on American industrial and military targets, usually to steal secrets or intellectual property. But the program, code-named Quantum, has also been successful in inserting software into Russian military networks and systems used by the Mexican police and drug cartels, trade institutions inside the European Union, and sometime partners against terrorism like Saudi Arabia, India and Pakistan, according to officials and an N.S.A. map that indicates sites of what the agency calls “computer network exploitation.”

“What’s new here is the scale and the sophistication of the intelligence agency’s ability to get into computers and networks to which no one has ever had access before,” said James Andrew Lewis, the cybersecurity expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies in Washington. “Some of these capabilities have been around for a while, but the combination of learning how to penetrate systems to insert software and learning how to do that using radio frequencies has given the U.S. a window it’s never had before.”

How the N.S.A. Uses Radio Frequencies to Penetrate Computers

The N.S.A. and the Pentagon’s Cyber Command have implanted nearly 100,000 “computer network exploits” around the world, but the hardest problem is getting inside machines isolated from outside communications.

No Domestic Use Seen

There is no evidence that the N.S.A. has implanted its software or used its radio frequency technology inside the United States. While refusing to comment on the scope of the Quantum program, the N.S.A. said its actions were not comparable to China’s.

“N.S.A.'s activities are focused and specifically deployed against - and only against - valid foreign intelligence targets in response to intelligence requirements,” Vanee Vines, an agency spokeswoman, said in a statement. “We do not use foreign intelligence capabilities to steal the trade secrets of foreign companies on behalf of - or give intelligence we collect to - U.S. companies to enhance their international competitiveness or increase their bottom line.”

Over the past two months, parts of the program have been disclosed in documents from the trove leaked by Edward J. Snowden, the former N.S.A. contractor. A Dutch newspaper published the map of areas where the United States has inserted spy software, sometimes in cooperation with local authorities, often covertly. Der Spiegel, a German newsmagazine, published the N.S.A.'s catalog of hardware products that can secretly transmit and receive digital signals from computers, a program called ANT. The New York Times withheld some of those details, at the request of American intelligence officials, when it reported, in the summer of 2012, on American cyberattacks on Iran.

President Obama is scheduled to announce on Friday what recommendations he is accepting from an advisory panel on changing N.S.A. practices. The panel agreed with Silicon Valley executives that some of the techniques developed by the agency to find flaws in computer systems undermine global confidence in a range of American-made information products like laptop computers and cloud services.

Embracing Silicon Valley’s critique of the N.S.A., the panel has recommended banning, except in extreme cases, the N.S.A. practice of exploiting flaws in common software to aid in American surveillance and cyberattacks. It also called for an end to government efforts to weaken publicly available encryption systems, and said the government should never develop secret ways into computer systems to exploit them, which sometimes include software implants.

Richard A. Clarke, an official in the Clinton and Bush administrations who served as one of the five members of the advisory panel, explained the group’s reasoning in an email last week, saying that “it is more important that we defend ourselves than that we attack others.”

“Holes in encryption software would be more of a risk to us than a benefit,” he said, adding: “If we can find the vulnerability, so can others. It’s more important that we protect our power grid than that we get into China’s.”

From the earliest days of the Internet, the N.S.A. had little trouble monitoring traffic because a vast majority of messages and searches were moved through servers on American soil. As the Internet expanded, so did the N.S.A.'s efforts to understand its geography. A program named Treasure Map tried to identify nearly every node and corner of the web, so that any computer or mobile device that touched it could be located.

A 2008 map, part of the Snowden trove, notes 20 programs to gain access to big fiber-optic cables - it calls them “covert, clandestine or cooperative large accesses” - not only in the United States but also in places like Hong Kong, Indonesia and the Middle East. The same map indicates that the United States had already conducted “more than 50,000 worldwide implants,” and a more recent budget document said that by the end of last year that figure would rise to about 85,000. A senior official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, said the actual figure was most likely closer to 100,000.

That map suggests how the United States was able to speed ahead with implanting malicious software on the computers around the world that it most wanted to monitor - or disable before they could be used to launch a cyberattack.

A Focus on Defense

In interviews, officials and experts said that a vast majority of such implants are intended only for surveillance and serve as an early warning system for cyberattacks directed at the United States.

“How do you ensure that Cyber Command people” are able to look at “those that are attacking us?” a senior official, who compared it to submarine warfare, asked in an interview several months ago.

“That is what the submarines do all the time,” said the official, speaking on the condition of anonymity to describe policy. “They track the adversary submarines.” In cyberspace, he said, the United States tries “to silently track the adversaries while they’re trying to silently track you.”

If tracking subs was a Cold War cat-and-mouse game with the Soviets, tracking malware is a pursuit played most aggressively with the Chinese.

The United States has targeted Unit 61398, the Shanghai-based Chinese Army unit believed to be responsible for many of the biggest cyberattacks on the United States, in an effort to see attacks being prepared. With Australia’s help, one N.S.A. document suggests, the United States has also focused on another specific Chinese Army unit.

Documents obtained by Mr. Snowden indicate that the United States has set up two data centers in China - perhaps through front companies - from which it can insert malware into computers. When the Chinese place surveillance software on American computer systems - and they have, on systems like those at the Pentagon and at The Times - the United States usually regards it as a potentially hostile act, a possible prelude to an attack. Mr. Obama laid out America’s complaints about those practices to President Xi Jinping of China in a long session at a summit meeting in California last June.

At that session, Mr. Obama tried to differentiate between conducting surveillance for national security - which the United States argues is legitimate - and conducting it to steal intellectual property.

“The argument is not working,” said Peter W. Singer of the Brookings Institution, a co-author of a new book called “Cybersecurity and Cyberwar.” “To the Chinese, gaining economic advantage is part of national security. And the Snowden revelations have taken a lot of the pressure off” the Chinese. Still, the United States has banned the sale of computer servers from a major Chinese manufacturer, Huawei, for fear that they could contain technology to penetrate American networks.

An Old Technology

The N.S.A.'s efforts to reach computers unconnected to a network have relied on a century-old technology updated for modern times: radio transmissions.

In a catalog produced by the agency that was part of the Snowden documents released in Europe, there are page after page of devices using technology that would have brought a smile to Q, James Bond’s technology supplier.

One, called Cottonmouth I, looks like a normal USB plug but has a tiny transceiver buried in it. According to the catalog, it transmits information swept from the computer “through a covert channel” that allows “data infiltration and exfiltration.” Another variant of the technology involves tiny circuit boards that can be inserted in a laptop computer - either in the field or when they are shipped from manufacturers - so that the computer is broadcasting to the N.S.A. even while the computer’s user enjoys the false confidence that being walled off from the Internet constitutes real protection.

The relay station it communicates with, called Nightstand, fits in an oversize briefcase, and the system can attack a computer “from as far away as eight miles under ideal environmental conditions.” It can also insert packets of data in milliseconds, meaning that a false message or piece of programming can outrace a real one to a target computer. Similar stations create a link between the target computers and the N.S.A., even if the machines are isolated from the Internet.

Computers are not the only targets. Dropoutjeep attacks iPhones. Other hardware and software are designed to infect large network servers, including those made by the Chinese.

Most of those code names and products are now at least five years old, and they have been updated, some experts say, to make the United States less dependent on physically getting hardware into adversaries’ computer systems.

The N.S.A. refused to talk about the documents that contained these descriptions, even after they were published in Europe.

“Continuous and selective publication of specific techniques and tools used by N.S.A. to pursue legitimate foreign intelligence targets is detrimental to the security of the United States and our allies,” Ms. Vines, the N.S.A. spokeswoman, said.

But the Iranians and others discovered some of those techniques years ago. The hardware in the N.S.A.'s catalog was crucial in the cyberattacks on Iran’s nuclear facilities, code-named Olympic Games, that began around 2008 and proceeded through the summer of 2010, when a technical error revealed the attack software, later called Stuxnet. That was the first major test of the technology.

One feature of the Stuxnet attack was that the technology the United States slipped into Iran’s nuclear enrichment plant at Natanz was able to map how it operated, then “phone home” the details. Later, that equipment was used to insert malware that blew up nearly 1,000 centrifuges, and temporarily set back Iran’s program.

But the Stuxnet strike does not appear to be the last time the technology was used in Iran. In 2012, a unit of the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps moved a rock near the country’s underground Fordo nuclear enrichment plant. The rock exploded and spewed broken circuit boards that the Iranian news media described as “the remains of a device capable of intercepting data from computers at the plant.” The origins of that device have never been determined.

On Sunday, according to the semiofficial Fars news agency, Iran’s Oil Ministry issued another warning about possible cyberattacks, describing a series of defenses it was erecting - and making no mention of what are suspected of being its own attacks on Saudi Arabia’s largest oil producer.

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