2014年3月31日月曜日

中国 武器調達先はEU

中国の武器調達先はEUとのこと。
 1989年以後、中国への武器禁輸措置をとる欧州連合(EU)が部品輸出や
ライセンス生産などの形で軍備移転を続け、EUから中国への軍事関連物資
の調達額が2012年までの10年間で約35億ユーロに上ることが、ストック
ホルム国際平和研究所(SIPRI)のデータなどで分かった。

SIPRI Yearbook 2013
輸出
・英仏:殺傷兵器に限定。エンジンやレーダーを輸出。
    JH7型のエンジンは英ロールス・ロイス製。
・スウェーデン:すべての軍備を禁輸対象。
・独:MTUのディーゼル・エンジン56基が輸出、中国海軍の039型攻撃型潜水
   艦搭載。

輸入
・印:2004-2008に比べ、2009-2013では111%上昇。
   供給先は、米露。
・パキスタン:2004-2008に比べ、2009-2013では119%上昇
       供給先は、中米。
・バングラディシュ:供給先は、中国が82%。

武器輸出シェア 2009-2013年
・米国 29%
・露  27%
・独  7%
・中国 6%
・仏  5%

武器商人として有名な仏が武器輸出の上位5番目とのこと。
EUは、基準が国によってかなり異なるようだ。
Rolls Royceに対し、KHIは、エンジン部品を供給したが、Rolls Royce
が中国に対して、輸出しているエンジンが少なくとも尖閣諸島や南沙諸島
等への侵略する装備品に使われいないことを政府は、確認したのだろうか。

兵器輸入アジア上位
SIPRI 核弾頭保有数2013
小野寺五典 「死の商人」強調


中国海軍 - JH-7


---中国、EUから「武器」調達…禁輸すり抜け---
2014年3月28日09時12分  読売新聞
http://www.yomiuri.co.jp/world/news/20140328-OYT1T00089.htm

 【パリ=三井美奈】1989年以後、中国への武器禁輸措置をとる欧州連合(EU)が部品輸出やライセンス生産などの形で軍備移転を続け、EUから中国への軍事関連物資の調達額が2012年までの10年間で約35億ユーロ(約4900億円)に上ることが27日、ストックホルム国際平和研究所のデータなどで分かった。
 欧州の技術は中国軍増強のカギとなっており、日米が懸念を高める中、習近平・国家主席の訪欧で欧中協力は深まりそうだ。
 禁輸は89年の天安門事件に対する制裁として発動されたが、「対象の解釈は各国に委ねられている」(EU報道官)ため、抜け穴がある。スウェーデンが「すべての軍備」を禁輸対象とする一方、英仏は「殺傷兵器」に限定。攻撃力の強化につながるエンジンやレーダーを輸出してきた。同研究所の調べでは、89年以降、ドイツのエンジン製造・整備大手「MTU」のディーゼル・エンジン56基が輸出され、中国海軍の039型攻撃型潜水艦に使われた。中国軍のJH7型戦闘爆撃機のエンジンは、英ロールス・ロイス製だ。


---SIPRI on international arms exports and imports---
Written by Staff Writer, Wednesday, 19 March 2014
http://www.defenceweb.co.za/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=34062:sipri-on-international-arms-exports-and-imports&catid=113:international-news&Itemid=248

The volume of Indian imports of major weapons rose by 111% between 2004/08 and 2009/13 and its share of the volume of international arms imports increased from seven to 14 % the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute reports.

At the same time Pakistan’s imports of major arms increased by 119%.

The major suppliers of arms to India in 2009/13 were Russia (accounting for 75% of imports) and the United States (seven percent), which for the first time became the second largest arms supplier to India. In contrast, the USA’s share of Pakistani imports in the same period was 27%. China was also a major supplier in the region, accounting for 54% of Pakistani arms imports and 82% of Bangladeshi imports.

“Chinese, Russian and US arms supplies to South Asia are driven by both economic and political considerations. In particular, China and the USA appear to be using arms deliveries to Asia to strengthen their influence in the region.' said Siemon Wezeman, Senior Researcher with the SIPRI Arms Transfers Programme.

Russian arms deliveries remain high

The five largest suppliers of major weapons during the five-year period 2009/13 were the United States (29% of global arms exports), Russia (27%), Germany (seven percent), China (six percent) and France (five percent).

The top five suppliers accounted for 74% of the total volume of arms exports worldwide. The USA and Russia together accounted for 56% of the volume of arms exports.

“Russia has maintained high levels of arms exports despite the crisis in its arms industry in the post-cold war period. In 2009/13 Russia delivered major arms to 52 states. Russia’s most significant export in 2013 was of an aircraft carrier to India,” Wezeman said.

Imports by Gulf states on the increase

Arms imports to Arab states of the Gulf increased by 23% from 2004/08 to 2009/13, accounting for 52% of imports to the Middle East in the latter period. Saudi Arabia rose to become the fifth largest importer of major weapons worldwide in 2009/13, compared to 18th in 2004/08.

Several Gulf states have invested heavily in advanced, long-range strike systems and air and missile defence systems. This includes large orders for and deliveries of combat aircraft with precision-guided weapons from the United Kingdom and the USA.

“The United States, which accounted for 45% of arms deliveries to Gulf states, has signed a series of major deals which will maintain its high levels of arms exports to these countries. In 2013, for the first time, the US allowed the sale of long-range air launched cruise missiles to Gulf states,” Wezeman said.

Other notable developments

Brazil is increasing its arms imports. In 2009/13 it ordered four submarines from France and 2 044 armoured vehicles from Italy, and decided to buy 36 combat aircraft from Sweden.

South Korea was the eighth largest arms importer in 2009/13, receiving and ordering combat aircraft, missiles, reconnaissance aircraft and air defence radars in order to increase its capability to detect and destroy North Korean missiles.

Australia increased its imports of major arms by 83% between 2004/08 and 2009/13.

China has firmly established itself as a supplier of major arms in the same category as Germany and France and has succeeded in convincing Turkey, a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), to select Chinese air defence systems.

Imports by Azerbaijan increased by 378%between 2004/08 and 2009/13.

Sudan and Uganda, both of which are involved in a number of conflicts, accounted for 17 and 16%, respectively, of arms imports in sub-Saharan Africa.

European arms imports decreased by 25% between 2004/08 and 2009/13.

In the period 2009-13, 10 countries received 16 submarines of which eight were delivered by Germany. By the end of 2013 another 50 submarines were on order.

0 コメント: